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Dünya Çam Ormanlarını Tehdit Eden Yabancı İstilacı Tür; Fusarium circinatum

Year 2017, Volume 1, Issue 1, 39 - 45, 10.07.2017

Abstract

Yabancı istilacı türler, doğal yayılış alanlarının dışında bulunan ekosistemleri işgal ederek biyolojik çeşitliliği tehdit eden türlerdir. Ekosistemlerin fonksiyonlarını ve doğal bileşenlerini değiştiren bu türlerden, özellikle tohum ve bitki materyali ile taşınanlar oldukça dikkat çekmektedir. Tohum ile taşınan patojenler, hastalıkların ülke bazında ve ülkeler arası yayılışında önemli bir role sahiptir. Bu tehlikeli patojenler arasında çok sayıda Fusarium türü bulunmaktadır.

Fusarium circinatum fidanlıklarda çökertene, ormanlarda ise çam şıralı kanserine neden olan, çam türlerinin en tehlikeli patojenlerinden birisidir. Bu fungus, çam tohumlarını enfekte ederek, tohum ticareti yoluyla kolaylıkla uzun mesafelere yayılış gösterebilmektedir. Doğal ve plantasyon çam ormanları için önemli bir tehtid oluşturan bu türün, bugüne kadar 5 farklı kıtada yayılış gösterdiği bilinmektedir. Pseudotsuga menziesii ile birlikte en az 57 Pinus türünün çam şıralı kanserine karşı çeşitli derecelerde duyarlı olduğu bildirilmiştir. F. circinatum, dünya genelinde çok sayıda ülkede karantina organizması olarak listelenmiştir. Avrupa'da, karantina patojeni olarak düzenlemeye yönelik önerilen zararlıların bulunduğu Avrupa ve Akdeniz Bitki Sağlığını Koruma Örgütü (EPPO) A2 listesinde yer almaktadır. Bunun yanı sıra Türkiye Bitki Karantina Yönetmeliği Ek-2A’ya göre, ülkede mevcut olmadığı halde karantina listesine tabi tutulan bir orman patojenidir.

Dünyanın çeşitli bölgelerinde bulunan çam ormanlarında neden olduğu büyük ölçekli kayıplardan dolayı bu mikroorganizmanın önemi gün geçtikçe artmaktadır. Yabancı istilacı türler ülkeye bir kere giriş yaptıktan sonra ekosistemde geri dönüşü olmayan zararlara yol açabilmekte dolayısıyla ülke ekonomisine büyük zararlar verebilmektedir. Bu nedenle, F. circinatum ve diğer tüm yabancı istilacı türlere karşı kontrol önlemleri geç kalınmadan alınmalı ve tüm dünyada uygulanmalıdır. Patojenin epidemiyolojisini ve ekolojisini ayrıntılı bir şekilde anlamak patojenle mücadelede önemli bir önkoşuldur. Tüm bu nedenlerden dolayı, bu çalışmada F. circinatum ile ilgili geniş kapsamlı bir literatür taraması gerçekleştirilmiştir.

