İçinde yaşadığımız modern dünyanın dilini belirleme özelliğine sahip olan sekülerleşme, dinin toplumsal etkisinin zayıflaması anlamına gelir. “Sekülerleşme ve Göç İlişkisi: Suriyeli Mülteciler Örneği” başlıklı bu nitel çalışma, İstanbul’da ikamet eden Suriyeli mülteciler üzerinden sekülerleşme ile göç olgusu arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Sekülerleşmenin göç olgusu ile olan ilişkisi, farklı toplum yapılarında değişiklik arz etmektedir. Bundan dolayı, sekülerleşme-göç ilişkisinde genel bir yargıya ulaşmak oldukça zor görünmektedir. Ancak biz, Suriyeli mülteciler üzerinden belli sonuçlara ulaşmaya çalışacağız. Sekülerleşme-göç ilişkisini analiz etmeyi amaçlayan bu çalışma, kartopu örnekleme tekniği ile kendilerine ulaşılan 15 Suriyeli mülteci ile yapılan mülakatlar sonucunda ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu makalenin temel tezi, zorunlu göç sonunda İstanbul’da yaşamaya başlayan Suriyeli mültecilerin sekülerleşmeye başladığı sorunsalıdır. Açıkçası, Suriye iç savaşının başladığı 2011 yılının mart ayından itibaren Türkiye’ye göç etmeye başlayan mültecilerin bireysel ve toplumsal yaşamı üzerinde dinin etkisi gittikçe azalmaya başlamıştır. İstanbul’da yaşayan Suriyeli mültecilerin sekülerleşme eğilimi göstermesinin arka planında Türk toplumuna uyum sağlama isteği, mahalle baskısından uzaklaşma, eğitim kurumlarında dini doğru öğrenme ve yaşadıkları trajik olaylardan dolayı Yaratıcı ile olan ilişkilerini gözden geçirme motivasyonları yer almaktadır. Nitel verilerin esas alındığı bu çalışma üç bölümden oluşmaktadır. İlk bölümde farklı boyutlarıyla sekülerleşme kuramı ile beraber göç olgusu analiz edilmiş, ikinci bölümde de yarı yapılandırılmış sorulardan oluşan mülakat verileri yorumlanmıştır. Son bölümde ise ulaşılan sonuçlar, maddeler halinde değerlendirilmiştir.
Secularism, which has different frameworks of meaning, such as the complete disappearance of religion, the death of God, the loss of influence of religious institutions, the limitation of the spheres of religion or the loss of the social weight of religion, has been extensively discussed in recent years. It is also known that secularism, in which the social situation prevails in its focus, has the property of transforming human consciousness along with sociality. This new situation, which expresses the transition to a rational, empirical or modern form of society instead of the perception of sacred or supernatural society, or the process of elimination of the magic from world by Max Weber's striking expression, concerns the phenomenon of religion mostly. Religion, which is at the center of social reality in the traditional period and encompasses every area of life, began to lose its dominant position with secularization.
Almost since the beginning of history, mankind has migrated from one place to another for different reasons such as economic, social and religious. Also, people have migrated voluntarily or by force of circumstances they are in. Migrants, who carry their own world of meaning, have to adopt the cultural standards of the new world. However, refugees or migrants who try to adapt to new conditions come up against religious, cultural or economic problems.
Turkey has been exposed to extensively influx of refugees after because of the open-door policy that have applied after the civil war began in 2011.The number of refugees in Turkey has reached 3 million 640 thousand 466 from March 2011 until 30 January 2019. Immigration Administration under the Ministry of Interior, according to data generated by the Directorate General of 3 million 640 thousand 466 Syrians are residing in different provinces of Turkey. According to data generated by Republic of Turkey Ministry of Interior Directorate General of Migration Management, in different provinces of Turkey are residing Syrians 3 million 640 thousand 466. In addition, 1 million 975 thousand 12 of these people are men and 1 million 665 thousand 454 are women. Although refugees residing in different regions of Turkey affect the social and economic structure of this country, they also change religiously.
Although the claim that migration accelerates secularization is highly controversial, the main thesis of this study is for Syrian refugees; the forced migration of Syrian refugees leads them to a secular attitude. Obviously, immigration secularize Syrian refugees consciously or unconsciously.
This article, which argues that migration stimulate secularization, is based on the results of interviews with Syrian refugees based on the snowball sampling technique. These interviews were made with the refugees residing in different districts of Istanbul. Adaptation to the new social reality, secession from peer pressure, expostulate on God because of the tragedy they experienced, and the motivation of learning the religion correctly provided by the atmosphere of freedom push the refugees to secularism and secular consciousness.
Secularization, a contemporary and controversial theory, has begun to take on new meanings with the phenomenon of migration. This debate, which extends from the death of religion and God to the loss of authority of religion and religious, gains new dimensions with each passing day.
