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OMEGA – 3 YAĞ ASİTLERİNİN SIÇAN KARACİĞER DOKUSUNDA BİR GRUP METABOLİK ENZİM AKTİVİTESİ ÜZERİNE OLUMLU ETKİLERİ

Year 2016, Volume 5, Issue 2, 62 - 68, 31.08.2016

Abstract



GİRİŞ ve AMAÇ: Bu araştırmada omega – 3 yağ asitlerinin sıçan karaciğer dokusundaki bazı metabolik enzimlerin aktivitelerine olan olumlu etkisinin biyokimyasal düzeyde incelenmesi amaçlandı.


YÖNTEM ve GEREÇLER: Çalışma kapsamında toplamda 16 adet Wistar – Albino cinsi erişkin erkek sıçan iki gruba ayrılarak kullanıldı. Kontrol grubundaki sıçanlara (n=8) intragastrik gavaj yöntemi ile serum fizyolojik zerk edildi. Deney grubundaki sıçanlara (n=8) ise 400 mg/kg vücut ağırlığı dozu olacak şekilde omega – 3 yağ asidi yine intragastrik gavaj yöntemi ile verildi. Altı hafta devam eden çalışma süresi sonunda tüm hayvanlar dekapite edilmek suretiyle öldürüldü ve karaciğer doku örnekleri alındı. Bu doku örneklerinde malondialdehit (MDA) düzeyi, süperoksit dismutaz (SOD) ve glutatyon peroksidaz (GSH-Px) enzim aktivasyonları spektrofotometrik yöntem kullanılarak tayin edildi. Ayrıca gruplara ait serum örneklerinde aspartat aminotransferaz (AST), alanin aminotransferaz (ALT) ve alkalen fosfataz (ALP) değerleri belirlendi.


BULGULAR: Yapılan çalışma sonucunda omega – 3 yağ asidi tatbik edilen deney grubu sıçanların karaciğer doku örneklerinde kontrol grubuna oranla MDH düzeyinde istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir şekilde azalma izlendi. SOD ve GSH-Px enzim aktivasyonlarında ise kontrol grubuna göre istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir artış tespit edildi. Ayrıca bu bulgulara ilave olarak deney grubu sıçanların alınan serum örneklerinde AST (U/L) ve ALT (U/L) enzim değerlerinin kontrol grubu hayvanların değerlerine oranla istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir şekilde düşüş gösterdiği tespit edildi. ALP (U/L) enzim değerinin ise kontrol grubuna oranla göstermiş olduğu azalmanın istatistiksel olarak anlamlı olmadığı belirlendi.


TARTIŞMA ve SONUÇ: Sıçanlar üzerinde yürütmüş olduğumuz bu çalışmada, omega – 3 yağ asitlerinin sıçan karaciğer dokusu üzerinde oksitatif hasarı önlediği ve antioksidan sistemi güçlendirdiği gösterildi.


