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Substance Abuse in Women

Year 2023, Volume: 5 Issue: 2, 44 - 48, 31.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.5152/atakad.2023.22012

Abstract

The problem of substance use and addiction is not a new problem in our country and in the world; in fact, it can be said that this problem is as old as the history of humanity. According to the researches, there are differences according to gender in the context of initiating substance use, continuing substance use, and seeking treatment and social stigma. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate substance use according to the gender variable. For this purpose, a literature review was made by giving the keywords women, substance use, and addiction, and the results were presented as a compilation. At the beginning of the findings, men were affected by their peers and women were affected by their partners, with whom they are more emotionally involved, at the first substance trial. Again, the age of starting substance use and the reasons for continuing it differ according to gender. There are studies showing that women have a lower addiction threshold and higher relapse rates than men. It is observed that woman gender is more disadvantaged in terms of seeking initial treatment, additional psychiatric comorbidities, and social stigmatization. It is known that substance users are exposed to more trauma in society. In conclusion, it should be considered that gender is an important determinant in addiction intervention studies.

References

  • Ağaçhanlı, R. (2016). Opioid tedavisindeki kadın hastalar ile opioid kullanım bozukluğu olmayan kadınların cinsel işlev bozukluğu ve travmatik yaşantılar açısından karşılaştırılması (Yayımlanmamış Tıpta Uzmanlık Tezi). Bakırköy Ruh Sağlığı ve Sinir Hastalıkları Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi.
  • Aldemir, S., & Tan, S. (2001). Travma ve bağımlılık sendromları. Yeni Tıp Dergisi, 28(4), 198–202.
  • Ali, M. M. (2020). Substance use disorder treatment, perceived need for treatment, and barriers to treatment among parenting women with substance use disorder in us rural counties. Journal of Rural Health.
  • Asan, Ö. (2019). Ruhsal Hastalıklar ve Damgalama; Toplumda, Medyada, sağlık Çalışanlarında, her yerde… Sakarya Tıp Dergisi, 9(2), 199–205.
  • Ashley, O. S., Marsden, M. E., & Brady, T. M. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19–53.
  • Back, S. E., Payne, R. L., Wahlquist, A. H., Carter, R. E., Stroud, Z., Haynes, L., Hillhouse, M., Brady, K. T., & Ling, W. (2011). Comparative profiles of men and women with opioid dependence: Results from a national multisite effectiveness trial. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 37(5), 313–323.
  • Boroumandfar, Z., Kianpour, M., & Afshari, M. (2020). Ups and downs of drug rehab among women: A qualitative study. BMC Women’s Health, 20(1), 77.
  • Brown, L., Tucker, C., & Domokos, T. (2003). Evaluating the impact of integrated health and social care teams on older people living in the community. Health and Social Care in the Community, 11(2), 85–94.
  • Brunette, M. F., Mueser, K. T., & Drake, R. E. (2004). A review of research on residentia programs for people with severe mental illness and cooccurring substance use disorders. Drug and Alcohol Review, 23(4), 471–481.
  • Cormier, R. A., Dell, C. A., & Poole, N. (2004). Women and substance abuse problems. BMC Women’s Health, 4(1), S8.
  • Covington, S. S. (2008). Women and addiction: A trauma-informed approach. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, SARC Supplement, 4, 377–385.
