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Leaf anatomy of Quercus macranthera subsp. syspirensis (K.Koch) Menitsky

Year 2021, Volume 14, Issue 3, 405 - 410, 15.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.46309/biodicon.2021.971985

Abstract

The genus Quercus L. (Fagaceae) is represented by 461 species worldwide. Its distribution ranges from the temperate northern hemisphere to Malaysia and Colombia. Quercus bark is rich in tannins and is used as an astringent. Q. macranthera subsp. syspirensis (K.Koch) Menitsky is endemic to Turkey and is known as "ispir meşesi". The plant is a small deciduous tree up to 7 m tall. Leaves obovate with 5-9 short lobes, stipules filiform, primary veins 6-10 and petiole 5-20 mm. The plant material was collected from Kastamonu-Araç (Turkey). A voucher specimen was deposited in the Ankara University Faculty of Pharmacy Herbarium (AEF). The samples for anatomical studies were protected in 70% alcohol. The transverse and surface sections were cut by hand with razor blade into microscopic preparat form. The Sartur solution was used in microscopic examinations. Leica DM 4000B microscope was used for anatomical analysis and micro photographing. According to the results of the anatomical study, the leaf is bifacial. Numerous stellate hairs are found on the upper and lower epidermis. Stomata are located only on the lower epidermis. The leaf and petiole contain solitary crystals. The petiole is characterized by a numerous stellate hairs. The sclerenchymatous tissue surrounds the vascular bundles in the form of a ring.