References

  • 1. Nordoy A. Is there a rational us efor n-3 fatty acids (fish oils) in clinical medicine?. Drugs 1991; 42(3): 331-342.
  • 2. Bourre JM, Bonneil M, Chaudiere J, et al. Structural and functional importance of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in the nerveus system. Adv Exp Med Bio 1992; 318: 211-229.
  • 3. Masters C. Omega-3 fatty acids and the peroxisome. Mol Cell Biochem 1996; 165 (2): 83-93
  • 4. Salem N Jr, Litman B, Kim HY, Gawrish K. Mechanisms of docosahexaenoic acid in the nervous system. Lipids 2001; 36(9): 945-959.
  • 5. Stone NJ. Fish comsumption, fish oil, lipids and coronary heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 65: 1083-1086.
  • 6. Ramesh G, Das UN. Effects of free fatty acids on two-stage skin carcinogenesis in mice. Canser Lett 1996; 100(1-2): 199-209.
  • 7. Yılmaz HR, Songur A, Ozyurt B, Zararsız I, Sarsılmaz M. The effects of n – 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by gavage on some metabolic enyzmes of rat liver. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2004; 71 (2): 131-135.
  • 8. Saravanan P, Davidson NC, Schmidt EB, Calder PC. Cardiovascular effects of marine omega – 3 fatty acids. The Lanced 2010; 376 (9740): 540-550.
  • 9. Burns CP, Spector AA. Biochemical effects of lipid on canser therapy. J Nutr Biochem 1994; 5: 114-123.
  • 10. Aranson WJ, Glaspy JA, Reddy ST, Reese D, Heper D, Bagga D. Modulation of omega-3/ omega-6 polyunsaturated ratios with dietary fish oils in men with prostate cancer. Urology 2001; 58(2): 283-288.
  • 11. Rose DP, Connoly JM. Omega-3 fatty acids as chemopreventive agents. Pharmacol Ther 1999; 83(3): 217-244.
  • 12. Tapiero H, Ba GN, CouvreurP, Tew KD. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and eicosanoids in human health and pathologies. Biomed Pharmacother 2002; 56(5): 215-222.
  • 13. Din JN, Newby DE, Flapan AD. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease fishing for a natural treatment. Br Med J 2004; 328(7430): 330-335.
  • 14. Watanabe A, Saito S, Tsuchida T, Higughi K, OKita M. Low plasma levels of docosahexaenoic acid in patients with liver cirrhosis and its correction with a polyunsatured fatty acid-enriched soft oil capsule. Appl Nutr Invest 1999; 15(4): 284-288.
  • 15. Young C, Martin A. Omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders. An overview. Rev Bras Psiquiatr 2003; 25(3): 184-187.
  • 16. Iraz M, Erdoğan H, Özyurt B, Özuğurlu F, Özgöçmen S, Fadıllıoğlu E. Omega-3 essential fatty acid supplementation and erythrocyte oxidant/antioxidant status in rats. Ann Clin Lab Sci 2005; 35(2): 169-173.
  • 17. Kigugawa K, Yasuhara H, Ando K, Koyama K, Hiramoto K, Suzuki M. Protective effect of supplementation of fish oil with high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids against oxidative stress-induced DNA damage of rat liver in vivo. J Agric Food Chem 2003; 51(20): 6073-6079.
  • 18. Sarsılmaz M, Songur A, Özyurt H, et al. Potential role of dietary ω-3 essential fatty acids on some oxidant/ antioxidant parameters in rats’ corpus striatum. Prostagl Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2003; 69(4): 253-259.
  • 19. Songur A, Sarsılmaz M, Söğüt S, et al. Hypotalamic superoxide dismutase, xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde in rats fed with fish ω-3 fatty acids. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2004; 28(4): 693-698.
  • 20. Wang HH, Hung TM, Wei J, Chiang AN. Fish oil increases antioxidant enzyme activities in macrophages and reduces atherosclerotic lesions in apo E-knockout mice. Cardiovasc Res 2004; 61: 169-176.
  • 21. El-Badry AM, Moritz W, Contaldo C, Tian Y, Graf R, Clavien PA. Prevention of reperfusion injury and microcirculatory failure in macrosteatotic Mouse liver by omega-3 fatty acids. Hepatology 2007; 45(4): 855-863.
  • 22. Marsman HA, De Graaf W, Heger M, et al. Hepatic regeneration and functional recovery following partial liver resection in an experimental model of hepatic steatosis treated with omega-3 fatty acids. Br. J. Surg 2013; 100(5): 674-683.
  • 23. Di Minno MND, Russolillo A, Lupoli R, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. World J Gastroenterol 2012; 18(41): 5839-5847.
  • 24. Calviello G, Serini S (Editor). Dietary Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cancer. Springer, London, UK 2010.
  • 25. Shaikh IAA, Brown I, Wahle KWJ, Heys SD. Enhancing cytotoxic therapies for breast and prostate cancers with polyunsaturated fatty acids. Nutrition and Cancer 2010; 62 (3): 284-296.
  • 26. Mayer K, Merfels M, Muhly-Reinholz M, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids suppress monocyte adhesion to human endothelial cells: role of endothelial PAF generation. Am J Physiol 2002; 283(2): 811-818.
  • 27. Mayer K, Meyer S, Reinholz-Muhly M, et al. Short-time infusion of fish oil-based lipid emulsions, approved for parenteral nutrition, reduces monocyte proinflammatory cytokine generation and adhesive interaction with endothelium in humans. J Immunol 2003; 171(9): 4837-4843.