  • Dick, D. M., & Agrawal, A. (2008). The genetics of alcohol and other drug dependence. Alcohol Research and Health, 31(2), 111–118.
  • Dilbaz, N. (2013). Madde kullanım riski ve madde bağımlılığından korunma. Aile ve Sosyal Politikalar Bakanlığı Aile ve Toplum Hizmetleri Genel Müdürlüğü. Ankara, ISBN: 978-605-4628-53-7.
  • EMCDDA (European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction) (2009). The state of the drugs problems in Europe (Annual report). Publications Office of the European Union. ISBN 978-92-9168-384-0.
  • Fernandez, M., Goni, L., Azanza, P., & Cacho, R. (2016). Gender differences in treatment progress of drug-addicted patients. Women and Health.
  • Finzen, A. (2017). The Stigma of Mental Illness-End of the Story?. Bölüm-2 (eBook).
  • Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Penguin.
  • Greenfield, S. F., Back, S. E., Lawson, K., & Brady, K. T. (2010). Substance abuse in women. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 33(2), 339–355.
  • Hernandez-Avila, C. A., Rounsaville, B. J., & Kranzler, H. R. (2004). Opioid, cannabis, and alcohol-dependent women show more rapid progression to substance abuse treatment. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 74(3), 265–272.
  • Howard, H. (2015). Reducing stigma: Lessons from opioid-dependent women. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 15(4), 418–438.
  • Kebede, B., Abate, T., & Mekonnen, D. (2013). HIV self-testing practices among health care workers: Feasibility and options for accelerating HIV testing services in Ethiopia. Pan African Medical Journal, 15, 50.
  • McCauley, J. L., Killeen, T., Gros, D. F., Brady, K. T., & Back, S. E. (2012). Posttraumatic stress disorder and co-occurring substance use disorders: Advances in assessment and treatment. Clinical Psychology, 19(3).
  • Motyka, M. A., Al-Imam, A., Haligowska, A., & Michalak, M. (2022). Helping women suffering from drug addiction: Needs, barriers, and challenges. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(21), 14039.
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) (2003). National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIH) (2020). Substance use in women drug facts. https://nida.nih.gov/publications/drugfacts/substance-use-in-women. Erişim Tarihi: 09.03.2022.
  • National Center for Drug Abuse Statistics [NCDAS] (2021, August 15). Drug Abuse Statistics. https://drugabusestatistics.org/
  • Nyblade, L., Stockton, M. A., Giger, K., Bond, V., Ekstrand, M. L., Lean, R. M., Mitchell, E. M. H., Nelson, R. E., Sapag, J. C., Siraprapasiri, T., Turan, J., & Wouters, E. (2019) Stigma in health facilities: Why it matters and how we can change it. BMC Medicine, 17(1), 25.
  • Ögel, K. (2004). Alkol ve madde kullanım bozukluklarında damgalanma. 3P Dergisi, 12 (Ek 3), 71-76.
  • Ögel, K. (2014). Bağımlı Aileleri İçin Rehber Kitap: Alkol, Uyuşturucu, Bilgisayar, Sigara ve Diğer Bağımlılıkları Olanların Yakınlarına Bilgiler. Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları.
  • Ögel, K. (2010). Alkol ve Madde Kullanım Bozuklukları: Tanı, Tedavi ve Önleme. Yeniden Yayınları.
  • Özbay, Y., Yılmaz, S., Büyüköztürk, Ş., Aliyev, R., Tomar, İ., Eşici, H., Yancar, C., & Akyılmaz, F. (2018). Madde bağımlılığı: Temiz bir yaşam için bireyin güçlendirilmesi. Addicta: The Journal On Addictions, (1) 81-130.
  • Poole, N., & Dell, C. (2005). Girls,Women and Substance Use. Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA). ISBN 1-896323-67-7
  • Poole, N., & Isaac, B., (2001). Apprehensions: barriers to treatment for substance-using mothers. Vancouver: British Columbia Centre of Excellence for Women's Health.