References

  • Bragança, H., Diogo, E., Moniz, F., Amaro, P. (2009). First report of pitch canker on pines caused by Fusarium circinatum in Portugal. Plant Disease, 93(10), 1079-1079.
  • Burgess, T., Wingfield, M.J. (2002). Quarantine is important in restricting the spread of exotic seed-borne pathogens in the Southern Hemisphere. International Forestry Review, 4(1), 56-65.
  • Carlucci, A., Colatruglio, L., Frisullo, S. (2007). First report of pitch canker caused by Fusarium circinatum on Pinus halepensis and Pinus pinea in Apulia (Southern Italy). Plant Disease, 91(12), 1683–1683.
  • Cilliers, A.J., Swart, W.J., Wingfield, M.J. (1993). A Review of Lasiodiplodia the obrome with particular reference to ıts occurrence on coniferous seeds. South African Forestry Journal, 166(1), 47-52.
  • Coutinho, T.A., Steenkamp, E. T., Mongwaketsi, K., Wilmot, M., Wingfield, M.J. (2007). First Outbreak of Pitch Canker in a South African Pine Plantation. Australasian Plant Pathology, 36(3), 256–261.
  • Desprez-Loustau M.L. (2009). The alien fungi of Europe. Drake JA, ed. Handbook of alien species in Europe, DAISIE. Invading nature, series in invasion ecology, 3, 15-28, Berlin, Germany.
  • Dreaden, T.J., Smith, J.A., Barnard, E.L., Blakeslee, G. (2012). Development and evaluation of a real-time pcr seed lot screening method for Fusarium circinatum, Causal Agent of Pitch Canker Disease. Forest Pathology, 42(5), 405–411.
  • Dwinell, L.D., Barrows-Broaddus, J., Kuhlman, E.G. (1985). Pitch canker: a disease complex of Southern pines. Plant Disease, 69, 270–276.
  • Dwinell L.D. (1998). Global distribution of the pitch canker fungus. Devey ME, Matheson AC, Gordon TR (eds) Current and potential impacts of pitch canker in radiata pine, proceedings of the IMPACT Monterey workshop, California, USA, CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products Report No. 112. CSIRO, Canberra, 54–57.
  • Eschen, R., Holmes, T., Smith, D., Roques, A., Santini, A., Kenis, M. (2014). Likelihood of establishment of tree pests and diseases based on their worldwide occurrence as determined by hierarchical cluster analysis. Forest Ecology and Management, 315, 103-111.
  • EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). (2006). First report of Gibberella circinata in France. EPPO Reporting Service 2006-05 no:104. http://www.eppo.int/PUBLICATIONS/reporting/reporting_service.htm (Erişimtarihi: 01.05.2017).
  • Everett, R.A. (2000). Patterns and pathways of biological invasions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 15(5), 177-178.
  • Filip, G.M., Morrell, J.J. (1996). Importing pacific rim wood: pest risks to domestic resources. Journal of Forestry, 94(10), 22-26.
  • Fisher, M.C., Henk, A.D., Briggs, C.J., Brownstein, J.S., Madoff, L.C., McCraw, S.H., Gurr, S.J. (2012). Emerging fungal threats to animal, plants and ecosystems. Nature, 484, 186–194.
  • Fourie, G., Wingfield, M.J., Wingfield, B.D., Jones, N.B., Morris, A.R., Steenkamp, E.T. (2014). Culture-ındependent detection and quantification of Fusarium circinatum in a pine-producing seedling nursery, southern forests, A Journal of Forest Science, 76(3), 137-143.
  • Fox, J. W., Wood, D. L., Koehler, C. S., O’keefe, S. T. (1991). Engraver beetles (Scolytidae: Ips species) as vectors of the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans. The Canadian Entomologist, 123(6), 1355-1367.
  • Ganley, R. J., Watt, M. S., Manning, L., Iturritxa, E. (2009). A global climatic risk assessment of pitch canker disease. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 39(11), 2246-2256.
