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Examining the Role of Depression Levels of University Students on Social Media Addiction in the COVID-19 Outbreak: A Structural Equation Model

Year 2021, Volume 22, Issue 1, 20 - 30, 31.03.2021
https://doi.org/10.51982/bagimli.790750

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the depression levels of university students and their social media addiction in the COVID-19 pandemic through structural equation modeling. Method: The research was conducted according to the relational survey model, one of the quantitative research methods. The research was carried out on 211 university students at Firat University. Burns Depression Scale, adapted into Turkish by Tuncer and Dikmen (2019), was used to determine the depression levels of students. Social Network Addiction Scale developed by Karaca, Yıldırım and Kulaksız (2019) was used to determine the social media addiction levels of the students. Results: When the findings of the study are examined, it is seen that there are significant relationships between depression level and social media addiction. A good fit was found between the obtained data and the predicted model. In this context, it has been determined that the depression levels of university students in the COVID-19 pandemic are the predictors of social media addiction. It has been observed that as the depression levels of university students increase, their social media addiction increases. Conclusion: It can be said that depression and social media addiction form a spiral structure that negatively affects each other. In this context, the concept of depression in social media addiction can be seen as a cause or a consequence.

References

  • 1. WHO. COVID-19 PHEIC Global Research and Innovation Forum: Towards a Research Roadmap. https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/12-02-2020-world-experts-and-funders-set-priorities-for-covid-19-research (20 Ağustos 2020 tarihinde alındı).
  • 2. Garcia-Priego BA, Triana-Romero A, Pinto-Galvez SM, et al. Anxiety, depression, attitudes, and internet addiction during the initial phase of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic: a cross-sectional study in Mexico. medRxiv 2020; 1-24.
  • 3. Krings A, Heeren A, Fontaine P, Blairy S. Attentional biases in depression: Relation to disorder severity, rumination, and anhedonia. Comprehensive Psychiatry 2020; 100: 1-10.
  • 4. Phua DH, Tang HK,Tham KY. Coping responses of emergency physicians and nurses to the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak. Academic Emergency Medicine 2005; 12: 322-328.
  • 5. Newby J, O'Moore K, Tang S, et al. Acute mental health responses during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia. medRxiv 2020; 1-30.
  • 6. Karamustafalıoğlu O, Yumrukçal H. Depresyon ve anksiyete bozuklukları. Şişli Etfal Hastanesi Tıp Bülteni 2011; 45: 65-74.
  • 7. APA. What is Depression? https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/depression/what-is-depression (16 Ağustos 2020’de ulaşıldı).
  • 8. DSM-5. Depressive Disorder. https://cdn.website-editor.net/30f11123991548a0af708722d458e476/files/uploaded/DSM%2520V.pdf (16 Ağustos 2020’de ulaşıldı).
  • 9. Bertone-Johnson ER. Vitamin D and the occurrence of depression: causal association or circumstantial evidence?. Nutrition Reviews 2009; 67: 481-492.
  • 10. Truschel J. Depression Definition and DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria. https://www.psycom.net/depression-definition-dsm-5-diagnostic-criteria/ (10 Ağustos tarihinde alındı).
  • 11. Bastani P, Bahrami MA. COVID-19 Related Misinformation on Social Media: A Qualitative Study from Iran. https://preprints.jmir.org/preprint/18932 (12 Ağustos 2020’de ulaşıldı).
  • 12. Zhao Y, Zhang J. Consumer health information seeking in social media: a literature review. Health Information & Libraries Journal 2017; 34: 268-283.
  • 13. Echeburua E, de Corral P. Addiction to New Technologies and to online social networking in young people: A newchallenge. Adicciones 2010; 22: 91-95.
  • 14. Stankovska G, Angelkovska S, Grncarovska SP. Social networks use, loneliness and academic performance among university students. Higher Education, Lifelong Learning & Social Inclusion 2016; 14: 255-261.
  • 15. Kouzy R, Abi Jaoude J, Kraitem A. Coronavirus goes viral: quantifying the COVID-19 misinformation epidemic on Twitter. Cureus 2020; 12: 1-9.
  • 16. Ahmad AR, Murad HR. The impact of social media on panic during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iraqi Kurdistan: online questionnaire study. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2020; 22: 1-11.
