Research Article
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Body size and age structure of Lacerta agilis LINNAEUS, 1758 (Reptilia: Lacertidae) from two different populations in Turkey

Year 2021, Volume 14, Issue 3, 505 - 510, 15.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.46309/biodicon.2021.991685

Abstract

Age structure and longevity in 47 museum specimens (31 females and 16 males) of Lacerta agilis from two different populations in Turkey were skeletochronologically studied. The mean SVL of males was not significantly different from those of females, although intersexual differences in body size are female-biased. The age structure ranged from 3 to 6 years in male individuals, and 3 to 8 years in females. Age at sexual maturity was 2 years for males, while females reached sexual maturity after the third year of life. The age did not significantly differ between the sexes. Additionally, age structure and SVL did not significantly differ between the two populations. A significant positive correlation between SVL and age structure was present for the Kars population, although there was a weak correlation for the Ardahan population. Considering sex, there was a significant difference in terms of SVL for the Ardahan population, while age structure significantly differed for the Kars population.

References

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  • [2] Baran, İ., & Atatür, M. K. (1998). Turkish Herpetofauna (Amphibians and Reptiles). Turkish Republic of Environmental Ministry, Ankara.
  • [3] Roitberg, E. S., & Smirina, E. M. (2006). Age, body size and growth of Lacerta agilis boemica and L. agilis strigata: a comparative study of two closely related lizard species based on skeletochronology. Herpetological Journal, 16, 133-148.
  • [4] Agasyan, A., Avcı, A., Tuniyev, B., Lymberakis, P., Andren, C., Cogalniceanu, D., Wilkinson, J., Ananjeva, N., Üzüm, N., Orlov, N., Podloucky, R., Tuniyev, S., Kaya, U., Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J., Vogrin, M., Corti, C., Perez-Mellado, V., Sa-Sousa, P., Cheylan, M., Pleguezuelos, J., Kyek, M., Westerström, A., Nettmann, H. K., Borczyk, B., Sterijovski, B., & Schmidt, B. (2010). Lacerta agilis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T157288A5071439.http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-4.RLTS.T157288A5071439.en.
  • [5] Gül, S., Özdemir, N., Kumlutaş, Y., & Ilgaz, Ç. (2014). Age structure and body size in three populations of Darevskia rudis (Bedriaga, 1886) from different altitudes. Herpetozoa, 26, 151-158.
  • [6] Üzüm, N., Avcı, A., Kumlutaş, Y., Beşer, N., & Ilgaz, Ç. (2015). The first record of age structure and body size of the Suphan Racerunner, Eremias suphani Başoğlu & Hellmich, 1968. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 39, 513-518.
  • [7] Stearns, S. C., & Koella, J. (1986). The evolution of phenotypic plasticity in life-history traits: predictions for norms of reaction for age and size-at-maturity. Evolution, 40, 893-913.
  • [8] Bauwens, D. (1999). Life history variation in lacertid lizards. Natura Croatica, 8, 239-252.
  • [9] Üzüm, N., Ilgaz, Ç., Avcı, A., Candan, K., Güler, H., & Kumlutaş, Y. (2018). Comparison of the body size and age structure of Lebanon lizard, Phoenicolacerta laevis (Gray, 1838) at different altitudes in Turkey. Vertebrate Zoology, 68, 83-90.
  • [10] Vitt, L. J. (2016). Reptile diversity and life history. p. 3–15. In: Jr. C. K. Dodd (ed.), Reptile Ecology and Conservation. A Handbook of Techniques. Oxford University Press, Penrith, Cumbria.
  • [11] Castanet, J., & Smirina, E. M. (1990). Introduction to the skeletochronological method in amphibians and reptiles. Annales Des Sciences Naturelles, 11, 191-196.
  • [12] Green, C.C. (2018). Osteohistology and Skeletochronology of An Ontogenetic Series of Clidastes (Squamata: Mosasauridae): Growth and Metabolism in Basal Mosasaurids. Unpublished master's thesis. Fort Hays State University, Kansas.
  • [13] Üzüm, N., Ilgaz, Ç., Kumlutaş, Y., Gümüş, Ç., & Avcı, A. (2014). The body size, age structure, and growth of Bosc’s fringe-toed lizard, Acanthodactylus boskianus (Daudin, 1802). Turkish Journal of Zoology, 38, 383-388.
  • [14] Strijbosch, H., & Creemers, R. C. M. (1988). Comparative demography of sympatric populations of Lacerta vivipara and L. agilis. Oecologia, 76, 20-26.
  • [15] Olsson, M., & Shine, R. (1996). Does reproductive success increase with age or with size in species with indeterminate growth - a case study using sand lizards (Lacerta agilis). Oecologia, 105, 175-178.