References

  • [1] Davis, P. H. (1982). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press.
  • [2] POWO (2021). "Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org (Accessed 10.07.2021).
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  • [4] Buche, G., Colas, C., Fougère, L., Giordanengo, T., & Destandau, E. (2020). Untargeted UHPLC‐Q‐TOF‐HRMS based determination of discrimating compounds for oak species Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea Liebl. identification. Phytochemical Analysis. https://doi.org/10.1002/pca.3013
  • [5] Marinov, M. G., Dimitrova, E. D., & Puech, J. L. (1997). Kinetics of ellagitannin extraction from oak wood using white wine. Journal of Wine Research, 8(1), 29-40. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571269708718095
  • [6] Perez, A. J., Pecio, Ł., Kowalczyk, M., Kontek, R., Gajek, G., Stopinsek, L., ... & Stochmal, A. (2017). Triterpenoid components from oak heartwood (Quercus robur) and their potential health benefits. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 65(23), 4611-4623. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b01396
  • [7] Ricci, A., Parpinello, G. P., Palma, A. S., Teslić, N., Brilli, C., Pizzi, A., & Versari, A. (2017). Analytical profiling of food-grade extracts from grape (Vitis vinifera sp.) seeds and skins, green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves and Limousin oak (Quercus robur) heartwood using MALDI-TOF-MS, ICP-MS and spectrophotometric methods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 59, 95-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2017.01.014
  • [8] Şöhretoğlu, D., Sakar, M. K. (2004). Polyphenolic constituents and biological activities of Quercus species. Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy of Ankara University, 33(3), 183–215.
  • [9] Vivas, N., Nonier, M. F., de Gaulejac, N. V., & de Boissel, I. P. (2004). Occurrence and partial characterization of polymeric ellagitannins in Quercus petraea Liebl. and Q. robur L. wood. Comptes Rendus Chimie, 7(8-9), 945-954. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crci.2004.06.004
  • [10] Carrió, E., & Vallès, J. (2012). Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used in eastern Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Mediterranean Sea). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 141(3), 1021-1040. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.03.049
  • [11] Gilca, M., Tiplica, G. S., & Salavastru, C. M. (2018). Traditional and ethnobotanical dermatology practices in Romania and other Eastern European countries. Clinics in dermatology, 36(3), 338-352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2018.03.008
  • [12] Leporatti, M. L., & Ivancheva, S. (2003). Preliminary comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in the traditional medicine of Bulgaria and Italy. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 87(2-3), 123-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00047-3
  • [13] Sõukand, R., & Pieroni, A. (2016). The importance of a border: medical, veterinary, and wild food ethnobotany of the Hutsuls living on the Romanian and Ukrainian sides of Bukovina. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 185, 17-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.03.009
  • [14] Šarić-Kundalić, B., Dobeš, C., Klatte-Asselmeyer, V., & Saukel, J. (2010). Ethnobotanical study on medicinal use of wild and cultivated plants in middle, south and west Bosnia and Herzegovina. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 131(1), 33-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.05.061
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  • [16] Andrenšek, S., Simonovska, B., Vovk, I., Fyhrquist, P., Vuorela, H., & Vuorela, P. (2004). Antimicrobial and antioxidative enrichment of oak (Quercus robur) bark by rotation planar extraction using ExtraChrom®. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 92(2), 181-187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2003.09.009
  • [17] Berahou, A., Auhmani, A., Fdil, N., Benharref, A., Jana, M., & Gadhi, C. A. (2007). Antibacterial activity of Quercus ilex bark's extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 112(3), 426-429. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.03.032
  • [18] Deryabin, D. G., & Tolmacheva, A. A. (2015). Antibacterial and anti-quorum sensing molecular composition derived from Quercus cortex (Oak bark) extract. Molecules, 20(9), 17093-17108. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200917093
  • [19] Frédérich, M., Marcowycz, A., Cieckiewicz, E., Mégalizzi, V., Angenot, L., & Kiss, R. (2009). In vitro anticancer potential of tree extracts from the Walloon Region forest. Planta medica, 75(15), 1634-1637. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1185867
  • [20] Gharzouli, K., Khennouf, S., Amira, S., & Gharzouli, A. (1999). Effects of aqueous extracts from Quercus ilex L. root bark, Punica granatum L. fruit peel and Artemisia herba‐alba Asso leaves on ethanol‐induced gastric damage in rats. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 13(1), 42-45. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199902)13:1<42::AID-PTR383>3.0.CO;2-2
  • [21] Güllüce, M., Adıgüzel, A., Öğütçü, H., Şengül, M., Karaman, I., & Şahin, F. (2004). Antimicrobial effects of Quercus ilex L. extract. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 18(3), 208-211. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1419
  • [22] Jassim, S. A. A., & Naji, M. A. (2003). Novel antiviral agents: a medicinal plant perspective. Journal of applied microbiology, 95(3), 412-427. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2003.02026.x
  • [23] Khennouf, S., Benabdallah, H., Gharzouli, K., Amira, S., Ito, H., Kim, T. H., ... & Gharzouli, A. (2003). Effect of tannins from Quercus suber and Quercus coccifera leaves on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in mice. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 51(5), 1469-1473. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020808y
  • [24] Panchal, S. K., & Brown, L. (2013). Cardioprotective and hepatoprotective effects of ellagitannins from European oak bark (Quercus petraea L.) extract in rats. European journal of nutrition, 52(1), 397-408. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-011-0277-1
  • [25] Bulut, G., Haznedaroğlu, M. Z., Doğan, A., Koyu, H., & Tuzlacı, E. (2017). An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Acipayam (Denizli-Turkey). Journal of Herbal Medicine, 10, 64-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hermed.2017.08.001
  • [26] Cakilcioglu, U., & Turkoglu, I. (2010). An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Sivrice (Elazığ-Turkey). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 132(1), 165-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.08.017
  • [27] Senkardes, I., & Tuzlaci, E. (2014). Some Ethnobotanical Notes from Gundogmus District (Antalya/Turkey). Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences, 4(2), 63.
  • [28] Sargin, S. A. (2021). Plants used against obesity in Turkish folk medicine: A review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 113841. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.113841
  • [29] Sargın, S. A., Akçicek, E., & Selvi, S. (2013). An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the local people of Alaşehir (Manisa) in Turkey. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 150(3), 860-874. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.09.040
  • [30] Polat, R., Cakilcioglu, U., & Satıl, F. (2013). Traditional uses of medicinal plants in Solhan (Bingöl-Turkey). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 148(3), 951-963. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.05.050
  • [31] Sargin, S. A., Selvi, S., & Büyükcengiz, M. (2015). Ethnomedicinal plants of Aydıncık district of Mersin, Turkey. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 174, 200-216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.008
  • [32] Kültür, Ş. (2007). Medicinal plants used in Kırklareli province (Turkey). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 111(2), 341-364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.11.035
  • [33] Sezik, E., Yeşilada, E., Honda, G., Takaishi, Y., Takeda, Y., & Tanaka, T. (2001). Traditional medicine in Turkey X. Folk medicine in central Anatolia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 75(2-3), 95-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00399-8
  • [34] Güner, A., Aslan, S., Ekim, T., Vural, M., Babaç, M. T. (2012). Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarlı Bitkiler). Nezahat Gökyigit Botanik Bahçesi Yayınları, Flora Dizisi I.
  • [35] Türk Farmakopesi (2017). Türk Farmakopesi, genel monograflar I. Ankara, Türkiye: T.C. Sağlık Bakanlığı.
  • [36] Alamgir, A. N. M. (2017). Pharmacognostical Botany: Classification of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs), botanical taxonomy, morphology, and anatomy of drug plants. In K. D., Rainsford (Eds.), Therapeutic use of medicinal plants and their extracts (Vol. 1, pp.177-293). Springer International Publishing AG.
  • [37] Hürkul, M. M. & Köroğlu, A. (2019). Piyasada satılan Peganum harmala L. (Üzerlik) meyvelerinin farmasötik botanik açısından incelenmesi. Biyolojik Çeşitlilik ve Koruma, 12(2), 65-77. https://doi.org/10.5505/biodicon.2019.52724
  • [38] Hürkul, M. M., Çiftçi, R. & Köroğlu, A. (2020). Salep ve salep içeren ürünlerin gıda ve eczacılık açısından incelenmesi. Biyolojik Çeşitlilik ve Koruma, 13(2) , 144-152. https://doi.org/10.46309/biodicon.2020.742692
  • [39] Metcalfe, C. R., & Chalk, L. (1965). Anatomy of dicotyledones. (Vol. 2). Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