  • 17. Hao K, Basu T. The coronavirus is the first true social-media “infodemic". https://www.technologyreview.com/2020/02/12/844851/ the-coronavirus-is-the-first-true-social-media-infodemic/ (17 Ağustos 2020’de ulaşıldı).
  • 18. WHO. Mental health & COVID-19. https://www.who.int/teams/mental-health-and-substance-use/covid-19 (20 Ağustos 2020 tarihinde alındı).
  • 19. Singh S, Dixit A, Joshi G. Is compulsive social media use amid COVID-19 pandemic addictive behavior or coping mechanism?. Asian Journal of Psychiatry 2020; 54: 1-2.
  • 20. Balcı Ş, Baloğlu E. Sosyal medya bağımlılığı ile depresyon arasındaki ilişki:" üniversite gençliği üzerine bir saha araştırması". İletişim 2018; 29: 209-233.
  • 21. Karadağ A, Akçinar B. Üniversite öğrencilerinde sosyal medya bağımlılığı ve psikolojik semptomlar arasındaki ilişki. Bağımlılık Dergisi 2019; 20: 154-166.
  • 22. Sümer N. Yapısal eşitlik modelleri. Türk Psikoloji Yazıları 2000; 3: 49-74.
  • 23. Tuncer M, Dikmen M. Burns depresyon ölçeği Türkçe formunun geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Journal of Social And Humanities Sciences Research (JSHSR) 2019; 6: 2848-2857.
  • 24. Karaca F, Yıldırım OG, Kulaksız T. Social network addiction scale development: Validity and reliability study. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions 2019; 6: 337‒360.
  • 25. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using Multivariate Statistics, 4. Baskı, MA: Allyn&Bacon, Inc, 2001: 1-14.
  • 26. Russell B, Purcell J. Online Research Essentials: Designing and Implementing Research Studies. John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
  • 27. Taşpınar M. Sosyal Bilimlerde SSPS Uygulamalı Nicel Veri Analizi. Ankara: Pegem Akademi, 2017: 194-195.
  • 28. Schermelleh-Engel K, Moosbrugger H, Müller H. Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online 2003; 8: 23-74.
  • 29. Cohen J. Quantitative methods in psychology: A power primer. Psychol. Bull. 1992; 112: 1155-1159.
  • 30. Simoncic, T. E., Kuhlman, K. R., Vargas, I., Houchins, S., & Lopez-Duran, N. L. (2014). Facebook use and depressive symptomatology: Investigating the role of neuroticism and extraversion in youth. Computers in Human Behavior, 40, 1-5.
  • 31. Steers MN, Wickham RE, Acitelli LK. Seeing everyone else’s HighlightReels: how Facebook usage is linked to depressive symptoms. Journal of Social and Clinical Pyschology 2014; 33: 701-731.
  • 32. De la Peña A, Quintanilla C. Share, like and achieve: the power of Facebook to reach health‐related goals. International Journal of Consumer Studies 2015; 39: 495-505.
  • 33. Üstün A, Bayar A. Üniversite öğrencilerinin depresyon, anksiyete ve stres düzeylerinin çeşitli değişkenlere göre incelenmesi. Eğitim ve Öğretim Araştırmaları Dergisi 2015; 4: 384-390.
  • 34. Czeisler MÉ, Rashon IL, Petrosky E, et al. Mental health, substance use, and suicidal ıdeation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2020; 69: 1049-1057.
  • 35. Ünal S. Depresyon ve kişilik. Duygudurum Bozuklukları Dizisi 2000; 2: 72-76.
  • 36. Seabrook, E. M., Kern, M. L., & Rickard, N. S. (2016). Social networking sites, depression, and anxiety: a systematic review. JMIR mental health, 3(4), 1-19.
  • 37. Kırcaburun K. Self-Esteem, Daily Internet Use and Social Media Addiction as Predictors of Depression among Turkish Adolescents. Journal of Education and Practice 2016; 7: 64-72.
  • 38. Banjanin N, Banjanin N, Dimitrijevic I, Pantic I. Relationship between internet use and depression: Focus on physiological mood oscillations, social networking and online addictive behavior. Computers in Human Behavior 2015; 43: 308-312.
  • 39. Tan Y, Chen Y, Lu Y, Li L. Exploring associations between problematic internet use, depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance among Southern Chinese adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2016; 13: 313-325.
  • 40. Budak E, Taymur I, Askin R, et al. (2015). Relationship between internet addiction, psychopathology and self-esteem among university students. The European Research Journal 2015; 1: 128-135.
  • 41. Cotten SR, Ford G, Ford S, Hale TM. Internet use and depression among retired older adults in the United States: A longitudinal analysis. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 2014; 69: 763-771.
  • 42. Moreno MA, Jelenchick LA, Breland DJ. Exploring depression and problematic internet use among college females: A multisite study. Computers in Human Behavior 2015; 49: 601-607.