  • [16] Guarino, F. M., Gia, I. D., & Sindaco, R. (2010). Age and growth of the sand lizards (Lacerta agilis) from a high alpine population of north-western Italy. Acta Herpetologica, 5, 23-29.
  • [17] Kidov, A. A., Timoshina, A. L., Khairutdinov, I. Z., Kovrina, E. G., & Matushkina, K. A. (2014). Age, growth and reproduction of the Bohme’s lizard, Lacerta agilis boemica SUCHOV 1929 (Reptilia: Lacetilia: Lacertidae) in the foothills of North Ossetia. Vestnik of Buryat State University, 4(2), 49-52.
  • [18] Guarino, F. M., Crovetto, F., Mezzasalma, M., & Salvidio, S. (2015). Population size, age structure and life expectancy in a Lacerta agilis population from northwest Italian Alps. North Western Journal of Zoology, 11, 241-246.
  • [19] Gül, S., Özdemir, N., Avcı, A., Kumlutaş, Y., & Ilgaz, Ç. (2015b). Altitudinal effects on the life history of the Anatolian lizard (Apathya cappadocica, Werner 1902) from southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 39, 507-512.
  • [20] Gül, S., Ilgaz, Ç. Kumlutaş, Y., & Candan, K. (2017). Age structure and growth pattern in an east Anatolian high altitude population of Iranolacerta brandtii (De Filippi, 1863) (Squamata: Sauria: Lacertidae). Herpetozoa, 30, 3-7.
  • [21] Altunışık, A., & Eksilmez, H. (2018). Demographic life history traits in a population of a critically endangered species, Darevskia dryada (Darevsky & Tuniyev, 1997). Animal Biology, 68, 27-37.
  • [22] Beşer, N., Ilgaz, Ç., Kumlutaş, Y., Avcı, A., Candan, K., & Üzüm, N. (2019). Age structure and body size of a critically endangered species, Acanthodactylus harranensis (Squamata: Lacertidae) and its demography. Animal Biology, 69, 421-431.
  • [23] Tsms (2020). Turkish State Meteorological Service. < https://www.mgm.gov.tr> Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Ankara, Turkey. Accessed 11 May 2019.
  • [24] Lovich, J. E., & Gibbons, J. W. (1992). A review of techniques for quantifying sexual size dimorphism. Growth Development and Aging, 56, 269-281.
  • [25] Gharzi, A., & Yari, A. (2013). Age determination in the Snake-eyed Lizard, Ophisops elegans by means of skeletochronology (Reptilia: Lacertidae). Zoology in the Middle East, 59(1), 10-15.
  • [26] Bouragaoui, Z., & Nouira, S. (2019). Age determination in the Sans Lizard Psammodromus algirus (Reptilia: Lacertidae) by means of skeletochronology. Current Herpetology, 38(2), 173-179.
  • [27] Bülbül, U., Kurnaz, M., & Eroğlu, İ. (2016). Body size and age structure of the endangered Clark’s lizard (Darevskia clarkorum) populations from two different altitudes in Turkey. Amphibia-Reptilia, 37, 450-456.
  • [28] Zhang, L., & Lu, X. (2012). Amphibians live longer at higher altitudes but not at higher latitudes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 106, 623-632.
  • [29] Cox, R. M., Butler, M. A., & John-Alder, H. B. (2007). The evolution of sexual size dimorphism in reptiles. p. 38-49. In: D. J. Fairbairn, T. Szekely, and W. Blanckenhorn (eds.), Sex, size and gender Roles: evolutionary studies of sexual size dimorphism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • [30] Altunışık, A., Ergül-Kalaycı, T., Uysal, İ., Tosunoğlu, M., & Özdemir, N. (2016). Age, adult survival rate and adult life expectancy of Podarcis tauricus population (Reptilia: Lacertidae) from Saros Bay. Turkey. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 23, 278-282.
  • [31] Manicom, C., Alford, R., Schoener, T. W., & Schwarzkopf, L. (2014). Mechanisms causing variation in sexual size dimorphism in three sympatric, congeneric lizards. Ecology, 85, 1531-1544.
  • [32] Kurnaz, M., Bülbül, U., Eroğlu, A. İ., Uzun, F., Koç, H., & Kutrup, B. (2018). Age and growth of the artvin Lizard, Darevskia derjugini (NIKOLSKY, 1898), in Turkey (Squamata: Sauria: Lacertidae). Herpetozoa, 30, 147-158.
  • [33] Roitberg, E. S. (2007). Variation in sexual size dimorphism within a widespread lizard species. p. 143-153. In: D. J. Fairbairn, T. Szekely, and W. U. Blanckenhorn (Eds.). Sex, size and gender Roles: evolutionary studies of sexual size dimorphism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • [34] Jimenez-Arcos, V. H., Sanabria-Urban, S., & Cueva del Castillo, R. (2017). The interplay between natural and sexual selection in the evolution of sexual size dimorphism in Sceloporus lizards (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae). Ecology and Evolution, 7, 905-917.
  • [35] Roitberg, E. S., Eplanova, G. V., Kotenko, T. I., Carretero, M. A., Kuranova, V. N., Bulakhova, N. A., Zinenko, O. I., & Yakovlev, V. A. (2015). Geographic variation of life-history traits in the sand lizard, Lacerta agilis: testing Darwin's fecundity-advantage hypothesis. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 28, 613-629.