  • Garbelotto, M., Smith, T., Schweigkofler, W. (2008). Variation in rates of spore deposition of Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pine pitch canker, over a 12-month-period at two locations in northern California. Phytopathology, 98(1), 137–143.
  • Geiser, D.M., Jiménez-Gasco, M., Kang, S., Makalowska, I., Veeraraghavan, N., Ward, T.J., Zhang, N., Kuldau, G.A., O’Donnell, K. (2004). FUSARIUM-ID v. 1.0: A DNA sequence database for Identifying Fusarium”, European Journal of Plant Pathology, 110, 473–479.
  • Hepting, G.H., Roth, E.R. (1953). Host relations and spread of the pine pitch canker disease. Phytopathology, 43, 475.
  • Hoover, K., Wood, D. L., Storer, A. J., Fox, J. W., Bros, W. E. (1996). Transmission of the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, to Monterey pine, Pinus radiata, by cone-and twig-infesting beetles. The Canadian Entomologist, 128(06), 981-994.
  • Hulme, P.E. (2009). Trade, transport and trouble: managing ınvasive species pathways in an era of globalization. Journal of Applied Ecology, 46(1), 10-18.
  • Ioos, R., Fourier, C., Lancu, G., Gordon, T.R. (2009). Sensitive detection of Fusarium circinatum in pine seeds by combining an enrichment pprocedure with real-time PCR using dual-labelled probe chemistry. Phytopathology, 99(5), 582–590.
  • Kamra, S.K. (1989). Improving the forest seed situation in some African countries. Turnbull, J. W. (Ed.) Tropical Tree Seed Research. Gympie, Australia.
  • Landeras, E., García, P., Fernández, Y., Braña, M., Fernández-Alonso, O., Méndez-Lodos, S., Armengol, J. (2005). Outbreak of pitch canker caused by Fusarium circinatum on Pinus spp. in Northern Spain. Plant Disease, 89(9), 1015-1015.
  • Liebhold, A.M., Macdonald, W.L., Bergdahl, D., Mastro, V.C. (1995). Invasion by exotic forest pests- a threat to forest ecosystems. Forest Science, 41(30), 1-49.
  • McCain, A.H., Koehler, C.S., Tjosvold, S.A. (1987). Pitch canker threatens California pines. California agriculture, 41(11-12), 22-23.
  • Mitchell, R. G., Steenkamp, E. T., Coutinho, T. A., Wingfield, M. J. (2011). The pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum: implications for South African forestry. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science, 73(1), 1-13.
  • Mooney, H.A., Hobbs, R.J. (2000). Invasive species in a changing world. Island Press, Washington, DC.
  • Möykkynen, T., Capretti, P., Pukkala, T. (2015). Modelling the potential spread of Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pitch canker in Europe. Annals of Forest Science, 72(2), 169-181.
  • Orwig, D.A. (2002). Ecosystem to regional impacts of ıntroduced pests and pathogens: historical context, questions and ıssues. Journal of Biogeography, 29(10-11), 1471–1474.
  • Pejchar, L., Mooney, H.A. (2009). Invasive species, ecosystem services and human well-being. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 24(9), 497-504.
  • Pimentel, D., Lach, L., Zuniga, R., Morrison, D. (2000). Environmental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the United States. BioScience, 50(1), 53-65.
  • Pimentel, D. (2002). Biological Invasions: economic and environmental costs of alien plant. Animal, and Microbe Species. CRC Press.
  • Pimentel, D., Zuniga, R., Morrison, D. (2005). Update on the Environmental and economic costs associated with alien-ınvasive species in the United States. Ecological Economics, 52(3), 273-288.
  • Pfenning L.H., Costa S.D.S., Melo M.P.D., Costa H., Ventura J.A., Auer C.G., Santos A.F.D. (2014). First report and characterization of Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pitch canker in Brazil. Trop Plant Pathology, 39(3), 210–216.
  • Ramsfield, T.D. Dobbie, K. Dick, M.A., Ball, R.D. (2008). Polymerase chain reaction-based detection of Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pitch canker disease. Molecular Ecology Research, 8(6), 1270–1273.