COVID-19 Pandemisinde Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Depresyon Düzeylerinin Sosyal Medya Bağımlılığı Üzerindeki Rolünün İncelenmesi: Bir Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli

Year 2021, Volume 22, Issue 1, 20 - 30, 31.03.2021
https://doi.org/10.51982/bagimli.790750

Abstract

Amaç: Bu araştırmanın amacı COVID-19 pandemisinde üniversite öğrencilerinin depresyon düzeyleri ile sosyal medya bağımlılıkları arasındaki ilişkiyi yapısal eşitlik modellemesiyle incelemektir. Yöntem: Araştırma nicel araştırma yöntemlerinden ilişkisel tarama modeline göre yürütülmüştür. Araştırma Fırat Üniversitesindeki 211 üniversite öğrenci üzerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Öğrencilerin depresyon düzeylerini belirlemek amacıyla Tuncer ve Dikmen (2019) tarafından Türkçeye uyarlanan Burns Depresyon Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Öğrencilerin sosyal medya bağımlılık düzeylerinin belirlenmesi amacıyla ise Karaca, Yıldırım ve Kulaksız (2019) tarafından geliştirilen Sosyal Ağ Bağımlılığı Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Bulgular: Araştırmanın bulguları incelendiğinde depresyon düzeyi ve sosyal medya bağımlılığı arasında anlamlı ilişkiler olduğu görülmektedir. Elde edilen veri ile öngörülen model arasında iyi uyum saptanmıştır. Bu bağlamda üniversite öğrencilerinin COVID-19 pandemisindeki depresyon düzeylerinin sosyal medya bağımlılıklarının yordayıcısı olduğu belirlenmiştir. Üniversite öğrencilerinin depresyon düzeyleri arttıkça sosyal medya bağımlılıklarının arttığı gözlemlenmiştir. Sonuç: Depresyon ve sosyal medya bağımlılığının birbirini olumsuz yönde etkileyen sarmal bir yapıyı oluşturduğu söylenebilir. Bu bağlamda sosyal medya bağımlılığında, depresyon kavramı bir sebep olabileceği gibi bir sonuç olarak da görülebilir.