  • 28. Rallidis LS, Paschos G, Liakos GK, Velissaridou AH, Anastasiadis G, Zampelas A. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid decreases C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A and interleukin-6 in dyslipidaemic patients. Atherosclerosis 2003; 167(2): 237-242.
  • 29. Park Y, Harris WS. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation accelerates chylomicron triglyceride clearance. J Lipid Res 2003; 44(3): 455-463.
  • 30. Sun Y, Oberley LW, Li Y. A simple method for clinical assay of superoxide dismutase. Clin Chem 1988; 34(3): 497-500.
  • 31. Esterbauer H, Cheeseman KH. Determination of aldehydic lipid peroxidation products: malonaldehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Methods Enzymol 1990; 186: 407-421.
  • 32. Paglia DE, Valentine WN. Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. J Lab Clin Med 1967; 70(1): 158-169.
  • 33. Miyasaca CK, Alves de Souza JA, Torres RP, Filho JM, Lajolo FM, Curi R. Effect of the administration of fish oil by gavage on activities of antioxidant enzymes of rat lympohoid organs. Gen Pharmacol 1998; 30 (5): 759-762.
  • 34. Kuş MA. Sıçanlarda formaldehit maruziyetiyle testislerde oluşan morfolojik değişiklikler üzerine melatonin hormonunun koruyucu etkisi. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Afyon: Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Anatomi Bölümü, Afyon 2007.
  • 35. Öztürk F. Apopitoz. İnönü Üniveristesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi 2002; 9(2): 143-148.
  • 36. Ergin M. Apoptosis Arşiv 2002; 11: 495-504.
  • 37. Akyol Ö. Beyin Tümörlerinde doku SOD, CAT ve GSH – Px aktiviteleri. Uzmanlık Tezi Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Ankara 1994.
  • 38. Kamal AA, Gomaa A, El Khafif M, Hammad AS. Plasma lipid peroxides among workers exposed to silica or asbestos dust. Environ Res 1989; 49(2): 173-180.
  • 39. Pompella A. Biochemistry and histochemistry of oxidant stress and lipid peroxidation. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 1997; 67(5): 289-297.
  • 40. Kanter M, Coskun O, Korkmaz A, et al. Effects of nigella sativa on oxidative stress and beta – cell damage in streptozotocin – induced diabetic rats. The Anatomical Record. Part A, Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular and Evalutionary Biology 2004; 279(1): 685-691.
  • 41. Song C, Zang XY, Manku M. Increased phospholipase A2 activity and inflammatory responce but decreased nerve growth factor expression in the olfactory bulbectomized rat model of depression: effects of chronic ethyl – eicosapentaenoate treatment. J Neurosci 2009; 29(1): 14-22.
  • 42. Storlien LH, Higgins JA, Thomas TCI. Diet composition and insulin action in animal models. Br J Nutr 2000; 83: 85-90.
  • 43. Karapehlivan M, Ogun M, Kaya I, Ozen H, Deveci HA, Karaman M. Protective effect of omega-3 fatty acid against mercury chloride intoxication in mice. J Trace Elem Med Bio 2014; 28 (1): 94-99.
  • 44. Shaaban AA, Shaker ME, Zalata KR, El – kashef HA, Ibrahim TM. Modulation of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress, injury and fibrosis by olmesartan and omega-3. Chem Biol Interact 2014; 25: 81-91.
  • 45. Bansal AK, Trivedi R, Soni GL, Bhatnagar D. Hepatic and renal oxidative stress in acute toxicity of Nnitrosodiethylamine. Indian J Exp Biol 2000; 38(9): 916-920.
  • 46. Ha WS, Kim CK, Song SH, Kang CB. Study on mechanism of multistep hepatotumorigenesis in rat: Development of hepatotumorigenesis. J Vet Sci 2001; 2(1): 53-58.
  • 47. Limdi JK, Hyde GM. Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests. Postgrad Med J 2003; 79(932): 307-312.
  • 48. Hatzitolios A, Savopoulos C, Lazaraki G, et al. Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids, atorvastatin and orlistat in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with dyslipidemia. Indian J Gastroenterol 2004; 23(4): 131-134.
  • 49. Alwayn IP, Gura K, Nose V, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation prevents hepatic steatosis in a murine model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Pediatr Res 2005; 57(3): 445-452.
  • 50. Abdou HM, Hassan MA. Protective Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid against Lead Acetate-Induced Toxicity in Liver and Kidney of Female Rats. Biomed Res Int 2014; 2014: 435857.
  • 51. Marsman HA, Heger M, Kloek JJ, Nienhuis SL, ten Kate FJ, van Gulik TM. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce hepatic steatosis and consequently attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury following partial hepatectomy in rats. Dig Liver Dis 2011; 43(12): 984-990.
  • 52. Iwasaki W, Kume M, Kudo K, et al. Changes in the fatty acid composition of the liver with the administration of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the effects on warm ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat liver. Shock 2010; 33(3): 306-314.
  • 53. Zuniga J, Venegas F, Villarreal M, et al. Protection against in vivo liver ischemia-reperfusion injury by n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the rat. Radic Res 2010; 44(8): 854-863.