  • Rasheed, A. H., Elsheikh, M. M., Elmissiry, M. A., Hatata. H. A., & Ahmed, N. (2016). Addiction Stigma Among Mental Health Professionals and Medical Students in Egypt. Addictive Disorders & Their Treathment. 15, 4.
  • Ross, D., Kincaid, H., Spurrett, D., & Collins, P. (2010). What Is Addiction? Abraford Book.
  • Sadock, B. J. (2005). Kaplan & Sadock’s Concise testbook of clinical psychiatry. New York.
  • SAMHSA. The NSDUH Report (NSDUH Raporu). [2011, September 7]. Substance use during pregnancy–2002 and 2003 update 2005. http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k5/pregnancy/pregnancy.htm
  • SAMHSA (2013). Substance Abuse Treatment: Addressing the Specific Needs of Women. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 13-4426 First Printed 2009.
  • SAMHSA (2020). Key Substance Use and Mental Health İndicators in The United States: Results From The 2019 National Survey On Drug Use And Health (HHS Publication No. PEP20-07-01-001, NSDUH Series H-55). Rockville, MD: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
  • Şimşek, G. M., Değirmenci, G., Solmaz. N. K., Saraç. M. S., Kahraman. B., Yılmaz. E., . . . Bozdoğan Ö. F. (2018). 101 Soruda Bağımlılık. Elma Basım.
  • Thornicroft, G., Rose, D., & Mehta, N. (2010). Discrimination against people with mental illness: What can psychiatrists do? Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 16, 53–59.
  • Tolulope, O., & Olaniyi O., (2022). Substance and Non-Substance Related Addictions. ISBN 978-3-030-84834-7 (eBook)
  • Tuchman, E. (2010). Women and addiction: The importance of gender issues in substance abuse research. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 29(2), 127-38.
  • Türkiye Uyuşturucu ve Uyuşturucu Bağımlılığı İzleme Merkezi [TUBİM]. (2022). Türkiye Uyuşturucu Raporu. https://www.narkotik.pol.tr/kurumlar/narkotik.pol.tr/TUB%C4%B0M/Ulusal%20Yay%C4%B1nlar/Turkiye-Uyusturucu-Raporu-2022.pdf
  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime [UNODC]. (2004). Substance Abuse Treatment and Care For Women: Case Studies and Lessons Learned. New York: United Nation Publications. Available at www.unodc.org/pdf/report_2004-08-301.pdf.
  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime [UNODC] (2021). The World Drug Report. United Nations Publication: Vienna, Austria, 2021.
  • VanHouten, J. P., Rudd, A. R., Ballesteros, M. F., & Mack, K. A. (2019). Drug Overdose Deaths Among Women Aged 30–64 Years—United States, 1999–2017. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 2019, 68, 1–5.
  • Verissimo, O., & Grella, E. (2016). Influence of gende randr ace/e thnic ity on perceived barriers to help- seeking for alcohol or drug problems. Jounal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 75, 54-61.
  • Volkow, N. D., Gordon, J. A., & Koob, G. F. (2021). Choosing Appropriate Language to Reduce The Stigma Around Mental İllness and Substance Use Disorders. Neuro psych ophar macology.
  • Volkow, N. D. (2020). Stigma and the toll of addiction. The New England Journal of Medicine, 382, 1289–90.
  • Yang, H. L., Wong, Y. L., Grivel, M. M., & Hasin, D. S. (2017). Stigma and substance use disorders. Curr Opin Psychiatry, 30, 378–388.
  • Yanos, P. T, De Luca J. S, Roe D, & Lysaker P. H. (2020). The impact of illness identity on recovery from severe mental illness: a review of the evidence. Psychiatry Research, 288, 112950.
  • Wang, J. C., Kapoor, M., & Goate, A. M. (2012). The Genetics of Substance Dependence. 13, 241-261.
  • Wilson, J. J., & Ferguson, M. (2022). Substance and Non-Substance Related Addictions. ISBN978-3-030-84834