  • Richardson, M.J. (1990). An annotated list of seed-borne diseases. (4th edn.). International Seed Testing Association, Zurich.
  • Santini, A., Ghelardini, L., De Pace, C., Desprez-Loustau, M. L., Capretti, P., Chandelier, A., Cech, T., Chira, D., Diamandis, S., Gaitniekis, T., Hantula, J., Holdenrieder, O., Jankovsky, L., Jung, T., Jurc, D., Kirisits, T., Kunca, A., Lygis, V., Malecka, M., Marcais, B., Schmitz, S., Schumacher, J., Solheim, H., Solla, A., Szabo, I., Tsopelas, P., Vannini, A., Vettraino, A., Webber, J., Woodward, S., Stenlid, J. (2013). Biogeographical Patterns and Determinants of Invasion by Forest Pathogens in Europe. New Phytologist, 197(1), 238–250.
  • Schweigkofler, W. O’Donnell, K., Garbelotto, M. (2004). Detection and quantification of airborne conidia of fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pine pitch canker, from two california sites by using a real-time pcr approach combined with a simple spore trapping method. Applied Environmetal Microbiology, 70, 3512-3520.
  • Singh, P., Mittal, R.K. (1989). Influence of seed-borne fungi on the nutrient composition and growth of conifer seedlings. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 19(2), 65-77.
  • Singh, P., Mathur, S.B. (1993). Disease problems of forest tree deeds: diagnosis and management. In: Somé, L. M. & de Kam, M. (Ed.) Proceedings of IUFRO Symposium on Tree Seed Problems, with Special Reference to Africa. Project Group P.2.04.00 - Seed Problems. Ogadougou, Burkina Faso, November, 23 - 28.
  • Storer A.J., Gordon T.R., Wood D.L., Bonello P. (1997). Pitch canker disease of pines: current and future impacts. Journal of Forestry, 95(12), 21–26.
  • Storer, A.J., Gordon, T.R., Clarck, S.L. (1998). Association of the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans f.sp. pini with monterey pine seeds and seedlings in California. Plant Pathology, 47, 649-656.
  • Sutherland, J.R., Diekmann, M., Berjak, P. (2002). Forest Tree Seed Health. IPGRI Technical Bulletin, (6).
  • Viljoen, A., Wingfield, M.J., Marasas, W.F.O. (1994). First report of Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini on seedlings in South Africa. Plant Disease, 78(3), 309-312.
  • Vitousek, P.M., D’Antonio, C.M., Loope, L.L., Rejmanek, M., Westbrooks, R. (1997). Introduced species: a significant component of human caused global change. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 21, 1-16.
  • Watt, M.S., Ganley, R.J., Kriticos, D.J., Manning, L.K. (2011). Dothistroma needle blight and pitch canker: the current and future potential distribution of two important diseases of Pinus species. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 41(2), 412-424.
  • Westphal, M.I., Browne, M., MacKinnon, K., Noble, I. (2008). The link between ınternational trade and the global distribution of invasive alien species. Biological Invasions, 10(4), 391-398.
  • Wingfield, M.J., Jacobs, A., Coutinho, T.A., Ahumada, R., Wingfield, B.D. (2002). First report of the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum, on pines in Chile. Plant Pathology, 51(3), 397-397.
  • Wingfield, M.J., Hammerbacher, A., Ganley, R.J., Steenkamp, E.T., Gordon, T.R., Wingfield, B.D., Coutinho, T.A. (2008). Pitch canker caused by Fusarium circinatum—a growing threat to pine plantations and forests worldwide. Australasian Plant Pathology, 37(4), 319-334.
  • URL-1, (2017). COST Action FP1406: Pine pitch canker strategies for management of Gibberella circinata in greenhouses and forests (PINESTRENGTH). http://www.pinestrength.eu/ (Erişim Tarihi: 05.05.2017).