References

  • 1. WHO. COVID-19 PHEIC Global Research and Innovation Forum: Towards a Research Roadmap. https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/12-02-2020-world-experts-and-funders-set-priorities-for-covid-19-research (20 Ağustos 2020 tarihinde alındı).
  • 2. Garcia-Priego BA, Triana-Romero A, Pinto-Galvez SM, et al. Anxiety, depression, attitudes, and internet addiction during the initial phase of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic: a cross-sectional study in Mexico. medRxiv 2020; 1-24.
  • 3. Krings A, Heeren A, Fontaine P, Blairy S. Attentional biases in depression: Relation to disorder severity, rumination, and anhedonia. Comprehensive Psychiatry 2020; 100: 1-10.
  • 4. Phua DH, Tang HK,Tham KY. Coping responses of emergency physicians and nurses to the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak. Academic Emergency Medicine 2005; 12: 322-328.
  • 5. Newby J, O'Moore K, Tang S, et al. Acute mental health responses during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia. medRxiv 2020; 1-30.
  • 6. Karamustafalıoğlu O, Yumrukçal H. Depresyon ve anksiyete bozuklukları. Şişli Etfal Hastanesi Tıp Bülteni 2011; 45: 65-74.
  • 7. APA. What is Depression? https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/depression/what-is-depression (16 Ağustos 2020’de ulaşıldı).
  • 8. DSM-5. Depressive Disorder. https://cdn.website-editor.net/30f11123991548a0af708722d458e476/files/uploaded/DSM%2520V.pdf (16 Ağustos 2020’de ulaşıldı).
  • 9. Bertone-Johnson ER. Vitamin D and the occurrence of depression: causal association or circumstantial evidence?. Nutrition Reviews 2009; 67: 481-492.
  • 10. Truschel J. Depression Definition and DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria. https://www.psycom.net/depression-definition-dsm-5-diagnostic-criteria/ (10 Ağustos tarihinde alındı).
  • 11. Bastani P, Bahrami MA. COVID-19 Related Misinformation on Social Media: A Qualitative Study from Iran. https://preprints.jmir.org/preprint/18932 (12 Ağustos 2020’de ulaşıldı).
  • 12. Zhao Y, Zhang J. Consumer health information seeking in social media: a literature review. Health Information & Libraries Journal 2017; 34: 268-283.
  • 13. Echeburua E, de Corral P. Addiction to New Technologies and to online social networking in young people: A newchallenge. Adicciones 2010; 22: 91-95.
  • 14. Stankovska G, Angelkovska S, Grncarovska SP. Social networks use, loneliness and academic performance among university students. Higher Education, Lifelong Learning & Social Inclusion 2016; 14: 255-261.
  • 15. Kouzy R, Abi Jaoude J, Kraitem A. Coronavirus goes viral: quantifying the COVID-19 misinformation epidemic on Twitter. Cureus 2020; 12: 1-9.
  • 16. Ahmad AR, Murad HR. The impact of social media on panic during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iraqi Kurdistan: online questionnaire study. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2020; 22: 1-11.
  • 17. Hao K, Basu T. The coronavirus is the first true social-media “infodemic". https://www.technologyreview.com/2020/02/12/844851/ the-coronavirus-is-the-first-true-social-media-infodemic/ (17 Ağustos 2020’de ulaşıldı).
  • 18. WHO. Mental health & COVID-19. https://www.who.int/teams/mental-health-and-substance-use/covid-19 (20 Ağustos 2020 tarihinde alındı).
  • 19. Singh S, Dixit A, Joshi G. Is compulsive social media use amid COVID-19 pandemic addictive behavior or coping mechanism?. Asian Journal of Psychiatry 2020; 54: 1-2.
  • 20. Balcı Ş, Baloğlu E. Sosyal medya bağımlılığı ile depresyon arasındaki ilişki:" üniversite gençliği üzerine bir saha araştırması". İletişim 2018; 29: 209-233.
  • 21. Karadağ A, Akçinar B. Üniversite öğrencilerinde sosyal medya bağımlılığı ve psikolojik semptomlar arasındaki ilişki. Bağımlılık Dergisi 2019; 20: 154-166.
  • 22. Sümer N. Yapısal eşitlik modelleri. Türk Psikoloji Yazıları 2000; 3: 49-74.
  • 23. Tuncer M, Dikmen M. Burns depresyon ölçeği Türkçe formunun geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Journal of Social And Humanities Sciences Research (JSHSR) 2019; 6: 2848-2857.
