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The Effect of Vocational Skill Training Model Given by Simulators on Academic Achievement and Anxiety Levels of Midwifery Students

Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 1, 50 - 61, 30.06.2021

Abstract

Objectives: The study was carried out to determine the effect of the training model given with simulators on the academic achievement and the anxiety level of the students in the midwifery vocational skills laboratory. Methods: The semi-experimental type of study was carried out between January 01and July 30, 2020, with first-year midwifery students (N=84) who received clinical skills training for the first time in the Midwifery Department of a University in the Middle Black Sea region. The sample of the study consisted of students (n=69) who had not received any professional skill training before and agreed to participate in the study. Ethics committee and institutional permissions were obtained for the study. The data were obtained by "Student Identification Form, State-Trait Anxiety Scale" and "Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning Scale", which measures students' satisfaction with simulation education. The academic achievements of the students were evaluated in the laboratory by taking the process step tables and the midterm and final written exam and taking their success averages. Results: Of the students, 87% stated that simulation training will improve their communication skills, 79.4% said that it will improve their critical thinking and decision-making skills, 85.5% claimed that it will improve their professional practice skills, 92.8% remarked that it will improve their professional responsibilities, 88.4 % said it will increase their adoption to their profession, % 82.4 stated that it would help reduce their anxiety in the first clinical application. In the third measure, it was determined that there is a strong positive relationship between state anxiety and academic achievement. It was also found that as the continuous anxiety increased, academic achievement showed a positive and very strong relationship, and as the anxiety increased, academic achievement increased. In the second measurement of the education provided with simulation, it is seen that as the student satisfaction and self-confidence in learning increase, academic achievement increases and there is a strong positive relationship between them. However, the same result was not obtained in the measurement made during the third measurement, that is, the final exam. Conclusions: It is observed that there is a very strong negative relationship between simulation and the third measurement. The education model provided with simulators in the skill laboratory environment made a difference between students 'satisfaction and self-confidence in learning, students' satisfaction levels increased, but there was no linear relationship between academic achievement and satisfaction. The education provided did not cause a significant change in the state anxiety and trait anxiety levels of the students.

