Kur’ân’ın cümle yapısında ihbârî ve inşâî olmak üzere iki temel ifade biçimi görülmektedir. Dil otoritelerine göre bu ifade biçimleri nihâî ayrımları ifade etmemekte, zaman zaman birinin bir diğerinin kapsamına dahil olabileceği geçişkenlikleri içinde barındırmaktadır. Süreç içerisinde bu geçişkenlikler göz ardı edilmiş, bunun neticesinde gayb, Kur’ânî bir problem haline getirilmiştir. Bu problemin çözümü için üretilen gayb tasnifleri müşterek bir kanaat oluşturamamış, üstelik vahiy ve Allah tasavvurunda sorunlara yol açmıştır. Çoğu zaman ayetlerdeki üslûp dikkate alınmamış, lafızlardaki gelecek kipleri ve tekidli ifadeler Kur’ân’ın ilahîliğinin ve Rasul’ün risaletinin delili sayılmış, bu durum ilerleyen süreçte İ‘câzu’l-Kur'ân başlıklarının argümanı haline gelmiştir. Bu çalışmada Allah’ın geleceğe dair bilgisi konusuna girilmeden geleceğe yönelik bilgi taşıdığı düşünülen üç ayetin cümle türü üzerinden gaybla ilişkisi ele alınmıştır. Kur’ân’ın gayba ayırdığı yer, birçok yerde aslî bir zeminde değil, muhataplarının gayba ve gaybî bilgi kaynaklarına dair yanlış anlayışlarına cevap üretme zeminindedir. Bu anlamda çalışmamız, gayba dair ihbârî ifadelerin üst formu inşâî bir yapıdan müteşekkil çoğu zaman teselli, teşvik, cesaretlendirme içerikli Kur’ânî bir üslûbun eseri olduğunu temellendirmektedir. Haber formunda fakat inşa nitelikli bu ayetlerin vukuu ise, mucizevî sonuçlar değil, kişilerin kevnî yasalara uygun doğru eylem ve tutumlarının doğurduğu sonuçlardır. Bu anlamda ayetler, nihai olarak bir başarının gerçekleşeceğine işaret etmemekte, “dirayetli olan, sebat gösteren aydınlığa çıkar” minvalinde bir mesajla Allah’ın yaratılış üzerindeki sünnetine vurgu yapmaktadır.
In the Qur'an, in exchange for ghayb, shahada is used. According to the Qur'an, ghayb is always included in the sphere of the concept of Allah within the big ontic sphere divided into two as Allah and human. The basis of this dichotomy is the ontological difference between Allah as a creator and His creation. Despite this ontological difference between two realms of existence, Allah is the only being that humans, who are limited to the realm of shahada, have the most and constant contact. When it comes to revelation, this ontological difference becomes more of a matter of language than a matter of existence, and it is reflected in the language of the Qur'an. There are strong statements in this language about how the ghayb can only be known by Allah, which makes the ghayb belong entirely to Allah. To express it in the language of the Quran, ghayb can only be known by Allah , on land and in sea, in the darkness of the ground, in the movement of a leaf Allah's knowledge prevails, and the keys of the ghayb already belong to Him. Indeed, the fact that the Prophet's emphasis on “I do not know the unseen” as an answer to a number of demands of miraculous things from him indicates that this area is dominated by Allah alone. In this sense, it can be said that whether the ghayb is known or not is not the problem of the Qur'an because this area is already fully dedicated to Allah in the Qur'an. For this reason, it is not possible for human beings, whose permanent place in the realm of existence is among the created, to violate the area which belongs to Allah, who is the absolute creator. And because of this, the Qur'an carries the discussion to the owner of the ghayb, not the knowledge of the ghayb itself. As a matter of fact, on the meaning base of every ayah emphasizing ghayb, there are revelation period addressees who were thinking of a number of human violations against ghayb and the language of Qur'an generates answers to these thoughts with its discourse. Because soothsayers, augurs, and poets in the mindset of jahiliyah's understanding of ghayb could obtain information about the past and the future, and it is believed that the source of this information was jinns.
Speaking on such a bases, the Qur'an emphasized that Allah does not impart the realm of ghayb with ethereal creatures, that no one has the ability to obtain information about the ghayb, and it states that the keys of the ghayb belongs Allah. Despite these statements, some ulama, by looking at some ayahs with adverbs of exception and the differentiation of absolute ghayb and relative ghayb, brought up the questions of to what extent can slaves have a grasp of the ghayb in the historical process, what does relative ghayb means, what did Allah conveyed to His messengers as information from the ghayb, to the agenda. There is no doubt that what led the ulama to these interpretations were literal structure of the most effective operative ayahs; the paratext context, the idiosyncratic language and theocentric wording of the Qur'an were ignored and the expressions in the ayahs were interpreted as pointing out information and signs about the future.