Türkiye’deki iki farklı populasyondan Lacerta agilis’in LINNAEUS, 1758 (Reptilia: Lacertidae) vücut büyüklüğü ve yaş yapısı

Year 2021, Volume 14, Issue 3, 505 - 510, 15.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.46309/biodicon.2021.991685

Abstract

Türkiye'deki iki farklı popülasyondan Lacerta agilis'in 47 müze örneğinde (31 dişi ve 16 erkek) yaş yapısı ve yaşam süresi iskelet kronolojisi kullanılarak incelenmiştir. Cinsiyete bağımlı vücut büyüklüğü dişi eğilimli olmasına rağmen, erkeklerin ortalama SVL’si dişilerden önemli ölçüde farklı değildir. Yaş dağılımı erkek bireylerde 3 ile 6 yıl arasında, dişilerde ise 3 ile 8 yıl arasında değişmektedir. Erkekler iki, dişiler ise yaşamın üçüncü yılından sonra cinsel olgunluğa ulaşır. Yaş, cinsiyetler arasında önemli ölçüde farklılık göstermez. Bununla birlikte, yaş yapısı ve SVL iki popülasyon arasında önemli ölçüde farklı değildir. SVL ile yaş arasında Ardahan popülasyonu için zayıf bir korelasyon olsa da Kars popülasyonu için anlamlı ölçüde bir pozitif korelasyon vardır. Cinsiyetler göz önüne alındığında, Ardahan popülasyonunda SVL için, Kars popülasyonda ise yaş dağılımı için anlamlı bir fark söz konusudur.