The Invasive Alien Species Threating The World Pine Forests; Fusarium circinatum

Year 2017, Volume 1, Issue 1, 39 - 45, 10.07.2017

Abstract

Invasive alien species are species that threaten biological diversity by occupying ecosystems outside of natural spreading areas. Among these invasive alien species that change the functions and natural components of ecosystems, especially the ones that are carried by seed and other plant material draw great attention. In pathogens, carried by seeds, have a crucial role in spreading the diseases both domestically and across country borders. Among the important pathogens carried by seeds are a large number of Fusarium species.

Fusarium circinatum is one of the most dangerous pathogen of Pinus species, causing damping-off in nurseries and pitch canker in forests. This aggressive fungus may infect pine seeds and, therefore, can easily be spread long distances by the seed trade. It is a very significant threat to natural and planted pine forests, and to date it has invaded countries across five continents. At least 57 species of Pinus along with Pseudotsuga menziesii are susceptible to pitch canker to varying degrees. F. circinatum has recently been listed as a quarantine organism in numerous countries throughout the World. In Europe, it is currently included in the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) A2 list of pests recommended for regulation as quarantine pests. In addition, according to Regulation on Plant Quarantine Annex-2A, it is a forest pathogen subject to a quarantine list when it is not present in the country.

The importance of this microorganism is increasing day by day due to the large-scale losses to pine forestry in various parts of the World. Once alien invasive pests enter the country, they may cause irreversible damage; hence, they set government back significant amount of money. For this reason, control measures against F. circinatum and all other invasive species should be taken and carried out without delay in the world. A thorough understanding of the epidemiology and ecology of the causal agent is an important prerequisite for managing this pathogen. In this study, an extensive search of literature dealing with F. circinatum was performed.

