Arap dilinde cümleyi oluşturan ve müsned-müsnedun ileyh diye adlandırılan iki ana unsur vardır. Cümle içerisinde asıl olan bu iki unsur, fiil cümlesinde fiil ve fâil, isim cümlesinde ise mübtedâ ve haber olarak bulunur. Bazen de cümle içerisinde bu ikisi dışında kalan, çoğu zaman ana düşünceyi ve cümlenin ifade ettiği temel manayı sunma hususunda kendilerinden müstağni olunabilen, ancak söylenmek istenen manayı tamamlama, manası kapalı olan cümleye açıklık getirme, genel manayı tahsis etme gibi amaçlarla kullanılan ve nahiv ilminde fazla (الفضلة) diye isimlendirilen mef’ûl, hâl, temyiz vb. yan ögeler bulunur. Bu öğelerden biri de şibh-i cümle diye adlandırılan zarf ve câr-mecrûrdur. Bunlar fiilin meydana geldiği zaman, mekân, şekil, durum vb. yönlerle cümlede eksik kalan manaları ortaya çıkarıp kastedilen mananın eksiksiz bir şekilde ifade edilebilmesi hususunda son derece önemli bir rol oynarlar. Bu vazifeyi yerine getirirken de cümle içerisinde zikri geçen ya da karîneler yoluyla anlaşılan fiiller ile çok sıkı bir irtibat (taalluk) içerisinde bulunurlar. Bu sebeple mananın sağlıklı bir şekilde anlaşılabilmesi, bu irtibatın doğru bir şekilde tespit edilmesine bağlıdır.
Bu makalede şibh-i cümle konusu zarf, câr-mecrûr ve taalluk alt başlıklarıyla ele alınmaktadır. Istılahların kelime tahlillerinin yapılması, konuyla ilgili bazı meselelerin ele alınması ve konu etrafında dilcilere ait bazı farklı bakış açılarının irdelenmesi suretiyle Arap gramerinde son derece önemli bir yeri olan bu konunun kavranmasına yönelik katkıda bulunulması amaçlanmaktadır.
Sentence, by nature, consists of two main elements in all languages. These main elements which are called by the grammarians (nahwiyyun) musnad (predicate) and musnad ilayh (subject) are supported by auxiliary elements (fadla) for the full understanding of the desired meaning. Adverb (zarf) and preposition and genitive (jâr-majrûr), which are expressed with the concept of qissi preposition occupy an important place in explaining the time, place and situation of the act. The main subject of this article is the dependence (ta‘alluq) of adverb and preposition and genitive on the adverb mentioned in the sentence or deleted, and the identification of this dependence correctly. In addition, in order for a text to be understood correctly, to put the duties of relevant elements in the sentence by explaining the principles necessary for the determination of the dependence serves to protect the collocutor from misunderstanding. The linguistic and terminological analyzes of the concepts of qissi preposition, adverb, preposition and genitive, and the meanings expressed in the records are explained by taking into consideration the diligence of the linguists in terms of conceptualization and division. In addition, the ways these concepts were used in classical works together with their synonyms have been dealt with, and the reasons for the literal differences were stated and the conceptual framework of qissi preposition and dependence have been was tried to be drawn. Acts expressing the time and place of the verb have divided into two parts by the linguists; indication of verb which acts upon adverbs have been evaluated in two respects as hay’a and i‘tibarî. As a result of these divisions and evaluations, different provisions have emerged. The necessity of the qissi prepositions to be in contact with a verb in general terms is due to the need for act. Because without the act, there is no time and place when the act takes place. In this respect, qissi prepositions so not depend on any element in the sentence, but on such words as verbs, qissi verbs (sibh al-fi‘il) and words meaning verbs (ma‘na al-fi‘il) which include meanings of action in theirselves. What is meant by qissi verb is the words such as infinitve, active participle, passive participle, assimilate epithet, non preemince which refer to act. As the relationship of adverbs and prepositions-genitives with verb, qissi verb and ma‘nâ al-fi‘il provides the meaningfulness of the sentence, the structure of the relationship and its correctness are important. In case of failing the right connection, it is inevitable to have different meanings. For this reason, there are a number of literal and inner indications for the determination of a correct dependence. In cases where the prepositions are imposed and used in the real meaning, dependence occurs by means of indications. However, there is controversy over whether the prepositions express any other meaning other than their original meaning. In such a case, how will dependent be determined? Basrian linguists tried to solve the use of prepositions outside of their real meaning by way of allegorical interpretation or overronning (tadmîn), while Kufan linguists said that the prepositions did not come to different meanings but were used interchangeably.