References

  • Akkağıt, ŞF., Tekin,A. (2012) Simülasyon Tabanlı Öğrenmenin Ortaöğretim Öğrencilerinin Temel Elektronik Ve Ölçme Dersindeki Başarılarına Etkisi, Ege Eğitim Dergisi (13) 2: 1–12.
  • Ali, L., Nisar, S., Ghassan, A., Khan, SA. (2011). Impact of Clinical Skill Lab on Students’ Learning in Preclinical Years. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 23(4):114-117.
  • Alparslan, Ö. (2017). Ebelik ve Hemşirelik Öğrencileri Gözüyle Klinik Uygulamalar, Okul-Hastane İşbirliği. Çağdaş Tıp Dergisi, 7(4), 365-372.
  • Bilen, M. (1990) Plandan Uygulamaya Öğretim, 2. Baskı, Ankara, Sistem Ofset.
  • Bradley, P., Bligh, J., (2005). Clinical skills centres: where are we going? Medical Education 39, 649–650.
  • Büyükkara, S. (2011). İlköğretim 8. sınıf fen ve teknoloji dersi ses ünitesinin bilgisayar simülasyonları ve animasyonları ile öğretiminin öğrenci başarısı ve tutumu üzerine etkisi. (Yayımlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi). Selçuk Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Konya.
  • Catling, C., Hogan, R., Fox, D., Cummins, A., Kelly, M., Sheehan, A. (2016) Simulation workshops with first year midwifery students. Nurse Education in Praticem. 17:109-115.
  • Çakır Koçak, Y. Öztürk Can, H., Yücel, U., Demirelöz Akyüz, M., Çeber Turfan,E. (2017). Türkiye’de Ebelik Bölümlerinin Akademik ve Fiziki Profili, HSP. 4(2):88-97. DOI: 10.17681/hsp-dergisi.293047
  • Deegan, M., Terry, L.(2013) Student midwives’ perceptions of real – time simulation: a qualitive phenomenological study. British Journal of Midwifery. 21(7):590-598
  • Görgülü, S., (2001) Klinik uygulamalarda öğrencilerin öğretim elemanlarından beklentileri. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Hemşirelik Yüksekokulu Dergisi 8(1), 1- 13.
  • Göriş, S., Bilgi, N., Bayındır, S.K. (2014). Hemşirelik eğitiminde simülasyon kullanımı. Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 1(2): p. 25-29.
  • Hao, J., Estrada, J., and Tropez-Sims, S. (2002) The clinical skills laboratory: a cost-effective venue for teaching clinical skills to third-year medical students, Acad Med 77(2): 152.
  • Issenberg, S.B., McGaghie, W.C., Petrusa, E.R., Lee Gordon, D., Scalese, R.J., 2005. Features and uses of highfidelity medical simulations that lead to effective learning: a BEME systematic review. Medical Teacher 27 (1), 10–28.
  • Karaçay, P., Kaya, H. (2017). Simülasyonla Eğitimde Kullanılan Öğrenci Memnuniyeti ve Öğrenmede Kendine Güven Ölçeği’nin Türkçe’ye Uyarlanması. F.N. Hem. Derg, 25(2): 95-103.ISSN 2147-4923
  • Karahan, E, Çeli̇k, S, Yıldım Tank, D, Göğüş, F. (2019). Yüksek Gerçeklikli Hasta Simülatöründe Eğitim: Hemşirelik Öğrencilerinin Memnuniyeti ve Öğrenmede Kendine Güvenlerinin Değerlendirilmesi. Celal Bayar Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 6 (2), 106-110. DOI: 10.34087/cbusbed.52886
  • Karaöz, S. (2003) Hemşirelikte klinik öğretime genel bir bakış ve etkin klinik öğretim için öneriler, HEMAR-G 5(1): 15–21.
  • McCaughey, CS., Traynor, MK. (2010) The role of simulation in nurse education. Nurse Education Today 30(8):827-32.
  • Miller,G.(1990)The assessment of clinical skills/competence/performance. Academic Medicine 65(9): S63-67. doi:10.1097/00001888-199009000-00045
  • Moorthy, K., Vincent, C., and Darzi, A. (200) 5Simulation based training, BMJ 330: 493–94.
  • Morgan, R. 2 (006). Using clinical skills laboratories to promote theory-practice integration during first practice placement: an Irish perspective, J Clin Nurs 15, 155–161.
  • Murat Öztürk, D., Sayıner, FD., Çelik, N. (2018) Ebelik Öğrencilerinin Bilgisayarlı Simülasyon Uygulaması Sonrası Görüşlerinin Değerlendirilmesi. Journal of Health Services and Education 2(2): 66-71. DOI: 10.26567/JOHSE.2018250152
  • Nghitanwa, EM., Endjala,T., Hatupo, SK. (2019) Simulation-based Training in Nursing and Midwifery: A Literature Review. International Journal of Medical Science and Health Research3(2):37-46
  • Öner N, Le Compte A (1998). Süreksiz Durumluk Sürekli Kaygı Envanteri El Kitabı. Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınları, No333, İstanbul 1998.
  • Park,J., (2015) “Proposal for a modified Dreyfus and Miller model with simplified competency level descriptions for performing self-rated surveys,” Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions, 12(54), http://dx.doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2015.12.54
  • Rees, LH. (2000) Medical education in the new millenium. Journal of Internal Medicine 248:95-101
  • Remmen, R., Derese, A., Scherpbier, A., Denekens, J., Hermann, I., Van der Vleuten, C., Van Royen, P., Bossaert, L. (1999). Can medical schools rely on clerkship to train students in basic clinical skills? Medical Education 33:600-605.
  • Reyhan, F., Mete, A., Sayıner, F. D., & Çelik, N., (2018). Evaluating the Views of Midwifery Students about Simulation Education. International Journal of Caring Sciences, vol.11, 239-245.
  • Seviğ Ü, Başer M. Güler H. Yurdakul M. (2008) Türkiye’de Sağlık Bilimleri Alanında Eğitim ve İnsan Gücü Planlaması “Ebe insan gücü: Mevcut durum ve 2013 yılı Vizyonu”. Üniversitelerarası Kurul Sağlık Bilimleri Eğitim Konseyi, Ebe İnsan Gücü Planlama Komisyonu Çalışma Raporu, 2008.
  • Soğukpınar, N., Saydam, B. K., Bozkurt Ö. D., Öztürk, H., Pelik A. (2007). Past and present midwifery education in Turkey, Midwifery 23, 433-442
  • Tankut, Ü.S. (2008). İlköğretim 7. Sınıf Sosyal Bilgiler Dersinde Destekli Öğretimin Akademik Başarıya ve Kalıcılığa Etkisi. (Yayımlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi). Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Adana.
  • Terzioğlu, F., Kapucu, S., Özdemir, L., Boztepe, H., Duygulu, S., Tuna, Z., Akdemir, N. (2012) Simülasyon yönetimine ilişkin hemşirelik öğrencilerinin görüşleri, Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Hemşirelik Dergisi.16-23.
  • Uğur, A. (2001). Eğitimde bilgisayar grafikleri ve grafik yazılımları. Ege Eğitim Dergisi, 2001(1), 1: 146-156