Quercus macranthera subsp. syspirensis (K.Koch) Menitsky’in yaprak anatomisi

Year 2021, Volume 14, Issue 3, 405 - 410, 15.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.46309/biodicon.2021.971985

Abstract

Quercus L. (Fagaceae) cinsi dünya genelinde 461 tür ile temsil edilir. Yayılış alanları ılıman kuzey yarımküreden Malezya ve Kolombiya'ya kadardır. Quercus gövde kabukları tanen bakımından zengindir ve astrenjan olarak kullanılır. Q. macranthera subsp. syspirensis (K.Koch) Menitsky Türkiye için endemik olup "ispir meşesi" olarak bilinir. Bitki 7 m boylanan, yaprak döken küçük ağaçtır. Yapraklar 5-9 kısa loblu, obovat, filiform stipulalı, 6-10 primer damarlı ve 5-20 mm uzunluğunda yaprak saplıdır. Bitki materyali Kastamonu-Araç (Türkiye)'tan toplandı. Bir örneği Ankara Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi Herbaryumu (AEF)'na kaydedildi. Anatomik çalışmalar için numuneler %70 alkolde korundu. Enine ve yüzey kesitleri el ile jilet kullanılarak mikroskobik preparat haline getirildi. Mikroskobik incelemelerde Sartur solüsyonu kullanıldı. Anatomik analiz ve mikro fotoğraflama için Leica DM 4000B mikroskobu kullanıldı. Anatomik çalışma sonucuna göre, yaprak bifasiyaldir. Üst ve alt epidermada çok sayıda yıldız tüy bulunur. Stomalar sadece alt epidermada yer alır. Yaprak ve yaprak sapı kristaller içerir. Yaprak sapı çok sayıda yıldız tüy ile karakterizedir. İletim demetlerini sklerenkimatik doku halka şeklinde sarmıştır.