References

  • [1] Andres, C., Franke, F., Bleıdorn C., Bernhard, D., & Schlegel, M. (2014). Phylogenetic analysis of the Lacerta agilis subspecies complex. Systematics and Biodiversity, 12, 43-54.
  • [2] Baran, İ., & Atatür, M. K. (1998). Turkish Herpetofauna (Amphibians and Reptiles). Turkish Republic of Environmental Ministry, Ankara.
  • [3] Roitberg, E. S., & Smirina, E. M. (2006). Age, body size and growth of Lacerta agilis boemica and L. agilis strigata: a comparative study of two closely related lizard species based on skeletochronology. Herpetological Journal, 16, 133-148.
  • [4] Agasyan, A., Avcı, A., Tuniyev, B., Lymberakis, P., Andren, C., Cogalniceanu, D., Wilkinson, J., Ananjeva, N., Üzüm, N., Orlov, N., Podloucky, R., Tuniyev, S., Kaya, U., Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J., Vogrin, M., Corti, C., Perez-Mellado, V., Sa-Sousa, P., Cheylan, M., Pleguezuelos, J., Kyek, M., Westerström, A., Nettmann, H. K., Borczyk, B., Sterijovski, B., & Schmidt, B. (2010). Lacerta agilis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T157288A5071439.http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-4.RLTS.T157288A5071439.en.
  • [5] Gül, S., Özdemir, N., Kumlutaş, Y., & Ilgaz, Ç. (2014). Age structure and body size in three populations of Darevskia rudis (Bedriaga, 1886) from different altitudes. Herpetozoa, 26, 151-158.
  • [6] Üzüm, N., Avcı, A., Kumlutaş, Y., Beşer, N., & Ilgaz, Ç. (2015). The first record of age structure and body size of the Suphan Racerunner, Eremias suphani Başoğlu & Hellmich, 1968. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 39, 513-518.
  • [7] Stearns, S. C., & Koella, J. (1986). The evolution of phenotypic plasticity in life-history traits: predictions for norms of reaction for age and size-at-maturity. Evolution, 40, 893-913.
  • [8] Bauwens, D. (1999). Life history variation in lacertid lizards. Natura Croatica, 8, 239-252.
  • [9] Üzüm, N., Ilgaz, Ç., Avcı, A., Candan, K., Güler, H., & Kumlutaş, Y. (2018). Comparison of the body size and age structure of Lebanon lizard, Phoenicolacerta laevis (Gray, 1838) at different altitudes in Turkey. Vertebrate Zoology, 68, 83-90.
  • [10] Vitt, L. J. (2016). Reptile diversity and life history. p. 3–15. In: Jr. C. K. Dodd (ed.), Reptile Ecology and Conservation. A Handbook of Techniques. Oxford University Press, Penrith, Cumbria.
  • [11] Castanet, J., & Smirina, E. M. (1990). Introduction to the skeletochronological method in amphibians and reptiles. Annales Des Sciences Naturelles, 11, 191-196.
  • [12] Green, C.C. (2018). Osteohistology and Skeletochronology of An Ontogenetic Series of Clidastes (Squamata: Mosasauridae): Growth and Metabolism in Basal Mosasaurids. Unpublished master's thesis. Fort Hays State University, Kansas.
  • [13] Üzüm, N., Ilgaz, Ç., Kumlutaş, Y., Gümüş, Ç., & Avcı, A. (2014). The body size, age structure, and growth of Bosc’s fringe-toed lizard, Acanthodactylus boskianus (Daudin, 1802). Turkish Journal of Zoology, 38, 383-388.
  • [14] Strijbosch, H., & Creemers, R. C. M. (1988). Comparative demography of sympatric populations of Lacerta vivipara and L. agilis. Oecologia, 76, 20-26.
  • [15] Olsson, M., & Shine, R. (1996). Does reproductive success increase with age or with size in species with indeterminate growth - a case study using sand lizards (Lacerta agilis). Oecologia, 105, 175-178.
  • [16] Guarino, F. M., Gia, I. D., & Sindaco, R. (2010). Age and growth of the sand lizards (Lacerta agilis) from a high alpine population of north-western Italy. Acta Herpetologica, 5, 23-29.
  • [17] Kidov, A. A., Timoshina, A. L., Khairutdinov, I. Z., Kovrina, E. G., & Matushkina, K. A. (2014). Age, growth and reproduction of the Bohme’s lizard, Lacerta agilis boemica SUCHOV 1929 (Reptilia: Lacetilia: Lacertidae) in the foothills of North Ossetia. Vestnik of Buryat State University, 4(2), 49-52.
  • [18] Guarino, F. M., Crovetto, F., Mezzasalma, M., & Salvidio, S. (2015). Population size, age structure and life expectancy in a Lacerta agilis population from northwest Italian Alps. North Western Journal of Zoology, 11, 241-246.
  • [19] Gül, S., Özdemir, N., Avcı, A., Kumlutaş, Y., & Ilgaz, Ç. (2015b). Altitudinal effects on the life history of the Anatolian lizard (Apathya cappadocica, Werner 1902) from southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 39, 507-512.