The Effect of Vocational Skill Training Model Given by Simulators on Academic Achievement and Anxiety Levels of Midwifery Students

Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 1, 50 - 61, 30.06.2021

Abstract

The research was carried out to determine the effect of the education model given with simulators on the academic success, anxiety level, satisfaction and confidence level of the students studying in the midwifery vocational skills laboratory. The semi-experimental type of study was carried out between January 01 and July 30, 2020, with first-year midwifery students (N=84) who received clinical skills training for the first time in the Midwifery Department of a University in the Middle Black Sea region. The sample of the study consisted of students (n=69) who had not received any professional skill training before and agreed to participate in the study. Ethics committee and institutional permissions were obtained for the study. The data were obtained by "Student Identification Form, State-Trait Anxiety Scale" and "Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning Scale", which measures students' satisfaction with simulation education. The academic achievements of the students were evaluated in the laboratory by taking the process step tables and the midterm and final written exam and taking their success averages. Of the students, 87% stated that simulation training will improve their communication skills, 79.4% said that it will improve their critical thinking and decision-making skills, 85.5% claimed that it will improve their professional practice skills, 92.8% remarked that it will improve their professional responsibilities, 88.4 % said it will increase their adoption to their profession, % 82.4 stated that it would help reduce their anxiety in the first clinical application. In the study, it was determined that there was no significant relationship between state and trait anxiety and academic achievement. In the second and third measurements of the education given by simulation, it is seen that while the student satisfaction and self-confidence towards learning increase, academic success is expected to increase, but there is no significant relationship between them. However, the same result could not be obtained in the measurement made during the final exam. The education model provided with simulators in a skill laboratory environment made a difference between students' satisfaction and self-confidence in learning, their satisfaction levels increased, but no linear relationship was found between academic achievement and satisfaction. The education given did not cause a significant change in the state anxiety and trait anxiety levels of the students.