References

  • [1] Davis, P. H. (1982). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press.
  • [2] POWO (2021). "Plants of the World Online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org (Accessed 10.07.2021).
  • [3] Evans, W. (2002). Trease and Evans pharmacognosy (15th ed.). WB Saunders.
  • [4] Buche, G., Colas, C., Fougère, L., Giordanengo, T., & Destandau, E. (2020). Untargeted UHPLC‐Q‐TOF‐HRMS based determination of discrimating compounds for oak species Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea Liebl. identification. Phytochemical Analysis. https://doi.org/10.1002/pca.3013
  • [5] Marinov, M. G., Dimitrova, E. D., & Puech, J. L. (1997). Kinetics of ellagitannin extraction from oak wood using white wine. Journal of Wine Research, 8(1), 29-40. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571269708718095
  • [6] Perez, A. J., Pecio, Ł., Kowalczyk, M., Kontek, R., Gajek, G., Stopinsek, L., ... & Stochmal, A. (2017). Triterpenoid components from oak heartwood (Quercus robur) and their potential health benefits. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 65(23), 4611-4623. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b01396
  • [7] Ricci, A., Parpinello, G. P., Palma, A. S., Teslić, N., Brilli, C., Pizzi, A., & Versari, A. (2017). Analytical profiling of food-grade extracts from grape (Vitis vinifera sp.) seeds and skins, green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves and Limousin oak (Quercus robur) heartwood using MALDI-TOF-MS, ICP-MS and spectrophotometric methods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 59, 95-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2017.01.014
  • [8] Şöhretoğlu, D., Sakar, M. K. (2004). Polyphenolic constituents and biological activities of Quercus species. Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy of Ankara University, 33(3), 183–215.
  • [9] Vivas, N., Nonier, M. F., de Gaulejac, N. V., & de Boissel, I. P. (2004). Occurrence and partial characterization of polymeric ellagitannins in Quercus petraea Liebl. and Q. robur L. wood. Comptes Rendus Chimie, 7(8-9), 945-954. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crci.2004.06.004
  • [10] Carrió, E., & Vallès, J. (2012). Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used in eastern Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Mediterranean Sea). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 141(3), 1021-1040. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.03.049
  • [11] Gilca, M., Tiplica, G. S., & Salavastru, C. M. (2018). Traditional and ethnobotanical dermatology practices in Romania and other Eastern European countries. Clinics in dermatology, 36(3), 338-352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2018.03.008
  • [12] Leporatti, M. L., & Ivancheva, S. (2003). Preliminary comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in the traditional medicine of Bulgaria and Italy. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 87(2-3), 123-142. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00047-3
  • [13] Sõukand, R., & Pieroni, A. (2016). The importance of a border: medical, veterinary, and wild food ethnobotany of the Hutsuls living on the Romanian and Ukrainian sides of Bukovina. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 185, 17-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.03.009
  • [14] Šarić-Kundalić, B., Dobeš, C., Klatte-Asselmeyer, V., & Saukel, J. (2010). Ethnobotanical study on medicinal use of wild and cultivated plants in middle, south and west Bosnia and Herzegovina. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 131(1), 33-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.05.061
  • [15] Alkofahi, A., & Atta, A. H. (1999). Pharmacological screening of the anti-ulcerogenic effects of some Jordanian medicinal plants in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 67(3), 341-345. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00126-3
  • [16] Andrenšek, S., Simonovska, B., Vovk, I., Fyhrquist, P., Vuorela, H., & Vuorela, P. (2004). Antimicrobial and antioxidative enrichment of oak (Quercus robur) bark by rotation planar extraction using ExtraChrom®. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 92(2), 181-187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2003.09.009
  • [17] Berahou, A., Auhmani, A., Fdil, N., Benharref, A., Jana, M., & Gadhi, C. A. (2007). Antibacterial activity of Quercus ilex bark's extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 112(3), 426-429. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.03.032
  • [18] Deryabin, D. G., & Tolmacheva, A. A. (2015). Antibacterial and anti-quorum sensing molecular composition derived from Quercus cortex (Oak bark) extract. Molecules, 20(9), 17093-17108. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200917093
  • [19] Frédérich, M., Marcowycz, A., Cieckiewicz, E., Mégalizzi, V., Angenot, L., & Kiss, R. (2009). In vitro anticancer potential of tree extracts from the Walloon Region forest. Planta medica, 75(15), 1634-1637. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1185867
  • [20] Gharzouli, K., Khennouf, S., Amira, S., & Gharzouli, A. (1999). Effects of aqueous extracts from Quercus ilex L. root bark, Punica granatum L. fruit peel and Artemisia herba‐alba Asso leaves on ethanol‐induced gastric damage in rats. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 13(1), 42-45. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199902)13:1<42::AID-PTR383>3.0.CO;2-2
  • [21] Güllüce, M., Adıgüzel, A., Öğütçü, H., Şengül, M., Karaman, I., & Şahin, F. (2004). Antimicrobial effects of Quercus ilex L. extract. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 18(3), 208-211. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1419
  • [22] Jassim, S. A. A., & Naji, M. A. (2003). Novel antiviral agents: a medicinal plant perspective. Journal of applied microbiology, 95(3), 412-427. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2003.02026.x
  • [23] Khennouf, S., Benabdallah, H., Gharzouli, K., Amira, S., Ito, H., Kim, T. H., ... & Gharzouli, A. (2003). Effect of tannins from Quercus suber and Quercus coccifera leaves on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in mice. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 51(5), 1469-1473. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020808y
  • [24] Panchal, S. K., & Brown, L. (2013). Cardioprotective and hepatoprotective effects of ellagitannins from European oak bark (Quercus petraea L.) extract in rats. European journal of nutrition, 52(1), 397-408. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-011-0277-1
  • [25] Bulut, G., Haznedaroğlu, M. Z., Doğan, A., Koyu, H., & Tuzlacı, E. (2017). An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Acipayam (Denizli-Turkey). Journal of Herbal Medicine, 10, 64-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hermed.2017.08.001
  • [26] Cakilcioglu, U., & Turkoglu, I. (2010). An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Sivrice (Elazığ-Turkey). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 132(1), 165-175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.08.017
  • [27] Senkardes, I., & Tuzlaci, E. (2014). Some Ethnobotanical Notes from Gundogmus District (Antalya/Turkey). Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences, 4(2), 63.
  • [28] Sargin, S. A. (2021). Plants used against obesity in Turkish folk medicine: A review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 113841. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.113841
  • [29] Sargın, S. A., Akçicek, E., & Selvi, S. (2013). An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the local people of Alaşehir (Manisa) in Turkey. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 150(3), 860-874. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.09.040
  • [30] Polat, R., Cakilcioglu, U., & Satıl, F. (2013). Traditional uses of medicinal plants in Solhan (Bingöl-Turkey). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 148(3), 951-963. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.05.050
  • [31] Sargin, S. A., Selvi, S., & Büyükcengiz, M. (2015). Ethnomedicinal plants of Aydıncık district of Mersin, Turkey. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 174, 200-216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2015.08.008
  • [32] Kültür, Ş. (2007). Medicinal plants used in Kırklareli province (Turkey). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 111(2), 341-364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.11.035
  • [33] Sezik, E., Yeşilada, E., Honda, G., Takaishi, Y., Takeda, Y., & Tanaka, T. (2001). Traditional medicine in Turkey X. Folk medicine in central Anatolia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 75(2-3), 95-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00399-8
  • [34] Güner, A., Aslan, S., Ekim, T., Vural, M., Babaç, M. T. (2012). Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarlı Bitkiler). Nezahat Gökyigit Botanik Bahçesi Yayınları, Flora Dizisi I.
  • [35] Türk Farmakopesi (2017). Türk Farmakopesi, genel monograflar I. Ankara, Türkiye: T.C. Sağlık Bakanlığı.
  • [36] Alamgir, A. N. M. (2017). Pharmacognostical Botany: Classification of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs), botanical taxonomy, morphology, and anatomy of drug plants. In K. D., Rainsford (Eds.), Therapeutic use of medicinal plants and their extracts (Vol. 1, pp.177-293). Springer International Publishing AG.
  • [37] Hürkul, M. M. & Köroğlu, A. (2019). Piyasada satılan Peganum harmala L. (Üzerlik) meyvelerinin farmasötik botanik açısından incelenmesi. Biyolojik Çeşitlilik ve Koruma, 12(2), 65-77. https://doi.org/10.5505/biodicon.2019.52724
  • [38] Hürkul, M. M., Çiftçi, R. & Köroğlu, A. (2020). Salep ve salep içeren ürünlerin gıda ve eczacılık açısından incelenmesi. Biyolojik Çeşitlilik ve Koruma, 13(2) , 144-152. https://doi.org/10.46309/biodicon.2020.742692
  • [39] Metcalfe, C. R., & Chalk, L. (1965). Anatomy of dicotyledones. (Vol. 2). Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Biodiversity Conservation
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Muhammed Mesud HÜRKUL (Primary Author)
ANKARA ÜNİVERSİTESİ, ECZACILIK FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-9241-2496
Türkiye