  • 24. Karaca F, Yıldırım OG, Kulaksız T. Social network addiction scale development: Validity and reliability study. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions 2019; 6: 337‒360.
  • 25. Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS. Using Multivariate Statistics, 4. Baskı, MA: Allyn&Bacon, Inc, 2001: 1-14.
  • 26. Russell B, Purcell J. Online Research Essentials: Designing and Implementing Research Studies. John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
  • 27. Taşpınar M. Sosyal Bilimlerde SSPS Uygulamalı Nicel Veri Analizi. Ankara: Pegem Akademi, 2017: 194-195.
  • 28. Schermelleh-Engel K, Moosbrugger H, Müller H. Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online 2003; 8: 23-74.
  • 29. Cohen J. Quantitative methods in psychology: A power primer. Psychol. Bull. 1992; 112: 1155-1159.
  • 30. Simoncic, T. E., Kuhlman, K. R., Vargas, I., Houchins, S., & Lopez-Duran, N. L. (2014). Facebook use and depressive symptomatology: Investigating the role of neuroticism and extraversion in youth. Computers in Human Behavior, 40, 1-5.
  • 31. Steers MN, Wickham RE, Acitelli LK. Seeing everyone else’s HighlightReels: how Facebook usage is linked to depressive symptoms. Journal of Social and Clinical Pyschology 2014; 33: 701-731.
  • 32. De la Peña A, Quintanilla C. Share, like and achieve: the power of Facebook to reach health‐related goals. International Journal of Consumer Studies 2015; 39: 495-505.
  • 33. Üstün A, Bayar A. Üniversite öğrencilerinin depresyon, anksiyete ve stres düzeylerinin çeşitli değişkenlere göre incelenmesi. Eğitim ve Öğretim Araştırmaları Dergisi 2015; 4: 384-390.
  • 34. Czeisler MÉ, Rashon IL, Petrosky E, et al. Mental health, substance use, and suicidal ıdeation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2020; 69: 1049-1057.
  • 35. Ünal S. Depresyon ve kişilik. Duygudurum Bozuklukları Dizisi 2000; 2: 72-76.
  • 36. Seabrook, E. M., Kern, M. L., & Rickard, N. S. (2016). Social networking sites, depression, and anxiety: a systematic review. JMIR mental health, 3(4), 1-19.
  • 37. Kırcaburun K. Self-Esteem, Daily Internet Use and Social Media Addiction as Predictors of Depression among Turkish Adolescents. Journal of Education and Practice 2016; 7: 64-72.
  • 38. Banjanin N, Banjanin N, Dimitrijevic I, Pantic I. Relationship between internet use and depression: Focus on physiological mood oscillations, social networking and online addictive behavior. Computers in Human Behavior 2015; 43: 308-312.
  • 39. Tan Y, Chen Y, Lu Y, Li L. Exploring associations between problematic internet use, depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance among Southern Chinese adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2016; 13: 313-325.
  • 40. Budak E, Taymur I, Askin R, et al. (2015). Relationship between internet addiction, psychopathology and self-esteem among university students. The European Research Journal 2015; 1: 128-135.
  • 41. Cotten SR, Ford G, Ford S, Hale TM. Internet use and depression among retired older adults in the United States: A longitudinal analysis. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 2014; 69: 763-771.
  • 42. Moreno MA, Jelenchick LA, Breland DJ. Exploring depression and problematic internet use among college females: A multisite study. Computers in Human Behavior 2015; 49: 601-607.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Behavioral Sciences
Journal Section Research
Authors

Melih DİKMEN (Primary Author)
FIRAT ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-7015-6236
Türkiye

Publication Date March 31, 2021
Acceptance Date September 29, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 22, Issue 1

Cite

AMA Dikmen M. COVID-19 Pandemisinde Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Depresyon Düzeylerinin Sosyal Medya Bağımlılığı Üzerindeki Rolünün İncelenmesi: Bir Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli. Bağımlılık Dergisi. 2021; 22(1): 20-30.