These Qur'anic uses that the ulama most often accepted as the evidence of the Qur'an's miraculousness and the Prophet's risalat were the subjects of Ijaz ul Qur'an works and method books under the same title. Moreover, these wordings were taken as the basis of scientific tafsir; the fact that the Qur'an does not contradict scientific discoveries and findings was considered to be an indication of its accuracy and universality in the reports of the ghayb concerning the future. In addition to the future tense used in the ayahs, expressions with emphasis modes have also been effective in the formation of this perception. As a matter of fact, the ulama, thinking this news expressing such certainty can only emanate from someone who knows what he is saying and can prove his words, considered them as evidence of the divinity of the Qur'an.
Our work is written away from the discussion of whether the ghayb can be known or not, with the thesis that Allah is the only owner of the ghayb and does not impart His quality to anyone including His messengers. In our opinion, taking into consideration the issue of with whom does Allah share the knowledge of the ghayb and in which ways in a scientific manner means paving the way to jahiliyah's understanding of knowledge meshed with soothsayers, augurs, and poets after centuries. In accordance with this opinion, our topic is whether Allah, the sole owner of the ghayb, made some warnings concerning the ghayb in the Qur'an, which is His only open speech to his to His addressees.
Two main expression styles are seen in the Qur’an’s sentence structure: informative and constructive. In terms of their purposes, constructive sentences include informative sentences. Within the process, constructive sentence form was ignored as a higher form of informative sentence structure. As a result of this, ghayb (the invisible/unknown world) which has no epistemological value in the Qur’an has become a Qur’anic problem. The classifications of the ghayb put forward to solve this problem could not generate a common opinion, furthermore, it could not provide a sturdy concept of revelation and God. Most of the time, the tone of the verses was ignored. Future tense in the words and the expressions with takid (affirmation) was taken as a proof of the divinity of the Qur’an and the prophecy of the Rasul, and they became the argument of the titles of İcâzu’l-Qur’an.
Our topic is not God’s might or wisdom, in other words, it is not whether God can see the future or not. Our topic is whether God who rules the past and the future in every way uses this as an information tool when He is talking to His slaves. In our opinion the place the Qur’an sets for the ghayb is not on a fundamental base, it is on the basis of generating answers for the misunderstandings about the ghayb and resources on it. Our study aims to justify that the constructive expressions, composed of its subform of informative expressions, about the ghayb are a work of the Qur’anic style which most of the time contains consolation, incentive and encouragement.
Publication Date : October 31, 2019
|APA||FİDAN, A . (2019). Kur’ân’da Geleceğe Dair Gaybî Haberler: el-İsra 17/79, er-Rûm 30/1-5 ve el-Fetih 48/27. Ayetleri. Bilimname , 2019 (38) , 835-862 . DOI: 10.28949/bilimname.533737|
|MLA||FİDAN, A . "Kur’ân’da Geleceğe Dair Gaybî Haberler: el-İsra 17/79, er-Rûm 30/1-5 ve el-Fetih 48/27. Ayetleri". Bilimname 2019 (2019 ): 835-862 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/bilimname/issue/49808/533737>|
|Chicago||FİDAN, A . "Kur’ân’da Geleceğe Dair Gaybî Haberler: el-İsra 17/79, er-Rûm 30/1-5 ve el-Fetih 48/27. Ayetleri". Bilimname 2019 (2019 ): 835-862|
|RIS||TY - JOUR T1 - Kur’ân’da Geleceğe Dair Gaybî Haberler: el-İsra 17/79, er-Rûm 30/1-5 ve el-Fetih 48/27. Ayetleri AU - Ayşenur FİDAN Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.28949/bilimname.533737 DO - 10.28949/bilimname.533737 T2 - Bilimname JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 835 EP - 862 VL - 2019 IS - 38 SN - 1304-1878-2148-5860 M3 - doi: 10.28949/bilimname.533737 UR - https://doi.org/10.28949/bilimname.533737 Y2 - 2019 ER -|
|EndNote||%0 Bilimname Kur’ân’da Geleceğe Dair Gaybî Haberler: el-İsra 17/79, er-Rûm 30/1-5 ve el-Fetih 48/27. Ayetleri %A Ayşenur FİDAN %T Kur’ân’da Geleceğe Dair Gaybî Haberler: el-İsra 17/79, er-Rûm 30/1-5 ve el-Fetih 48/27. Ayetleri %D 2019 %J Bilimname %P 1304-1878-2148-5860 %V 2019 %N 38 %R doi: 10.28949/bilimname.533737 %U 10.28949/bilimname.533737|
|ISNAD||FİDAN, Ayşenur . "Kur’ân’da Geleceğe Dair Gaybî Haberler: el-İsra 17/79, er-Rûm 30/1-5 ve el-Fetih 48/27. Ayetleri". Bilimname 2019 / 38 (October 2019): 835-862 . https://doi.org/10.28949/bilimname.533737|
|AMA||FİDAN A . Kur’ân’da Geleceğe Dair Gaybî Haberler: el-İsra 17/79, er-Rûm 30/1-5 ve el-Fetih 48/27. Ayetleri. Bilimname. 2019; 2019(38): 835-862.|
|Vancouver||FİDAN A . Kur’ân’da Geleceğe Dair Gaybî Haberler: el-İsra 17/79, er-Rûm 30/1-5 ve el-Fetih 48/27. Ayetleri. Bilimname. 2019; 2019(38): 862-835.|