Kadınlarda Madde Bağımlılığı

Year 2023, Volume: 5 Issue: 2, 44 - 48, 31.12.2023
https://doi.org/10.5152/atakad.2023.22012

Abstract

Madde kullanımı ve bağımlılığı sorunu ülkemizde ve dünyada giderek yaygınlaşan bir sorundur. Yapılan araştırmalara göre madde kullanımında başlama, madde kullanımını sürdürme ve tedaviye başvurma ve toplumsal damgalama bağlamında cinsiyete göre farklılıklar söz konusudur. Bu çalışmada madde kullanımı cinsiyet değişkenine göre değerlendirmek amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaçla, kadın, madde kullanımı ve bağımlılığı ile damgalama anahtar kelimeleri verilerek literatür göden geçirmesi yapılmış ve elde edilen sonuçlar derleme olarak sunulmuştur. Elde edilen bulguların başında ilk kez madde denemede erkeklerin akranlarından kadınların ise daha çok duygusal ilişkide oldukları partnerlerinden etkilenmesi gelmektedir. Yine madde kullanmaya başlama yaşı, sürdürme gerekçeleri de cinsiyete göre fark göstermektedir. Kadınların toplumda erkeklerden daha fazla fizik sel/d uygus al/ci nsel travmaya maruz kalması madde kullanımına başlamada önemli bir etkendir. Kadınların bağımlılık eşiğinin erkeklere oranla daha düşük ve nüks oranlarının daha yüksek olduğunu gösteren çalışmalar mevcuttur. Tedaviye ilk başvuru, ek psikiyatrik komorbidite ve toplumsal damgalamada kadın cinsiyetin daha dezavantajlı olduğu görülmektedir. Sonuç olarak, bağımlılık ile ilgili müdahale çalışmalarında cinsiyetin önemli bir belirleyici olduğu göz önünde bulundurulmalıdır.