POSITIVE EFFECTS OF OMEGA - 3 FATTY ACIDS ON A GROUP OF METABOLIC ENZYME ACTIVITY IN RAT LIVER

Year 2016, Volume 5, Issue 2, 62 - 68, 31.08.2016

Abstract



INTRODUCTION: In this research, positive effects of omega - 3 fatty acids on activities of some metabolic enzymes in rat liver were investigated at biochemical level.


METHODS: In the study a total of 16 Wistar - Albino male rats were divided into two groups. Physiological serum was injected to the rats in the control group (n=8) with intragastric gavage method. 400 mg/kg omega - 3 fatty acids, body weight per dose, was administered to rats in the experimental group (n=8) by intragastric gavage method again. After six weeks of treatments all animals were killed by decapitation and liver tissue samples were taken. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activities were detected in tissue samples. In addition to liver tissue, blood of the animals was also collected and aspartade aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were detected in serum samples.


RESULTS: MDA level in omega - 3 fatty acid treated group was reduced in a statistically significant manner when compared with the control group rat liver tissue samples. The increase İn SOD and GSH-Px enzyme activities were also found statistically significant in this group when compared with the control group. Furthermore, the AST (U/L) and ALT (U/L) enzyme levels in serum of experimental group rats were significantly lower than control animals. No significant difference was detected on ALT (U/L) enzyme levels between two groups.


DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: In this study we conducted on rats, it has been shown that omega - 3 fatty acids prevent oxidative damage and strengthen the antioxidant system in rat liver tissue.