References

  • Bragança, H., Diogo, E., Moniz, F., Amaro, P. (2009). First report of pitch canker on pines caused by Fusarium circinatum in Portugal. Plant Disease, 93(10), 1079-1079.
  • Burgess, T., Wingfield, M.J. (2002). Quarantine is important in restricting the spread of exotic seed-borne pathogens in the Southern Hemisphere. International Forestry Review, 4(1), 56-65.
  • Carlucci, A., Colatruglio, L., Frisullo, S. (2007). First report of pitch canker caused by Fusarium circinatum on Pinus halepensis and Pinus pinea in Apulia (Southern Italy). Plant Disease, 91(12), 1683–1683.
  • Cilliers, A.J., Swart, W.J., Wingfield, M.J. (1993). A Review of Lasiodiplodia the obrome with particular reference to ıts occurrence on coniferous seeds. South African Forestry Journal, 166(1), 47-52.
  • Coutinho, T.A., Steenkamp, E. T., Mongwaketsi, K., Wilmot, M., Wingfield, M.J. (2007). First Outbreak of Pitch Canker in a South African Pine Plantation. Australasian Plant Pathology, 36(3), 256–261.
  • Desprez-Loustau M.L. (2009). The alien fungi of Europe. Drake JA, ed. Handbook of alien species in Europe, DAISIE. Invading nature, series in invasion ecology, 3, 15-28, Berlin, Germany.
  • Dreaden, T.J., Smith, J.A., Barnard, E.L., Blakeslee, G. (2012). Development and evaluation of a real-time pcr seed lot screening method for Fusarium circinatum, Causal Agent of Pitch Canker Disease. Forest Pathology, 42(5), 405–411.
  • Dwinell, L.D., Barrows-Broaddus, J., Kuhlman, E.G. (1985). Pitch canker: a disease complex of Southern pines. Plant Disease, 69, 270–276.
  • Dwinell L.D. (1998). Global distribution of the pitch canker fungus. Devey ME, Matheson AC, Gordon TR (eds) Current and potential impacts of pitch canker in radiata pine, proceedings of the IMPACT Monterey workshop, California, USA, CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products Report No. 112. CSIRO, Canberra, 54–57.
  • Eschen, R., Holmes, T., Smith, D., Roques, A., Santini, A., Kenis, M. (2014). Likelihood of establishment of tree pests and diseases based on their worldwide occurrence as determined by hierarchical cluster analysis. Forest Ecology and Management, 315, 103-111.
  • EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). (2006). First report of Gibberella circinata in France. EPPO Reporting Service 2006-05 no:104. http://www.eppo.int/PUBLICATIONS/reporting/reporting_service.htm (Erişimtarihi: 01.05.2017).
  • Everett, R.A. (2000). Patterns and pathways of biological invasions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 15(5), 177-178.
  • Filip, G.M., Morrell, J.J. (1996). Importing pacific rim wood: pest risks to domestic resources. Journal of Forestry, 94(10), 22-26.
  • Fisher, M.C., Henk, A.D., Briggs, C.J., Brownstein, J.S., Madoff, L.C., McCraw, S.H., Gurr, S.J. (2012). Emerging fungal threats to animal, plants and ecosystems. Nature, 484, 186–194.
  • Fourie, G., Wingfield, M.J., Wingfield, B.D., Jones, N.B., Morris, A.R., Steenkamp, E.T. (2014). Culture-ındependent detection and quantification of Fusarium circinatum in a pine-producing seedling nursery, southern forests, A Journal of Forest Science, 76(3), 137-143.
  • Fox, J. W., Wood, D. L., Koehler, C. S., O’keefe, S. T. (1991). Engraver beetles (Scolytidae: Ips species) as vectors of the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans. The Canadian Entomologist, 123(6), 1355-1367.
  • Ganley, R. J., Watt, M. S., Manning, L., Iturritxa, E. (2009). A global climatic risk assessment of pitch canker disease. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 39(11), 2246-2256.
  • Garbelotto, M., Smith, T., Schweigkofler, W. (2008). Variation in rates of spore deposition of Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pine pitch canker, over a 12-month-period at two locations in northern California. Phytopathology, 98(1), 137–143.
  • Geiser, D.M., Jiménez-Gasco, M., Kang, S., Makalowska, I., Veeraraghavan, N., Ward, T.J., Zhang, N., Kuldau, G.A., O’Donnell, K. (2004). FUSARIUM-ID v. 1.0: A DNA sequence database for Identifying Fusarium”, European Journal of Plant Pathology, 110, 473–479.
  • Hepting, G.H., Roth, E.R. (1953). Host relations and spread of the pine pitch canker disease. Phytopathology, 43, 475.
  • Hoover, K., Wood, D. L., Storer, A. J., Fox, J. W., Bros, W. E. (1996). Transmission of the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. pini, to Monterey pine, Pinus radiata, by cone-and twig-infesting beetles. The Canadian Entomologist, 128(06), 981-994.
  • Hulme, P.E. (2009). Trade, transport and trouble: managing ınvasive species pathways in an era of globalization. Journal of Applied Ecology, 46(1), 10-18.
  • Ioos, R., Fourier, C., Lancu, G., Gordon, T.R. (2009). Sensitive detection of Fusarium circinatum in pine seeds by combining an enrichment pprocedure with real-time PCR using dual-labelled probe chemistry. Phytopathology, 99(5), 582–590.
  • Kamra, S.K. (1989). Improving the forest seed situation in some African countries. Turnbull, J. W. (Ed.) Tropical Tree Seed Research. Gympie, Australia.