References

  • Akkağıt, ŞF., Tekin,A. (2012) Simülasyon Tabanlı Öğrenmenin Ortaöğretim Öğrencilerinin Temel Elektronik Ve Ölçme Dersindeki Başarılarına Etkisi, Ege Eğitim Dergisi (13) 2: 1–12.
  • Ali, L., Nisar, S., Ghassan, A., Khan, SA. (2011). Impact of Clinical Skill Lab on Students’ Learning in Preclinical Years. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 23(4):114-117.
  • Alparslan, Ö. (2017). Ebelik ve Hemşirelik Öğrencileri Gözüyle Klinik Uygulamalar, Okul-Hastane İşbirliği. Çağdaş Tıp Dergisi, 7(4), 365-372.
  • Bilen, M. (1990) Plandan Uygulamaya Öğretim, 2. Baskı, Ankara, Sistem Ofset.
  • Bradley, P., Bligh, J., (2005). Clinical skills centres: where are we going? Medical Education 39, 649–650.
  • Büyükkara, S. (2011). İlköğretim 8. sınıf fen ve teknoloji dersi ses ünitesinin bilgisayar simülasyonları ve animasyonları ile öğretiminin öğrenci başarısı ve tutumu üzerine etkisi. (Yayımlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi). Selçuk Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Konya.
  • Catling, C., Hogan, R., Fox, D., Cummins, A., Kelly, M., Sheehan, A. (2016) Simulation workshops with first year midwifery students. Nurse Education in Praticem. 17:109-115.
  • Çakır Koçak, Y. Öztürk Can, H., Yücel, U., Demirelöz Akyüz, M., Çeber Turfan,E. (2017). Türkiye’de Ebelik Bölümlerinin Akademik ve Fiziki Profili, HSP. 4(2):88-97. DOI: 10.17681/hsp-dergisi.293047
  • Deegan, M., Terry, L.(2013) Student midwives’ perceptions of real – time simulation: a qualitive phenomenological study. British Journal of Midwifery. 21(7):590-598
  • Görgülü, S., (2001) Klinik uygulamalarda öğrencilerin öğretim elemanlarından beklentileri. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Hemşirelik Yüksekokulu Dergisi 8(1), 1- 13.
  • Göriş, S., Bilgi, N., Bayındır, S.K. (2014). Hemşirelik eğitiminde simülasyon kullanımı. Düzce Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 1(2): p. 25-29.
  • Hao, J., Estrada, J., and Tropez-Sims, S. (2002) The clinical skills laboratory: a cost-effective venue for teaching clinical skills to third-year medical students, Acad Med 77(2): 152.
  • Issenberg, S.B., McGaghie, W.C., Petrusa, E.R., Lee Gordon, D., Scalese, R.J., 2005. Features and uses of highfidelity medical simulations that lead to effective learning: a BEME systematic review. Medical Teacher 27 (1), 10–28.
  • Karaçay, P., Kaya, H. (2017). Simülasyonla Eğitimde Kullanılan Öğrenci Memnuniyeti ve Öğrenmede Kendine Güven Ölçeği’nin Türkçe’ye Uyarlanması. F.N. Hem. Derg, 25(2): 95-103.ISSN 2147-4923
  • Karahan, E, Çeli̇k, S, Yıldım Tank, D, Göğüş, F. (2019). Yüksek Gerçeklikli Hasta Simülatöründe Eğitim: Hemşirelik Öğrencilerinin Memnuniyeti ve Öğrenmede Kendine Güvenlerinin Değerlendirilmesi. Celal Bayar Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 6 (2), 106-110. DOI: 10.34087/cbusbed.52886
  • Karaöz, S. (2003) Hemşirelikte klinik öğretime genel bir bakış ve etkin klinik öğretim için öneriler, HEMAR-G 5(1): 15–21.