It seems difficult to reach a general conclusion by analyzing the relationship between migration and secularization. Some of the refugees who migrated are devout from Turkey to the United States of America or European countries. But most of those who migrated from Syria to Turkey is secularized. There is a fundamental fact that the phenomenon of migration affects people's cultural, economic or religious identities.
The sample of this study consists of 15 Syrian refugees living in different districts of Istanbul. After this, 15 refugees were interviewed and analyzed. In this article, we applied to Snowball technique in order to achieve healthy results and to gain the trust of the refugees and generally have reached the following conclusions.
a. Flowing waves of immigration from Syria to Turkey in March 2011, the social, economic and religious life of Syrian refugees and Turkish society has been affected. Turkey has been exposed to intense waves of immigration because of the open-door policy that Turkey has applied. Turkey has been faced with the social structure of ethnic and religious groups are quite different from their own culture.
b. We can say the following about the relationship between secularization and migration based on the Syrian refugees we interviewed; the reality of migration that Syrians have been confronted with leads to a secular attitude. They gradually began to move away from the authority of religious values.
c. The reasons behind the secular attitude of the Syrian refugees residing in Istanbul are as follows; adaptation to new social reality or desire to adapt to Turkish society whose social codes are different, being away from the peer pressure due to the free atmosphere in major cities and urban culture, learning religion correctly, and the change of consciousness caused by the get even with God because of the tragic events they have experienced.
d. The authority of the God or belief in the life of the Syrian refugees residing in Istanbul is more and more diminishing and secularism is gradually building itself. They go to prayer, fasting or wearing a headscarf; however, they do not feel the authority of religion as much as before.
e. Syrian refugees who have a different social identity, have tried to adapt to the social and religious life in Turkey. A woman who wears veil or wear a burqa while living in Syria prefers not to wear the veil when she is in Istanbul but prefers to wear the topcoat that she thinks it is more suitable for Turkish society.
f. Syrian refugees living in Istanbul can make some changes in their religious values or religious rituals to adapt to the cultural codes and social fabric of Turkish society. An important part of them tries to put forward a lifestyle that does not disturb Turkish society.
g. According to a Syrian refugee, social and religious life in Turkey is a liberal than Syria. Therefore, they are not under the pressure of any community in the process of religious learning. Especially before the Syrian civil war, people living in small neighborhoods of Syria stated that they were subjected to neighborhood pressure; however, they came after Turkey said that they can express themselves in a free format. This forced migration gradually leads to mental change.
h. Some of the refugees in Istanbul, especially women who are faced with tragic events such as being raped or losing their relatives in Syria, have psychological problems. Republic of Turkey should do systematic studies to reintegrate them into society and should continue to support them especially some of them who have been exposed to violence.
Publication Date : October 31, 2019
|APA||AKKIR, R . (2019). Sekülerleşme ve Göç İlişkisi: Suriyeli Mülteciler Örneği. Bilimname , 2019 (38) , 469-499 . DOI: 10.28949/bilimname.578307|
|MLA||AKKIR, R . "Sekülerleşme ve Göç İlişkisi: Suriyeli Mülteciler Örneği". Bilimname 2019 (2019 ): 469-499 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/bilimname/issue/49808/578307>|
|Chicago||AKKIR, R . "Sekülerleşme ve Göç İlişkisi: Suriyeli Mülteciler Örneği". Bilimname 2019 (2019 ): 469-499|
|RIS||TY - JOUR T1 - Sekülerleşme ve Göç İlişkisi: Suriyeli Mülteciler Örneği AU - Ramazan AKKIR Y1 - 2019 PY - 2019 N1 - doi: 10.28949/bilimname.578307 DO - 10.28949/bilimname.578307 T2 - Bilimname JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 469 EP - 499 VL - 2019 IS - 38 SN - 1304-1878-2148-5860 M3 - doi: 10.28949/bilimname.578307 UR - https://doi.org/10.28949/bilimname.578307 Y2 - 2019 ER -|
|EndNote||%0 Bilimname Sekülerleşme ve Göç İlişkisi: Suriyeli Mülteciler Örneği %A Ramazan AKKIR %T Sekülerleşme ve Göç İlişkisi: Suriyeli Mülteciler Örneği %D 2019 %J Bilimname %P 1304-1878-2148-5860 %V 2019 %N 38 %R doi: 10.28949/bilimname.578307 %U 10.28949/bilimname.578307|
|ISNAD||AKKIR, Ramazan . "Sekülerleşme ve Göç İlişkisi: Suriyeli Mülteciler Örneği". Bilimname 2019 / 38 (October 2019): 469-499 . https://doi.org/10.28949/bilimname.578307|
|AMA||AKKIR R . Sekülerleşme ve Göç İlişkisi: Suriyeli Mülteciler Örneği. Bilimname. 2019; 2019(38): 469-499.|
|Vancouver||AKKIR R . Sekülerleşme ve Göç İlişkisi: Suriyeli Mülteciler Örneği. Bilimname. 2019; 2019(38): 499-469.|