  • Landeras, E., García, P., Fernández, Y., Braña, M., Fernández-Alonso, O., Méndez-Lodos, S., Armengol, J. (2005). Outbreak of pitch canker caused by Fusarium circinatum on Pinus spp. in Northern Spain. Plant Disease, 89(9), 1015-1015.
  • Liebhold, A.M., Macdonald, W.L., Bergdahl, D., Mastro, V.C. (1995). Invasion by exotic forest pests- a threat to forest ecosystems. Forest Science, 41(30), 1-49.
  • McCain, A.H., Koehler, C.S., Tjosvold, S.A. (1987). Pitch canker threatens California pines. California agriculture, 41(11-12), 22-23.
  • Mitchell, R. G., Steenkamp, E. T., Coutinho, T. A., Wingfield, M. J. (2011). The pitch canker fungus, Fusarium circinatum: implications for South African forestry. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science, 73(1), 1-13.
  • Mooney, H.A., Hobbs, R.J. (2000). Invasive species in a changing world. Island Press, Washington, DC.
  • Möykkynen, T., Capretti, P., Pukkala, T. (2015). Modelling the potential spread of Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pitch canker in Europe. Annals of Forest Science, 72(2), 169-181.
  • Orwig, D.A. (2002). Ecosystem to regional impacts of ıntroduced pests and pathogens: historical context, questions and ıssues. Journal of Biogeography, 29(10-11), 1471–1474.
  • Pejchar, L., Mooney, H.A. (2009). Invasive species, ecosystem services and human well-being. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 24(9), 497-504.
  • Pimentel, D., Lach, L., Zuniga, R., Morrison, D. (2000). Environmental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the United States. BioScience, 50(1), 53-65.
  • Pimentel, D. (2002). Biological Invasions: economic and environmental costs of alien plant. Animal, and Microbe Species. CRC Press.
  • Pimentel, D., Zuniga, R., Morrison, D. (2005). Update on the Environmental and economic costs associated with alien-ınvasive species in the United States. Ecological Economics, 52(3), 273-288.
  • Pfenning L.H., Costa S.D.S., Melo M.P.D., Costa H., Ventura J.A., Auer C.G., Santos A.F.D. (2014). First report and characterization of Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pitch canker in Brazil. Trop Plant Pathology, 39(3), 210–216.
  • Ramsfield, T.D. Dobbie, K. Dick, M.A., Ball, R.D. (2008). Polymerase chain reaction-based detection of Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pitch canker disease. Molecular Ecology Research, 8(6), 1270–1273.
  • Richardson, M.J. (1990). An annotated list of seed-borne diseases. (4th edn.). International Seed Testing Association, Zurich.
  • Santini, A., Ghelardini, L., De Pace, C., Desprez-Loustau, M. L., Capretti, P., Chandelier, A., Cech, T., Chira, D., Diamandis, S., Gaitniekis, T., Hantula, J., Holdenrieder, O., Jankovsky, L., Jung, T., Jurc, D., Kirisits, T., Kunca, A., Lygis, V., Malecka, M., Marcais, B., Schmitz, S., Schumacher, J., Solheim, H., Solla, A., Szabo, I., Tsopelas, P., Vannini, A., Vettraino, A., Webber, J., Woodward, S., Stenlid, J. (2013). Biogeographical Patterns and Determinants of Invasion by Forest Pathogens in Europe. New Phytologist, 197(1), 238–250.
  • Schweigkofler, W. O’Donnell, K., Garbelotto, M. (2004). Detection and quantification of airborne conidia of fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pine pitch canker, from two california sites by using a real-time pcr approach combined with a simple spore trapping method. Applied Environmetal Microbiology, 70, 3512-3520.
  • Singh, P., Mittal, R.K. (1989). Influence of seed-borne fungi on the nutrient composition and growth of conifer seedlings. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 19(2), 65-77.
  • Singh, P., Mathur, S.B. (1993). Disease problems of forest tree deeds: diagnosis and management. In: Somé, L. M. & de Kam, M. (Ed.) Proceedings of IUFRO Symposium on Tree Seed Problems, with Special Reference to Africa. Project Group P.2.04.00 - Seed Problems. Ogadougou, Burkina Faso, November, 23 - 28.
  • Storer A.J., Gordon T.R., Wood D.L., Bonello P. (1997). Pitch canker disease of pines: current and future impacts. Journal of Forestry, 95(12), 21–26.
  • Storer, A.J., Gordon, T.R., Clarck, S.L. (1998). Association of the pitch canker fungus, Fusarium subglutinans f.sp. pini with monterey pine seeds and seedlings in California. Plant Pathology, 47, 649-656.
  • Sutherland, J.R., Diekmann, M., Berjak, P. (2002). Forest Tree Seed Health. IPGRI Technical Bulletin, (6).
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Details

Subjects Forestry
Journal Section Review
Authors

Refika Ceyda BERAM This is me

Türkiye


Funda OSKAY>

0000-0002-8918-5595


Ayşe Gülden ADAY KAYA>


Asko LEHTIJÄRVI>


H. Tuğba DOĞMUŞ LEHTIJÄRVI>

Publication Date July 10, 2017
Published in Issue Year 2017, Volume 1, Issue 1

Cite

APA Beram, R. C. , Oskay, F. , Aday Kaya, A. G. , Lehtıjärvı, A. & Doğmuş Lehtıjärvı, H. T. (2017). The Invasive Alien Species Threating The World Pine Forests; Fusarium circinatum . Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research , 1 (1) , 39-45 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/bilgesci/issue/30351/319389