  • McCaughey, CS., Traynor, MK. (2010) The role of simulation in nurse education. Nurse Education Today 30(8):827-32.
  • Miller,G.(1990)The assessment of clinical skills/competence/performance. Academic Medicine 65(9): S63-67. doi:10.1097/00001888-199009000-00045
  • Moorthy, K., Vincent, C., and Darzi, A. (200) 5Simulation based training, BMJ 330: 493–94.
  • Morgan, R. 2 (006). Using clinical skills laboratories to promote theory-practice integration during first practice placement: an Irish perspective, J Clin Nurs 15, 155–161.
  • Murat Öztürk, D., Sayıner, FD., Çelik, N. (2018) Ebelik Öğrencilerinin Bilgisayarlı Simülasyon Uygulaması Sonrası Görüşlerinin Değerlendirilmesi. Journal of Health Services and Education 2(2): 66-71. DOI: 10.26567/JOHSE.2018250152
  • Nghitanwa, EM., Endjala,T., Hatupo, SK. (2019) Simulation-based Training in Nursing and Midwifery: A Literature Review. International Journal of Medical Science and Health Research3(2):37-46
  • Öner N, Le Compte A (1998). Süreksiz Durumluk Sürekli Kaygı Envanteri El Kitabı. Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınları, No333, İstanbul 1998.
  • Park,J., (2015) “Proposal for a modified Dreyfus and Miller model with simplified competency level descriptions for performing self-rated surveys,” Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions, 12(54), http://dx.doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2015.12.54
  • Rees, LH. (2000) Medical education in the new millenium. Journal of Internal Medicine 248:95-101
  • Remmen, R., Derese, A., Scherpbier, A., Denekens, J., Hermann, I., Van der Vleuten, C., Van Royen, P., Bossaert, L. (1999). Can medical schools rely on clerkship to train students in basic clinical skills? Medical Education 33:600-605.
  • Reyhan, F., Mete, A., Sayıner, F. D., & Çelik, N., (2018). Evaluating the Views of Midwifery Students about Simulation Education. International Journal of Caring Sciences, vol.11, 239-245.
  • Seviğ Ü, Başer M. Güler H. Yurdakul M. (2008) Türkiye’de Sağlık Bilimleri Alanında Eğitim ve İnsan Gücü Planlaması “Ebe insan gücü: Mevcut durum ve 2013 yılı Vizyonu”. Üniversitelerarası Kurul Sağlık Bilimleri Eğitim Konseyi, Ebe İnsan Gücü Planlama Komisyonu Çalışma Raporu, 2008.
  • Soğukpınar, N., Saydam, B. K., Bozkurt Ö. D., Öztürk, H., Pelik A. (2007). Past and present midwifery education in Turkey, Midwifery 23, 433-442
  • Tankut, Ü.S. (2008). İlköğretim 7. Sınıf Sosyal Bilgiler Dersinde Destekli Öğretimin Akademik Başarıya ve Kalıcılığa Etkisi. (Yayımlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi). Çukurova Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Adana.
  • Terzioğlu, F., Kapucu, S., Özdemir, L., Boztepe, H., Duygulu, S., Tuna, Z., Akdemir, N. (2012) Simülasyon yönetimine ilişkin hemşirelik öğrencilerinin görüşleri, Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Hemşirelik Dergisi.16-23.
  • Uğur, A. (2001). Eğitimde bilgisayar grafikleri ve grafik yazılımları. Ege Eğitim Dergisi, 2001(1), 1: 146-156