References

  • Ağaçhanlı, R. (2016). Opioid tedavisindeki kadın hastalar ile opioid kullanım bozukluğu olmayan kadınların cinsel işlev bozukluğu ve travmatik yaşantılar açısından karşılaştırılması (Yayımlanmamış Tıpta Uzmanlık Tezi). Bakırköy Ruh Sağlığı ve Sinir Hastalıkları Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi.
  • Aldemir, S., & Tan, S. (2001). Travma ve bağımlılık sendromları. Yeni Tıp Dergisi, 28(4), 198–202.
  • Ali, M. M. (2020). Substance use disorder treatment, perceived need for treatment, and barriers to treatment among parenting women with substance use disorder in us rural counties. Journal of Rural Health.
  • Asan, Ö. (2019). Ruhsal Hastalıklar ve Damgalama; Toplumda, Medyada, sağlık Çalışanlarında, her yerde… Sakarya Tıp Dergisi, 9(2), 199–205.
  • Ashley, O. S., Marsden, M. E., & Brady, T. M. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19–53.
  • Back, S. E., Payne, R. L., Wahlquist, A. H., Carter, R. E., Stroud, Z., Haynes, L., Hillhouse, M., Brady, K. T., & Ling, W. (2011). Comparative profiles of men and women with opioid dependence: Results from a national multisite effectiveness trial. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 37(5), 313–323.
  • Boroumandfar, Z., Kianpour, M., & Afshari, M. (2020). Ups and downs of drug rehab among women: A qualitative study. BMC Women’s Health, 20(1), 77.
  • Brown, L., Tucker, C., & Domokos, T. (2003). Evaluating the impact of integrated health and social care teams on older people living in the community. Health and Social Care in the Community, 11(2), 85–94.
  • Brunette, M. F., Mueser, K. T., & Drake, R. E. (2004). A review of research on residentia programs for people with severe mental illness and cooccurring substance use disorders. Drug and Alcohol Review, 23(4), 471–481.
  • Cormier, R. A., Dell, C. A., & Poole, N. (2004). Women and substance abuse problems. BMC Women’s Health, 4(1), S8.
  • Covington, S. S. (2008). Women and addiction: A trauma-informed approach. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, SARC Supplement, 4, 377–385.
  • Dick, D. M., & Agrawal, A. (2008). The genetics of alcohol and other drug dependence. Alcohol Research and Health, 31(2), 111–118.
  • Dilbaz, N. (2013). Madde kullanım riski ve madde bağımlılığından korunma. Aile ve Sosyal Politikalar Bakanlığı Aile ve Toplum Hizmetleri Genel Müdürlüğü. Ankara, ISBN: 978-605-4628-53-7.
  • EMCDDA (European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction) (2009). The state of the drugs problems in Europe (Annual report). Publications Office of the European Union. ISBN 978-92-9168-384-0.
  • Fernandez, M., Goni, L., Azanza, P., & Cacho, R. (2016). Gender differences in treatment progress of drug-addicted patients. Women and Health.
  • Finzen, A. (2017). The Stigma of Mental Illness-End of the Story?. Bölüm-2 (eBook).
  • Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Penguin.
  • Greenfield, S. F., Back, S. E., Lawson, K., & Brady, K. T. (2010). Substance abuse in women. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 33(2), 339–355.
  • Hernandez-Avila, C. A., Rounsaville, B. J., & Kranzler, H. R. (2004). Opioid, cannabis, and alcohol-dependent women show more rapid progression to substance abuse treatment. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 74(3), 265–272.
  • Howard, H. (2015). Reducing stigma: Lessons from opioid-dependent women. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 15(4), 418–438.
  • Kebede, B., Abate, T., & Mekonnen, D. (2013). HIV self-testing practices among health care workers: Feasibility and options for accelerating HIV testing services in Ethiopia. Pan African Medical Journal, 15, 50.
  • McCauley, J. L., Killeen, T., Gros, D. F., Brady, K. T., & Back, S. E. (2012). Posttraumatic stress disorder and co-occurring substance use disorders: Advances in assessment and treatment. Clinical Psychology, 19(3).
  • Motyka, M. A., Al-Imam, A., Haligowska, A., & Michalak, M. (2022). Helping women suffering from drug addiction: Needs, barriers, and challenges. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(21), 14039.
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) (2003). National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIH) (2020). Substance use in women drug facts. https://nida.nih.gov/publications/drugfacts/substance-use-in-women. Erişim Tarihi: 09.03.2022.
  • National Center for Drug Abuse Statistics [NCDAS] (2021, August 15). Drug Abuse Statistics. https://drugabusestatistics.org/
  • Nyblade, L., Stockton, M. A., Giger, K., Bond, V., Ekstrand, M. L., Lean, R. M., Mitchell, E. M. H., Nelson, R. E., Sapag, J. C., Siraprapasiri, T., Turan, J., & Wouters, E. (2019) Stigma in health facilities: Why it matters and how we can change it. BMC Medicine, 17(1), 25.
  • Ögel, K. (2004). Alkol ve madde kullanım bozukluklarında damgalanma. 3P Dergisi, 12 (Ek 3), 71-76.