References

  • 1. Nordoy A. Is there a rational us efor n-3 fatty acids (fish oils) in clinical medicine?. Drugs 1991; 42(3): 331-342.
  • 2. Bourre JM, Bonneil M, Chaudiere J, et al. Structural and functional importance of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in the nerveus system. Adv Exp Med Bio 1992; 318: 211-229.
  • 3. Masters C. Omega-3 fatty acids and the peroxisome. Mol Cell Biochem 1996; 165 (2): 83-93
  • 4. Salem N Jr, Litman B, Kim HY, Gawrish K. Mechanisms of docosahexaenoic acid in the nervous system. Lipids 2001; 36(9): 945-959.
  • 5. Stone NJ. Fish comsumption, fish oil, lipids and coronary heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 65: 1083-1086.
  • 6. Ramesh G, Das UN. Effects of free fatty acids on two-stage skin carcinogenesis in mice. Canser Lett 1996; 100(1-2): 199-209.
  • 7. Yılmaz HR, Songur A, Ozyurt B, Zararsız I, Sarsılmaz M. The effects of n – 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by gavage on some metabolic enyzmes of rat liver. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2004; 71 (2): 131-135.
  • 8. Saravanan P, Davidson NC, Schmidt EB, Calder PC. Cardiovascular effects of marine omega – 3 fatty acids. The Lanced 2010; 376 (9740): 540-550.
  • 9. Burns CP, Spector AA. Biochemical effects of lipid on canser therapy. J Nutr Biochem 1994; 5: 114-123.
  • 10. Aranson WJ, Glaspy JA, Reddy ST, Reese D, Heper D, Bagga D. Modulation of omega-3/ omega-6 polyunsaturated ratios with dietary fish oils in men with prostate cancer. Urology 2001; 58(2): 283-288.
  • 11. Rose DP, Connoly JM. Omega-3 fatty acids as chemopreventive agents. Pharmacol Ther 1999; 83(3): 217-244.
  • 12. Tapiero H, Ba GN, CouvreurP, Tew KD. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and eicosanoids in human health and pathologies. Biomed Pharmacother 2002; 56(5): 215-222.
  • 13. Din JN, Newby DE, Flapan AD. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease fishing for a natural treatment. Br Med J 2004; 328(7430): 330-335.
  • 14. Watanabe A, Saito S, Tsuchida T, Higughi K, OKita M. Low plasma levels of docosahexaenoic acid in patients with liver cirrhosis and its correction with a polyunsatured fatty acid-enriched soft oil capsule. Appl Nutr Invest 1999; 15(4): 284-288.
  • 15. Young C, Martin A. Omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders. An overview. Rev Bras Psiquiatr 2003; 25(3): 184-187.
  • 16. Iraz M, Erdoğan H, Özyurt B, Özuğurlu F, Özgöçmen S, Fadıllıoğlu E. Omega-3 essential fatty acid supplementation and erythrocyte oxidant/antioxidant status in rats. Ann Clin Lab Sci 2005; 35(2): 169-173.
  • 17. Kigugawa K, Yasuhara H, Ando K, Koyama K, Hiramoto K, Suzuki M. Protective effect of supplementation of fish oil with high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids against oxidative stress-induced DNA damage of rat liver in vivo. J Agric Food Chem 2003; 51(20): 6073-6079.
  • 18. Sarsılmaz M, Songur A, Özyurt H, et al. Potential role of dietary ω-3 essential fatty acids on some oxidant/ antioxidant parameters in rats’ corpus striatum. Prostagl Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2003; 69(4): 253-259.
  • 19. Songur A, Sarsılmaz M, Söğüt S, et al. Hypotalamic superoxide dismutase, xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde in rats fed with fish ω-3 fatty acids. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2004; 28(4): 693-698.
  • 20. Wang HH, Hung TM, Wei J, Chiang AN. Fish oil increases antioxidant enzyme activities in macrophages and reduces atherosclerotic lesions in apo E-knockout mice. Cardiovasc Res 2004; 61: 169-176.
  • 21. El-Badry AM, Moritz W, Contaldo C, Tian Y, Graf R, Clavien PA. Prevention of reperfusion injury and microcirculatory failure in macrosteatotic Mouse liver by omega-3 fatty acids. Hepatology 2007; 45(4): 855-863.
  • 22. Marsman HA, De Graaf W, Heger M, et al. Hepatic regeneration and functional recovery following partial liver resection in an experimental model of hepatic steatosis treated with omega-3 fatty acids. Br. J. Surg 2013; 100(5): 674-683.
  • 23. Di Minno MND, Russolillo A, Lupoli R, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. World J Gastroenterol 2012; 18(41): 5839-5847.
  • 24. Calviello G, Serini S (Editor). Dietary Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cancer. Springer, London, UK 2010.
  • 25. Shaikh IAA, Brown I, Wahle KWJ, Heys SD. Enhancing cytotoxic therapies for breast and prostate cancers with polyunsaturated fatty acids. Nutrition and Cancer 2010; 62 (3): 284-296.
  • 26. Mayer K, Merfels M, Muhly-Reinholz M, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids suppress monocyte adhesion to human endothelial cells: role of endothelial PAF generation. Am J Physiol 2002; 283(2): 811-818.
  • 27. Mayer K, Meyer S, Reinholz-Muhly M, et al. Short-time infusion of fish oil-based lipid emulsions, approved for parenteral nutrition, reduces monocyte proinflammatory cytokine generation and adhesive interaction with endothelium in humans. J Immunol 2003; 171(9): 4837-4843.