Şeyda YAYLA This is me
Ankara Üniversitesi
0000-0002-3678-6506
Türkiye

Publication Date December 15, 2021
Application Date July 15, 2021
Acceptance Date November 5, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 14, Issue 3

Cite

APA Hürkul, M. M. & Yayla, Ş. (2021). Leaf anatomy of Quercus macranthera subsp. syspirensis (K.Koch) Menitsky . Biyolojik Çeşitlilik ve Koruma , 14 (3) , 405-410 . DOI: 10.46309/biodicon.2021.971985

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❖  Correspondance Adres: Prof. Ersin YÜCEL, P.K. 86, İki Eylül PTT Merkez, 26000 Eskişehir / Turkey
E-posta / E-mail: biodicon@gmail.com;
Web Address: http://www.biodicon.com; https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/biodicon
❖ Biological Diversity and Conservation/ Biyolojik Çeşitlilik ve Koruma
❖ ISSN 1308-5301 Print; ISSN 1308-8084 Online
❖ Start Date Published 2008
© Copyright by Biological Diversity and Conservation/Biyolojik Çeşitlilik ve Koruma-Available online at www.biodicon.com/All rights reserved
Publisher : Ersin YÜCEL
❖ This journal is published three numbers in a year. Printed in Eskişehir/Turkey.
❖ All sorts of responsibilities of the articles published in this journal are belonging to the authors
Editör / Editor-In-Chief : Prof.Dr. Ersin YÜCEL, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8274-7578