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Adaptation of the Lebanon Waterpipe Dependence Scale to Turkish: A Reliability and Factor Analysis Study

Year 2020, Volume 21, Issue 3, 163 - 180, 30.09.2020

Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to adapt The Lebanon Waterpipe Dependence Scale (LWDS-11) to Turkish in order to facilitate research regarding waterpipe dependence. The LWDS-11 has been constructed and validated as a need for a standardized measure that incorporates not only the assessment of physiological dependence on nicotine but embodies psychosocial factors as well.
Method: A sample of N=401 participants responded to the LWDS-11, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scale (FTND), and additional socio-demographic related items. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) has been conducted and outcomes were compared with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Assessment of construct and criterion validity was done by the results of the CFA and correlations between the LWDS and the FTND.
Results: The sample consisted of N=288 males and N=113 females between the ages 18 and 62.. Computed internal consistency provided a Cronbach’s alpha of .80. Two factors explaining 59% of variance were computed.
Conclusion: The outcome of this study has suggested a reliable Turkish assessment tool with validity regarding waterpipe dependence in a Turkish sample. 

References

  • World Health Organization. (2015a). WHO global report on trends in prevalence of tobacco smoking [online]. Website http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/156262/1/9789241564922_eng.pdf?ua=1 [accessed 27 June 2017]
  • Maziak W, Ward KD, Soweid RA, Eissenberg T. Tobacco smoking using a waterpipe: a re-emerging strain in a global epidemic. Tobacco Control 2004; 13 (4): 327-333. doi:10.1136/tc.2004.008169
  • Sezer RE, Picak YK. A new threat to tobacco control: aromatic narghile. Cumhuriyet Medical Journal 2011; 33: 133-143.
  • Subasi N, Bilir N, Ilhan E, et al. Knowledge, attitude and behaviors of narghile smokers on narghile smoking. Toraks Dergisi 2005; 6 (2): 137-143.
  • The Ministry of Health of Turkey. (2014). Global adult tobacco survey 2012 [online]. Ankara, Turkey. Website http://www.who.int/tobacco/surveillance/survey/gats/report_tur_2012.pdf [accessed 24 May 2017]
  • Maziak W, Taleb ZB, Bahelah R, et al. The global epidemiology of waterpipe smoking. Tobacco Control 2014; 24 (Suppl 1): I3-I12. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051903
  • World Health Organization. (2015b). TobReg advisory note: waterpipe tobacco smoking: health effects, research needs and recommended actions by regulators 2nd edition [online]. Website http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/161991/1/9789241508469_eng.pdf?ua=1&ua=1 [accessed 25 June 2017]
  • Akl EA, Jawad M, Lam WY, et al. Motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking: a systematic review. Harm Reduction Journal 2013; 10 (1): 12. doi:10.1186/1477-7517-10-12
  • Akl EA, Ward KD, Bteddini D, et al. The allure of the waterpipe: a narrative review of factors affecting the epidemic rise in waterpipe smoking among young persons globally. Tobacco Control 2015; 24 (Suppl 1): I13-I21. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051906
  • Erbaydar NP, Bilir N, Yildiz AN. Knowledge, behaviors and health hazard perception among turkish narghile (waterpipe)-smokers related to narghile smoking. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciiences 2010; 26 (1): 195-200.
  • Hadidi KA, Mohammed FI. Nicotine content in tobacco used in hubble-bubble smoking. Saudi Medical Journal 2004; 25 (7): 912-917.
  • Shihadeh A. Investigation of mainstream smoke aerosol of the argileh water pipe. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2003; 41 (1): 143-152. doi:10.1016/s0278-6915(02)00220-x
  • Shihadeh A, Saleh R. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, “tar”, and nicotine in the mainstream smoke aerosol of the narghile water pipe. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2005; 43 (5): 655-661. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2004.12.013
  • Alvur MT, Cinar N, Akduran F, Dede C. Fallacies about Water Pipe Use in Turkish University Students - What Might Be the Consequences? Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 2014; 15 (5): 1977-1980. doi:10.7314/apjcp.2014.15.5.1977
  • Aboaziza E, Eissenberg T. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: what is the evidence that it supports nicotine/tobacco dependence? Tobacco Control 2015; 24 (Suppl 1): i44-i53. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051910
  • Salameh P, Waked M, Aoun Z. Waterpipe smoking: Construction and validation of the Lebanon Waterpipe Dependence Scale (LWDS-11). Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2008; 10 (1): 149-158. doi:10.1080/14622200701767753