  • 28. Rallidis LS, Paschos G, Liakos GK, Velissaridou AH, Anastasiadis G, Zampelas A. Dietary alpha-linolenic acid decreases C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A and interleukin-6 in dyslipidaemic patients. Atherosclerosis 2003; 167(2): 237-242.
  • 29. Park Y, Harris WS. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation accelerates chylomicron triglyceride clearance. J Lipid Res 2003; 44(3): 455-463.
  • 30. Sun Y, Oberley LW, Li Y. A simple method for clinical assay of superoxide dismutase. Clin Chem 1988; 34(3): 497-500.
  • 31. Esterbauer H, Cheeseman KH. Determination of aldehydic lipid peroxidation products: malonaldehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal. Methods Enzymol 1990; 186: 407-421.
  • 32. Paglia DE, Valentine WN. Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. J Lab Clin Med 1967; 70(1): 158-169.
  • 33. Miyasaca CK, Alves de Souza JA, Torres RP, Filho JM, Lajolo FM, Curi R. Effect of the administration of fish oil by gavage on activities of antioxidant enzymes of rat lympohoid organs. Gen Pharmacol 1998; 30 (5): 759-762.
  • 34. Kuş MA. Sıçanlarda formaldehit maruziyetiyle testislerde oluşan morfolojik değişiklikler üzerine melatonin hormonunun koruyucu etkisi. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Afyon: Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Anatomi Bölümü, Afyon 2007.
  • 35. Öztürk F. Apopitoz. İnönü Üniveristesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi 2002; 9(2): 143-148.
  • 36. Ergin M. Apoptosis Arşiv 2002; 11: 495-504.
  • 37. Akyol Ö. Beyin Tümörlerinde doku SOD, CAT ve GSH – Px aktiviteleri. Uzmanlık Tezi Ankara Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Ankara 1994.
  • 38. Kamal AA, Gomaa A, El Khafif M, Hammad AS. Plasma lipid peroxides among workers exposed to silica or asbestos dust. Environ Res 1989; 49(2): 173-180.
  • 39. Pompella A. Biochemistry and histochemistry of oxidant stress and lipid peroxidation. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 1997; 67(5): 289-297.
  • 40. Kanter M, Coskun O, Korkmaz A, et al. Effects of nigella sativa on oxidative stress and beta – cell damage in streptozotocin – induced diabetic rats. The Anatomical Record. Part A, Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular and Evalutionary Biology 2004; 279(1): 685-691.
  • 41. Song C, Zang XY, Manku M. Increased phospholipase A2 activity and inflammatory responce but decreased nerve growth factor expression in the olfactory bulbectomized rat model of depression: effects of chronic ethyl – eicosapentaenoate treatment. J Neurosci 2009; 29(1): 14-22.
  • 42. Storlien LH, Higgins JA, Thomas TCI. Diet composition and insulin action in animal models. Br J Nutr 2000; 83: 85-90.
  • 43. Karapehlivan M, Ogun M, Kaya I, Ozen H, Deveci HA, Karaman M. Protective effect of omega-3 fatty acid against mercury chloride intoxication in mice. J Trace Elem Med Bio 2014; 28 (1): 94-99.
  • 44. Shaaban AA, Shaker ME, Zalata KR, El – kashef HA, Ibrahim TM. Modulation of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress, injury and fibrosis by olmesartan and omega-3. Chem Biol Interact 2014; 25: 81-91.
  • 45. Bansal AK, Trivedi R, Soni GL, Bhatnagar D. Hepatic and renal oxidative stress in acute toxicity of Nnitrosodiethylamine. Indian J Exp Biol 2000; 38(9): 916-920.
  • 46. Ha WS, Kim CK, Song SH, Kang CB. Study on mechanism of multistep hepatotumorigenesis in rat: Development of hepatotumorigenesis. J Vet Sci 2001; 2(1): 53-58.
  • 47. Limdi JK, Hyde GM. Evaluation of abnormal liver function tests. Postgrad Med J 2003; 79(932): 307-312.
  • 48. Hatzitolios A, Savopoulos C, Lazaraki G, et al. Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids, atorvastatin and orlistat in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with dyslipidemia. Indian J Gastroenterol 2004; 23(4): 131-134.
  • 49. Alwayn IP, Gura K, Nose V, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation prevents hepatic steatosis in a murine model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Pediatr Res 2005; 57(3): 445-452.
  • 50. Abdou HM, Hassan MA. Protective Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid against Lead Acetate-Induced Toxicity in Liver and Kidney of Female Rats. Biomed Res Int 2014; 2014: 435857.
  • 51. Marsman HA, Heger M, Kloek JJ, Nienhuis SL, ten Kate FJ, van Gulik TM. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce hepatic steatosis and consequently attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury following partial hepatectomy in rats. Dig Liver Dis 2011; 43(12): 984-990.
  • 52. Iwasaki W, Kume M, Kudo K, et al. Changes in the fatty acid composition of the liver with the administration of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the effects on warm ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat liver. Shock 2010; 33(3): 306-314.
  • 53. Zuniga J, Venegas F, Villarreal M, et al. Protection against in vivo liver ischemia-reperfusion injury by n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the rat. Radic Res 2010; 44(8): 854-863.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Burak GÜLCEN
Balıkesir Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Anatomi Anabilim Dalı, Balıkesir