When the issue of dependence is taken as a consideration, the adverbs are divided into two as non-essential adverbs and predictive adverbs. This distinction is related to the fact qissi prepositions depend on a verb which has a general or special meaning, and it a controversial issue among the grammarians in terms of parsing. It is also possible to delete the depended verb in the sentence depending on its having a general and special meaning. However, there is a need for specific conditions and clues for the deletion of a verb expressing a specific meaning. As regards the predictive adverb and non-essential adverb, the linguists disagree about the issues such as dependent’s being verb or qissi verb and whether the provision of parsing refers to preposition or genitive. Because of such reasons as what really matter in the sentence is name and the name is accepted single with its agent (fâ‘il), some linguists preferred qissi verb to be dependent of predictive adverb, some others preferred verb to be dependent in case the verb really matter and the qissi preposition is connection (sila). Since in the dependence, the matter of acting in the qissi preposition is in the center, and acting in all kind of qissi verb, including sentence of connection, far overweighs, the second view is preferred in the article. As for the matter to which the provision of parsing should be given, to preposition or genitive, a distinction is made, and the view that the provision of parsing in non-essential adverb should be only given to genitive, and in the predictive adverb to both preposition and genitive.
Publication Date : April 30, 2019
|APA||Ulugöl, F . (2019). Arap Dili Gramerinde Şibh-i Cümle Ve Taalluk. Bilimname , 2019 (37) , 477-508 . DOI: 10.28949/bilimname.488644|
|MLA||Ulugöl, F . "Arap Dili Gramerinde Şibh-i Cümle Ve Taalluk". Bilimname 2019 (2019 ): 477-508 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/bilimname/issue/43606/488644>|
|Chicago||Ulugöl, F . "Arap Dili Gramerinde Şibh-i Cümle Ve Taalluk". Bilimname 2019 (2019 ): 477-508|
|RIS||TY - JOUR T1 - Arap Dili Gramerinde Şibh-i Cümle Ve Taalluk AU - Fatih Ulugöl Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.28949/bilimname.488644 DO - 10.28949/bilimname.488644 T2 - Bilimname JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 477 EP - 508 VL - 2019 IS - 37 SN - 1304-1878-2148-5860 M3 - doi: 10.28949/bilimname.488644 UR - https://doi.org/10.28949/bilimname.488644 Y2 - 2019 ER -|
|EndNote||%0 Bilimname Arap Dili Gramerinde Şibh-i Cümle Ve Taalluk %A Fatih Ulugöl %T Arap Dili Gramerinde Şibh-i Cümle Ve Taalluk %D 2019 %J Bilimname %P 1304-1878-2148-5860 %V 2019 %N 37 %R doi: 10.28949/bilimname.488644 %U 10.28949/bilimname.488644|
|ISNAD||Ulugöl, Fatih . "Arap Dili Gramerinde Şibh-i Cümle Ve Taalluk". Bilimname 2019 / 37 (April 2019): 477-508 . https://doi.org/10.28949/bilimname.488644|
|AMA||Ulugöl F . Arap Dili Gramerinde Şibh-i Cümle Ve Taalluk. Bilimname. 2019; 2019(37): 477-508.|
|Vancouver||Ulugöl F . Arap Dili Gramerinde Şibh-i Cümle Ve Taalluk. Bilimname. 2019; 2019(37): 508-477.|