  • Almerie MQ, Matar HE, Salam M, et al. Cigarettes and waterpipe smoking among medical students in Syria: a cross-sectional study. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease 2008; 12 (9): 1085-1091.
  • Uysal MA, Kadakal F, Karşıdağ Ç, et al. Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence: reliability in a Turkish sample and factor analysis. Tüberkuloz ve Toraks Dergisi 2004; 52 (2): 115-121.
  • Kassim S, Al-Bakri A, Al'absi M, Croucher R. Waterpipe Tobacco Dependence in U.K. Male Adult Residents: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2014; 16 (3): 316-325. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntt148
  • Heatherton TF, Kozlowski LT, Frecker RC, Fagerstrom K. The Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence: a revision of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. Addiction 1991; 86 (9): 1119-1127. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1991.tb01879.x
  • Fagerström K. Measuring degree of physical dependence to tobacco smoking with reference to individualization of treatment. Addictive Behaviors 1978; 3 (3-4): 235-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603(78)90024-2
  • Bozkurt N, Bozkurt AI. Assessment of the Fagerström Nicotine Dependant Test (FNDT) used in the determination of nicotine dependence and developing a new test for the nicotine dependance. Pamukkale Medical Journal 2016; 9 (1): 45-51. doi:10.5505/ptd.2016.65365
  • Sousa VD, Rojjanasrirat W. Translation, adaptation and validation of instruments or scales for use in cross-cultural health care research: a clear and user-friendly guideline. Journal of Evaluation of Clinical Practice 2011; 17 (2): 268-274. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2753.2010.01434.x
  • Schermelleh-Engel K, Moosbrugger H, Müller H. Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of psychological research online 2003; 8 (2): 23-74.
  • Primack BA, Khabour OF, Alzoubi KH, et al. The LWDS-10J: Reliability and Validity of the Lebanon Waterpipe Dependence Scale Among University Students in Jordan. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2014; 16 (7): 915-922. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntu002
  • Stanton WR, Mahalski PA, McGee R, Silva PA. Reasons for smoking or not smoking in early adolescence. Addictive Behaviors 1993; 18 (3): 321-329. doi:10.1016/0306-4603(93)90033-6
  • Piasecki TM, Richardson AE, Smith SM. Self-monitored motives for smoking among college students. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 2007; 21 (3): 328–337. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.21.3.328
  • Fidler JA, West R. Self-perceived smoking motives and their correlates in a general population sample. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2009; 11 (10): 1182-1188. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntp120
  • Hassoy H, Ergin I, Davas A, et al. Determining the Factors Effecting the Cigarette, Narghile and Hand-rolled Tobacco Smoking Among Medical Technology Vocational Training School Students and Evaluation of their Opinions About Starting and Continuing with their Habits of Smoking. Eurasian Journal of Pulmonology 2011; 13 (2): 91–99. https://doi.org/10.5505/solunum.2011.50490
  • Deveci SE, Acik Y, Oguzoncul AF, Deveci F. Prevalence and factors affecting the use of tobacco, alcohol and addictive substance among university students in eastern Turkey. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2010; 41 (4): 996-1007.
  • Maziak W, Rastam S, Ibrahim I, et al. CO exposure, puff topography, and subjective effects in waterpipe tobacco smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2009; 11 (7): 806-811. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntp066

Lübnan Nargile Bağımlılığı Ölçeğinin Türkçeye Uyarlanması: Güvenilirlik ve Faktör Analizi Çalışması

Year 2020, Volume 21, Issue 3, 163 - 180, 30.09.2020

Abstract

Amaç:Bu araştırma, nargile bağımlılığı konusunu araştırmayı kolaylaştırmak için Lübnan Nargile Bağımlılığı Ölçeğini (LWDS-11) Türkçe'ye uyarlama amacıyla yapılmıştır. Lübnan Nargile Bağımlılığı Ölçeği sadece nikotine fizyolojik bağımlılığın değerlendirilmesini değil, aynı zamanda psikososyal faktörleri de kapsayan standart ölçüm aracına ihtiyaç kapsamında geliştirilmiş ve geçerli kılınmıştır.
Yöntem: Araştırma N=401 kişiye ulaşarak LWDS-11 ölçeği, Fagerström Nikotin Bağımlılık Testi ölçeği (FTND) ve sosyodemografik bilgi formu uygulamıştır. Ölçeklerin güvenirlik çalışması araştırmacılar tarafından yapılmış olup ek olarak açıklayıcı ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizi uygulanarak ölçeğin yapısal geçerliliği analiz edilmiştir. 
Bulgular: Örneklem 18-62 yaş arasında N=288 erkek ve N=113 kadından oluşmuştur. Hesaplanan güvenirlik Cronbach alfası .80 olarak elde edilmiştir. Araştırmanın sonucunda, ölçek maddelerinin, varyansın % 59'unu açıklayan iki faktöre yüklendiği görülmüştür.
Sonuç: Çalışma, nargile bağımlılığına ilişkin Türk örnekleminde geçerliliği olan güvenilir bir Türkçe değerlendirme aracı önermektedir. 