  • Ögel, K. (2014). Bağımlı Aileleri İçin Rehber Kitap: Alkol, Uyuşturucu, Bilgisayar, Sigara ve Diğer Bağımlılıkları Olanların Yakınlarına Bilgiler. Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları.
  • Ögel, K. (2010). Alkol ve Madde Kullanım Bozuklukları: Tanı, Tedavi ve Önleme. Yeniden Yayınları.
  • Özbay, Y., Yılmaz, S., Büyüköztürk, Ş., Aliyev, R., Tomar, İ., Eşici, H., Yancar, C., & Akyılmaz, F. (2018). Madde bağımlılığı: Temiz bir yaşam için bireyin güçlendirilmesi. Addicta: The Journal On Addictions, (1) 81-130.
  • Poole, N., & Dell, C. (2005). Girls,Women and Substance Use. Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA). ISBN 1-896323-67-7
  • Poole, N., & Isaac, B., (2001). Apprehensions: barriers to treatment for substance-using mothers. Vancouver: British Columbia Centre of Excellence for Women's Health.
  • Rasheed, A. H., Elsheikh, M. M., Elmissiry, M. A., Hatata. H. A., & Ahmed, N. (2016). Addiction Stigma Among Mental Health Professionals and Medical Students in Egypt. Addictive Disorders & Their Treathment. 15, 4.
  • Ross, D., Kincaid, H., Spurrett, D., & Collins, P. (2010). What Is Addiction? Abraford Book.
  • Sadock, B. J. (2005). Kaplan & Sadock’s Concise testbook of clinical psychiatry. New York.
  • SAMHSA. The NSDUH Report (NSDUH Raporu). [2011, September 7]. Substance use during pregnancy–2002 and 2003 update 2005. http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k5/pregnancy/pregnancy.htm
  • SAMHSA (2013). Substance Abuse Treatment: Addressing the Specific Needs of Women. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 13-4426 First Printed 2009.
  • SAMHSA (2020). Key Substance Use and Mental Health İndicators in The United States: Results From The 2019 National Survey On Drug Use And Health (HHS Publication No. PEP20-07-01-001, NSDUH Series H-55). Rockville, MD: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
  • Şimşek, G. M., Değirmenci, G., Solmaz. N. K., Saraç. M. S., Kahraman. B., Yılmaz. E., . . . Bozdoğan Ö. F. (2018). 101 Soruda Bağımlılık. Elma Basım.
  • Thornicroft, G., Rose, D., & Mehta, N. (2010). Discrimination against people with mental illness: What can psychiatrists do? Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 16, 53–59.
  • Tolulope, O., & Olaniyi O., (2022). Substance and Non-Substance Related Addictions. ISBN 978-3-030-84834-7 (eBook)
  • Tuchman, E. (2010). Women and addiction: The importance of gender issues in substance abuse research. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 29(2), 127-38.
  • Türkiye Uyuşturucu ve Uyuşturucu Bağımlılığı İzleme Merkezi [TUBİM]. (2022). Türkiye Uyuşturucu Raporu. https://www.narkotik.pol.tr/kurumlar/narkotik.pol.tr/TUB%C4%B0M/Ulusal%20Yay%C4%B1nlar/Turkiye-Uyusturucu-Raporu-2022.pdf
  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime [UNODC]. (2004). Substance Abuse Treatment and Care For Women: Case Studies and Lessons Learned. New York: United Nation Publications. Available at www.unodc.org/pdf/report_2004-08-301.pdf.
  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime [UNODC] (2021). The World Drug Report. United Nations Publication: Vienna, Austria, 2021.
  • VanHouten, J. P., Rudd, A. R., Ballesteros, M. F., & Mack, K. A. (2019). Drug Overdose Deaths Among Women Aged 30–64 Years—United States, 1999–2017. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 2019, 68, 1–5.
  • Verissimo, O., & Grella, E. (2016). Influence of gende randr ace/e thnic ity on perceived barriers to help- seeking for alcohol or drug problems. Jounal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 75, 54-61.
  • Volkow, N. D., Gordon, J. A., & Koob, G. F. (2021). Choosing Appropriate Language to Reduce The Stigma Around Mental İllness and Substance Use Disorders. Neuro psych ophar macology.
  • Volkow, N. D. (2020). Stigma and the toll of addiction. The New England Journal of Medicine, 382, 1289–90.
  • Yang, H. L., Wong, Y. L., Grivel, M. M., & Hasin, D. S. (2017). Stigma and substance use disorders. Curr Opin Psychiatry, 30, 378–388.
  • Yanos, P. T, De Luca J. S, Roe D, & Lysaker P. H. (2020). The impact of illness identity on recovery from severe mental illness: a review of the evidence. Psychiatry Research, 288, 112950.
  • Wang, J. C., Kapoor, M., & Goate, A. M. (2012). The Genetics of Substance Dependence. 13, 241-261.
  • Wilson, J. J., & Ferguson, M. (2022). Substance and Non-Substance Related Addictions. ISBN978-3-030-84834

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Women's Studies
Journal Section Reviews
Authors

Gamze SAÇAKLI 0000-0002-3113-2001

Deniz ODABAŞ 0000-0002-4877-0122

Publication Date December 31, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023 Volume: 5 Issue: 2

Cite

APA SAÇAKLI, G., & ODABAŞ, D. (2023). Kadınlarda Madde Bağımlılığı. Advances in Women’s Studies, 5(2), 44-48. https://doi.org/10.5152/atakad.2023.22012

Content of this journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License

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