Emrah ÖZCAN This is me
Balıkesir Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Anatomi Anabilim Dalı, Balıkesir


Murat Abdulgani KUŞ This is me
Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi, Sağlık Yüksek Okulu, Burdur


Ömür KARACA SAYGILI This is me
Balıkesir Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Anatomi Anabilim Dalı, Balıkesir


Dilara KAMAN This is me
Fırat Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Tıbbi Biyokimya Anabilim Dalı, Elazığ


Murat ÖGETÜRK This is me
Fırat Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Anatomi Anabilim Dalı, Elazığ


İlter KUŞ This is me
Balıkesir Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Anatomi Anabilim Dalı, Balıkesir

Publication Date August 31, 2016
Application Date January 5, 2016
Acceptance Date March 2, 2016
Published in Issue Year 2016, Volume 5, Issue 2

Cite

APA Gülcen, B. , Özcan, E. , Kuş, M. A. , Karaca Saygılı, Ö. , Kaman, D. , Ögetürk, M. & Kuş, İ. (2016). OMEGA – 3 YAĞ ASİTLERİNİN SIÇAN KARACİĞER DOKUSUNDA BİR GRUP METABOLİK ENZİM AKTİVİTESİ ÜZERİNE OLUMLU ETKİLERİ . Balıkesir Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi , 5 (2) , 62-68 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/balikesirsbd/issue/38438/452574

Balıkesir Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi - BAUN Sağ Bil Derg Online-ISSN: 2147-2238 - Copyright holder Balıkesir  Health Sciences Journal-BAUN Health Sci J

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