References

  • World Health Organization. (2015a). WHO global report on trends in prevalence of tobacco smoking [online]. Website http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/156262/1/9789241564922_eng.pdf?ua=1 [accessed 27 June 2017]
  • Maziak W, Ward KD, Soweid RA, Eissenberg T. Tobacco smoking using a waterpipe: a re-emerging strain in a global epidemic. Tobacco Control 2004; 13 (4): 327-333. doi:10.1136/tc.2004.008169
  • Sezer RE, Picak YK. A new threat to tobacco control: aromatic narghile. Cumhuriyet Medical Journal 2011; 33: 133-143.
  • Subasi N, Bilir N, Ilhan E, et al. Knowledge, attitude and behaviors of narghile smokers on narghile smoking. Toraks Dergisi 2005; 6 (2): 137-143.
  • The Ministry of Health of Turkey. (2014). Global adult tobacco survey 2012 [online]. Ankara, Turkey. Website http://www.who.int/tobacco/surveillance/survey/gats/report_tur_2012.pdf [accessed 24 May 2017]
  • Maziak W, Taleb ZB, Bahelah R, et al. The global epidemiology of waterpipe smoking. Tobacco Control 2014; 24 (Suppl 1): I3-I12. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051903
  • World Health Organization. (2015b). TobReg advisory note: waterpipe tobacco smoking: health effects, research needs and recommended actions by regulators 2nd edition [online]. Website http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/161991/1/9789241508469_eng.pdf?ua=1&ua=1 [accessed 25 June 2017]
  • Akl EA, Jawad M, Lam WY, et al. Motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking: a systematic review. Harm Reduction Journal 2013; 10 (1): 12. doi:10.1186/1477-7517-10-12
  • Akl EA, Ward KD, Bteddini D, et al. The allure of the waterpipe: a narrative review of factors affecting the epidemic rise in waterpipe smoking among young persons globally. Tobacco Control 2015; 24 (Suppl 1): I13-I21. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051906
  • Erbaydar NP, Bilir N, Yildiz AN. Knowledge, behaviors and health hazard perception among turkish narghile (waterpipe)-smokers related to narghile smoking. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciiences 2010; 26 (1): 195-200.
  • Hadidi KA, Mohammed FI. Nicotine content in tobacco used in hubble-bubble smoking. Saudi Medical Journal 2004; 25 (7): 912-917.
  • Shihadeh A. Investigation of mainstream smoke aerosol of the argileh water pipe. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2003; 41 (1): 143-152. doi:10.1016/s0278-6915(02)00220-x
  • Shihadeh A, Saleh R. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, “tar”, and nicotine in the mainstream smoke aerosol of the narghile water pipe. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2005; 43 (5): 655-661. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2004.12.013
  • Alvur MT, Cinar N, Akduran F, Dede C. Fallacies about Water Pipe Use in Turkish University Students - What Might Be the Consequences? Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 2014; 15 (5): 1977-1980. doi:10.7314/apjcp.2014.15.5.1977
  • Aboaziza E, Eissenberg T. Waterpipe tobacco smoking: what is the evidence that it supports nicotine/tobacco dependence? Tobacco Control 2015; 24 (Suppl 1): i44-i53. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051910
  • Salameh P, Waked M, Aoun Z. Waterpipe smoking: Construction and validation of the Lebanon Waterpipe Dependence Scale (LWDS-11). Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2008; 10 (1): 149-158. doi:10.1080/14622200701767753
  • Almerie MQ, Matar HE, Salam M, et al. Cigarettes and waterpipe smoking among medical students in Syria: a cross-sectional study. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease 2008; 12 (9): 1085-1091.
  • Uysal MA, Kadakal F, Karşıdağ Ç, et al. Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence: reliability in a Turkish sample and factor analysis. Tüberkuloz ve Toraks Dergisi 2004; 52 (2): 115-121.
  • Kassim S, Al-Bakri A, Al'absi M, Croucher R. Waterpipe Tobacco Dependence in U.K. Male Adult Residents: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2014; 16 (3): 316-325. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntt148
  • Heatherton TF, Kozlowski LT, Frecker RC, Fagerstrom K. The Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence: a revision of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. Addiction 1991; 86 (9): 1119-1127. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1991.tb01879.x
  • Fagerström K. Measuring degree of physical dependence to tobacco smoking with reference to individualization of treatment. Addictive Behaviors 1978; 3 (3-4): 235-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603(78)90024-2
  • Bozkurt N, Bozkurt AI. Assessment of the Fagerström Nicotine Dependant Test (FNDT) used in the determination of nicotine dependence and developing a new test for the nicotine dependance. Pamukkale Medical Journal 2016; 9 (1): 45-51. doi:10.5505/ptd.2016.65365
  • Sousa VD, Rojjanasrirat W. Translation, adaptation and validation of instruments or scales for use in cross-cultural health care research: a clear and user-friendly guideline. Journal of Evaluation of Clinical Practice 2011; 17 (2): 268-274. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2753.2010.01434.x
  • Schermelleh-Engel K, Moosbrugger H, Müller H. Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of psychological research online 2003; 8 (2): 23-74.
  • Primack BA, Khabour OF, Alzoubi KH, et al. The LWDS-10J: Reliability and Validity of the Lebanon Waterpipe Dependence Scale Among University Students in Jordan. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2014; 16 (7): 915-922. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntu002
  • Stanton WR, Mahalski PA, McGee R, Silva PA. Reasons for smoking or not smoking in early adolescence. Addictive Behaviors 1993; 18 (3): 321-329. doi:10.1016/0306-4603(93)90033-6
  • Piasecki TM, Richardson AE, Smith SM. Self-monitored motives for smoking among college students. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 2007; 21 (3): 328–337. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.21.3.328
  • Fidler JA, West R. Self-perceived smoking motives and their correlates in a general population sample. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2009; 11 (10): 1182-1188. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntp120
  • Hassoy H, Ergin I, Davas A, et al. Determining the Factors Effecting the Cigarette, Narghile and Hand-rolled Tobacco Smoking Among Medical Technology Vocational Training School Students and Evaluation of their Opinions About Starting and Continuing with their Habits of Smoking. Eurasian Journal of Pulmonology 2011; 13 (2): 91–99. https://doi.org/10.5505/solunum.2011.50490
  • Deveci SE, Acik Y, Oguzoncul AF, Deveci F. Prevalence and factors affecting the use of tobacco, alcohol and addictive substance among university students in eastern Turkey. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2010; 41 (4): 996-1007.
  • Maziak W, Rastam S, Ibrahim I, et al. CO exposure, puff topography, and subjective effects in waterpipe tobacco smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2009; 11 (7): 806-811. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntp066