  • [20] Gül, S., Ilgaz, Ç. Kumlutaş, Y., & Candan, K. (2017). Age structure and growth pattern in an east Anatolian high altitude population of Iranolacerta brandtii (De Filippi, 1863) (Squamata: Sauria: Lacertidae). Herpetozoa, 30, 3-7.
  • [21] Altunışık, A., & Eksilmez, H. (2018). Demographic life history traits in a population of a critically endangered species, Darevskia dryada (Darevsky & Tuniyev, 1997). Animal Biology, 68, 27-37.
  • [22] Beşer, N., Ilgaz, Ç., Kumlutaş, Y., Avcı, A., Candan, K., & Üzüm, N. (2019). Age structure and body size of a critically endangered species, Acanthodactylus harranensis (Squamata: Lacertidae) and its demography. Animal Biology, 69, 421-431.
  • [23] Tsms (2020). Turkish State Meteorological Service. < https://www.mgm.gov.tr> Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Ankara, Turkey. Accessed 11 May 2019.
  • [24] Lovich, J. E., & Gibbons, J. W. (1992). A review of techniques for quantifying sexual size dimorphism. Growth Development and Aging, 56, 269-281.
  • [25] Gharzi, A., & Yari, A. (2013). Age determination in the Snake-eyed Lizard, Ophisops elegans by means of skeletochronology (Reptilia: Lacertidae). Zoology in the Middle East, 59(1), 10-15.
  • [26] Bouragaoui, Z., & Nouira, S. (2019). Age determination in the Sans Lizard Psammodromus algirus (Reptilia: Lacertidae) by means of skeletochronology. Current Herpetology, 38(2), 173-179.
  • [27] Bülbül, U., Kurnaz, M., & Eroğlu, İ. (2016). Body size and age structure of the endangered Clark’s lizard (Darevskia clarkorum) populations from two different altitudes in Turkey. Amphibia-Reptilia, 37, 450-456.
  • [28] Zhang, L., & Lu, X. (2012). Amphibians live longer at higher altitudes but not at higher latitudes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 106, 623-632.
  • [29] Cox, R. M., Butler, M. A., & John-Alder, H. B. (2007). The evolution of sexual size dimorphism in reptiles. p. 38-49. In: D. J. Fairbairn, T. Szekely, and W. Blanckenhorn (eds.), Sex, size and gender Roles: evolutionary studies of sexual size dimorphism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • [30] Altunışık, A., Ergül-Kalaycı, T., Uysal, İ., Tosunoğlu, M., & Özdemir, N. (2016). Age, adult survival rate and adult life expectancy of Podarcis tauricus population (Reptilia: Lacertidae) from Saros Bay. Turkey. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 23, 278-282.
  • [31] Manicom, C., Alford, R., Schoener, T. W., & Schwarzkopf, L. (2014). Mechanisms causing variation in sexual size dimorphism in three sympatric, congeneric lizards. Ecology, 85, 1531-1544.
  • [32] Kurnaz, M., Bülbül, U., Eroğlu, A. İ., Uzun, F., Koç, H., & Kutrup, B. (2018). Age and growth of the artvin Lizard, Darevskia derjugini (NIKOLSKY, 1898), in Turkey (Squamata: Sauria: Lacertidae). Herpetozoa, 30, 147-158.
  • [33] Roitberg, E. S. (2007). Variation in sexual size dimorphism within a widespread lizard species. p. 143-153. In: D. J. Fairbairn, T. Szekely, and W. U. Blanckenhorn (Eds.). Sex, size and gender Roles: evolutionary studies of sexual size dimorphism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • [34] Jimenez-Arcos, V. H., Sanabria-Urban, S., & Cueva del Castillo, R. (2017). The interplay between natural and sexual selection in the evolution of sexual size dimorphism in Sceloporus lizards (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae). Ecology and Evolution, 7, 905-917.
  • [35] Roitberg, E. S., Eplanova, G. V., Kotenko, T. I., Carretero, M. A., Kuranova, V. N., Bulakhova, N. A., Zinenko, O. I., & Yakovlev, V. A. (2015). Geographic variation of life-history traits in the sand lizard, Lacerta agilis: testing Darwin's fecundity-advantage hypothesis. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 28, 613-629.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Biodiversity Conservation
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Kamil CANDAN (Primary Author)
DOKUZ EYLÜL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-6934-3971
Türkiye

Publication Date December 15, 2021
Application Date September 6, 2021
Acceptance Date November 11, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 14, Issue 3

Cite

APA Candan, K. (2021). Body size and age structure of Lacerta agilis LINNAEUS, 1758 (Reptilia: Lacertidae) from two different populations in Turkey . Biyolojik Çeşitlilik ve Koruma , 14 (3) , 505-510 . DOI: 10.46309/biodicon.2021.991685

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