Year 2021, Volume 14 , Issue 1, Pages 155 - 166 2021-04-15

Diversity of thermophilic archaea and their biotechnological uses
DIVERSITY OF THERMOPHILIC ARCHAEA AND THEIR BIOTECHNOLOGICAL USES

Gülsu ÖZKAN [1] , Gamze BAŞBÜLBÜL [2]


Arkeler canlıların üç büyük domaininden birini oluşturan, biyokimyasal özellikleri bakımından hem bakterilerden hem de ökaryotlardan farklı olan, prokaryotik hücre tipinde tek hücreli canlılardır. Arkeler pek çok canlının hayatta kalamayacağı aşırı sıcak, aşırı soğuk ve aşırı tuzlu ve benzeri ekstrem ortamlarda yaşayabilirler. Yakın zamana kadar arkelerin sadece ekstrem ortam koşullarında yaşayabildikleri zannedilirken, son dönemlerde yapılan çalışmalardaa arkelerin başka canlı gruplarının bulunduğu normal yaşam ortamlarında da geliştikleri tespit edilmiştir. Arke türlerinin saf kültürlerinin izole edildiği tipik ortamlar; kaplıcalar, hidrotermal bacalar, solfataralar, tuz gölleri, soda gölleridir. Mikrobiyal çeşitlilik analizleri hem mikrobiyoloji temelli kültür bağımlı yöntemlerle hem de moleküler teknikler kullanılarak kültürden bağımsız yöntemlerle yapılabilmektedir. Ancak yine de çok sıcak ve basınçlı çevrelerdeki koşulları laboratuvar ortamlarında oluşturmak zordur ve birçok farklı takson gözden kaçabilir. Kültüre bağlı olarak yapılan çalışmalarda henüz kültüre edilmemiş arke türlerinin belirlenmesi söz konusu değildir. Bu nedenle son yirmi yılda, çevresel örneklerdeki 16S rRNA genlerinin PCR-bazlı amplifikasyonunu içeren moleküler tekniklerin kullanılması, kültürden bağımsız bir mikrobiyal çeşitlilik değerlendirmesine izin vermektedir. Arkelerin sıcaklık, tuzluluk ve pH açısından neredeyse sınır değerlerde işlev gösterme kabiliyetlerinin bir sonucu olarak, ekstremofilik enzimleri (ekstremozimleri) günümüzde birçok uygulamada kullanım alanı bulmaktadır. Bu derlemede termofilik arkelerin genel özelliklerine, kültürden bağımsız arkeal çeşitlilik çalışmalarına ve arke enzimlerinin biyoteknolojide kullanım alanlarına değinilmiştir.
Archaea, which constitute one of the three major domains of living things, in terms of both biochemical properties and structural features, are prokaryotic cell types that are separated from eukaryotes and bacteria. The vast majority of members of Archea survive in extreme ambient conditions thanks to their metabolic and molecular adaptations. Typical environments in which pure cultures of archaea species isolated; are hot springs, hydrothermal vents, solfataras, salt lakes, soda lakes. Microbial diversity analysis can be performed both with microbiology-based culture-dependent methods and culture-independent methods using molecular techniques. However, it is still difficult to create conditions in very hot and pressurized environments in laboratory environments and many different taxa can be overlooked. It is not possible to determine archaea types that have not yet been cultured in studies based on culture. Therefore, over the past two decades, the use of molecular techniques involving PCR-based amplification of 16S rRNA genes in environmental samples allows a culture-independent evaluation of microbial diversity. As a result of archaea's ability to function at nearly limit values in terms of temperature, salinity and pH, extremophilic enzymes (extremozymes) are now found in many applications. In this review, general properties of thermophilic archaea, archaeal diversity studies independent of culture, and usage areas of archaeal enzymes in biotechnology are discussed.
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Primary Language tr
Subjects Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Journal Section Review
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-2379-0696
Author: Gülsu ÖZKAN (Primary Author)
Institution: AYDIN ADNAN MENDERES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, REKOMBİNANT DNA VE REKOMBİNANT PROTEİN UYGULAMA VE ARAŞTIRMA MERKEZİ
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0001-8151-6321
Author: Gamze BAŞBÜLBÜL
Institution: AYDIN ADNAN MENDERES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, REKOMBİNANT DNA VE REKOMBİNANT PROTEİN UYGULAMA VE ARAŞTIRMA MERKEZİ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Application Date : August 17, 2020
Acceptance Date : March 21, 2021
Publication Date : April 15, 2021

APA Özkan, G , Başbülbül, G . (2021). Diversity of thermophilic archaea and their biotechnological uses . Biyolojik Çeşitlilik ve Koruma , 14 (1) , 155-166 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/biodicon/issue/59796/781524