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Substance Abuse
Journal Section Research
Authors

Ali Yunus Emre AKCA (Primary Author)
ANKARA YILDIRIM BEYAZIT UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES, DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
0000-0002-3450-7059
Türkiye


Mehmed Seyda TEPEDELEN
ANKARA YILDIRIM BEYAZIT UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES, DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
0000-0002-7704-8606
Türkiye


Özden YALÇINKAYA ALKAR
ANKARA YILDIRIM BEYAZIT UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES, DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
0000-0001-8484-9199
Türkiye

Thanks The authors would like to thank Dilek Kılıç of the School of Foreign Languages at Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Tahir Akyüz, Elif Ergin, and Enes Başoğlu for their efforts in the translation process of the scale. The authors would also like to acknowledge Dr. Yankı Süsen, research assistant at the Psychology Department of Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University. Our special thanks are extended to Prof. Dr. Sinan Canan of the Psychology department at Üsküdar University in Istanbul.
Publication Date September 30, 2020
Acceptance Date May 11, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2020, Volume 21, Issue 3

Cite

AMA Akca A. Y. E. , Tepedelen M. S. , Yalçınkaya Alkar Ö. Adaptation of the Lebanon Waterpipe Dependence Scale to Turkish: A Reliability and Factor Analysis Study. Bağımlılık Dergisi. 2020; 21(3): 163-180.