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Science
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Özgür ALPARSLAN (Primary Author)
TOKAT Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Fakültesi Ebelik Bölümü
0000-0002-2264-2886
Türkiye


Öznur ÇETİN
Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi
0000-0001-8173-9859
Türkiye


Ayşe ÇATALOLUK
TOKAT GAZİOSMANPAŞA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, EBELİK BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-9344-107X
Türkiye


Ayşenur KAHRAMAN
TOKAT GAZİOSMANPAŞA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ, EBELİK BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0001-8194-9776
Türkiye

Supporting Institution Bu çalışma Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Komisyonu tarafından desteklenmiştir (Proje No: 2018/72).
Project Number Proje No: 2018/72.
Thanks Araştırmanın her türlü maliyetini karşılamada desteğinden dolayı “Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Komisyonu” na, araştırmaya katılımlarından dolayı 1. sınıf öğrencilerimize, projede olmadıkları halde yoğun emekleri ile destek veren öğretim elemanlarına ve Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi Rektörlüğü’ne teşekkürlerimizi sunarız. Bu çalışma 1. Uluslararası Anadolu Ebeler Derneği Kongresi’nde sözel bildiri olarak sunulmuştur.
Publication Date June 30, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { bilmes928235, journal = {International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal}, issn = {2618-5938}, address = {Gaziosmanpaşa Üni. Taşlıçiftlik kampüsü Teknopark binası No:111 Tokat/Merkez}, publisher = {Umut SARAY}, year = {2021}, volume = {5}, pages = {50 - 61}, doi = {}, title = {The Effect of Vocational Skill Training Model Given by Simulators on Academic Achievement and Anxiety Levels of Midwifery Students}, key = {cite}, author = {Alparslan, Özgür and Çetin, Öznur and Çataloluk, Ayşe and Kahraman, Ayşenur} }
APA Alparslan, Ö. , Çetin, Ö. , Çataloluk, A. & Kahraman, A. (2021). The Effect of Vocational Skill Training Model Given by Simulators on Academic Achievement and Anxiety Levels of Midwifery Students . International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal , 5 (1) , 50-61 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/bilmes/issue/63451/928235
MLA Alparslan, Ö. , Çetin, Ö. , Çataloluk, A. , Kahraman, A. "The Effect of Vocational Skill Training Model Given by Simulators on Academic Achievement and Anxiety Levels of Midwifery Students" . International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal 5 (2021 ): 50-61 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/bilmes/issue/63451/928235>
Chicago Alparslan, Ö. , Çetin, Ö. , Çataloluk, A. , Kahraman, A. "The Effect of Vocational Skill Training Model Given by Simulators on Academic Achievement and Anxiety Levels of Midwifery Students". International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal 5 (2021 ): 50-61
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Effect of Vocational Skill Training Model Given by Simulators on Academic Achievement and Anxiety Levels of Midwifery Students AU - Özgür Alparslan , Öznur Çetin , Ayşe Çataloluk , Ayşenur Kahraman Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - DO - T2 - International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 50 EP - 61 VL - 5 IS - 1 SN - 2618-5938- M3 - UR - Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal The Effect of Vocational Skill Training Model Given by Simulators on Academic Achievement and Anxiety Levels of Midwifery Students %A Özgür Alparslan , Öznur Çetin , Ayşe Çataloluk , Ayşenur Kahraman %T The Effect of Vocational Skill Training Model Given by Simulators on Academic Achievement and Anxiety Levels of Midwifery Students %D 2021 %J International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal %P 2618-5938- %V 5 %N 1 %R %U
ISNAD Alparslan, Özgür , Çetin, Öznur , Çataloluk, Ayşe , Kahraman, Ayşenur . "The Effect of Vocational Skill Training Model Given by Simulators on Academic Achievement and Anxiety Levels of Midwifery Students". International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal 5 / 1 (June 2021): 50-61 .
AMA Alparslan Ö. , Çetin Ö. , Çataloluk A. , Kahraman A. The Effect of Vocational Skill Training Model Given by Simulators on Academic Achievement and Anxiety Levels of Midwifery Students. ISVOS JOURNAL. 2021; 5(1): 50-61.
Vancouver Alparslan Ö. , Çetin Ö. , Çataloluk A. , Kahraman A. The Effect of Vocational Skill Training Model Given by Simulators on Academic Achievement and Anxiety Levels of Midwifery Students. International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal. 2021; 5(1): 50-61.
IEEE Ö. Alparslan , Ö. Çetin , A. Çataloluk and A. Kahraman , "The Effect of Vocational Skill Training Model Given by Simulators on Academic Achievement and Anxiety Levels of Midwifery Students", International Scientific and Vocational Studies Journal, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 50-61, Jun. 2021


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