Research Article
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Physiological responses of epiphytic lichens to air quality of Nilüfer district in Bursa city Bursa şehrindeki Nilüfer ilçesinde epifitik likenlerin hava kalitesine karşı verdiği fizyolojik tepkiler

Year 2022, Volume 15, Issue 3, 294 - 302, 15.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.46309/biodicon.2022.1120833

Abstract

Bu çalışmada, kirleticilerden uzak bir kırsal alan olan Uludağ Kirazlıyayla'da belirlenen bölgeden likenlerle kaplı Abies sp. dalları, Bursa şehrinin merkez ilçesi Nilüfer'de, kirleticilere daha fazla maruz kalan bir bölgeye nakledildi. Epifitik liken türlerinin (Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata Taylor ve Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf) fotosentetik pigment içerikleri üçer aylık zaman aralığıyla ölçülmüş, bir yıllık pigment değişim oranları ve mevsimsel kirleticilere maruz kalma istatistiksel olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Klorofil bozulması H. physodes numunelerinde kontrole göre kış aylarında artmış, yaz aylarında ise azalmıştır. P. furfuracea örnekleri için kışın azaldı ve yazın arttı. P. sulcata'da, kontrol ve nakledilen numunelerde ölçülen değerler arasında anlamlı bir fark bulunmadı. Klorofil bozulması, uzun transplantasyon süresi olan kontrol örneklerine kıyasla P. furfuracea için önemli ölçüde artar ve P. sulcata için azalır. Klorofil a miktarı, H. physodes ve P. sulcata için transplantasyon süresinin uzamasına bağlı olarak kontrol örneklerine göre önemli ölçüde azalırken, P. furfuracea'daki değişim önemli değildi. Klorofil b ve karotenoit içeriği, transplantasyon süresinin uzamasına bağlı olarak kontrol örneklerine kıyasla her üç liken türünde de önemli ölçüde azalmıştır.

References

  • [1] Nash III, T. H. (2008). Lichen Biology, Cambridge University Press.
  • [2] Brodo, I.M., Sharnoff, S.D. & Sharnoff S. (2001). Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. 795 p.
  • [3] Friedl, T. & Büdel, B. (1996). Photobionts (Chapter 2). 8-23. In Lichen Biology. Eds Nash III. T.H., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 315 p.
  • [4] Shrestha, G. & St. Clair, L. L. (2013). Lichens: a promisingsource of antibiotic and anticancer drugs. Phytochem Rev. 12: 229-244.
  • [5] Elix, J.A. (1996). Biochemistry and secondary metabolites, in Nash III, T.H., Lichen Biology, Cambridge University Press, London.
  • [6] Seneviratne, G. & Indrasena, I.K. (2006). Nitrogen fixation in lichens is important for improved rock weathering. Journal of Biosciences, 31(5), 639-643.
  • [7] Catán, S. P., Bubach, D., Messuti, M. I., Arribére, M. A. & Guevara, S. R. (2022). Mercury and REE contents in fruticose lichens from volcanic areas of the South volcanic zone. Atmospheric Pollution Research 13, 101384.
  • [8] Chuquimarca L. & Gaona, F.P., Iniguez – Armijos, C. and Benitez, A. (2019). Lichen responses to disturbance: Clues for biomonitoring land-use effects on Riparian Andean ecosystems. Diversity, 11, 73, doi:10.3390/d11050073.
  • [9] Gauslaa, Y., Solhaug, K.A. & Longinotti, S. (2017). Functional traits prolonging photosyynthetically active periods in epiphytic cephalolichens during desiccation. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 141: 83-91.
  • 10] Pirintsos, S.A., Paoli, L., Loppi, S. & Kotzabasis, K. (2011). Photosynthetic performance of lichen transplants as early indicator of climatic stress along on altitudinal gradient in the arid Mediterranean area. Climatic Change, 107, 305-328.
  • [11] Barnes JD., Balaguer L., Manrique E., Elvira S. & Davison, AW. (1992). A reappraisal of the use of DMSO for the extraction and determination of chlorophylls a and b in lichens and higher plants, Environ. Exp. Bot., 32: 85-100.
  • [12] Ronen R. & Galun, M. 1984. Pigment extraction from lichens with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and estimation of chlorophyll degradation. Environ. Exp. Bot., 24, 239-45.
  • [13] Wellburn, A.R. (1994). The spectral determination of chlorophylls a and b, as well as total carotenoids using various solvents with spectrophotometers of different resolution. J. Plant. Physiol., 144, 307-13.
  • [14] Taşdemir, Y. (2017). Nilüfer İlçesi’ndeki Klasik Hava Kirletici Ölçümlerinin Değerlendirilmesi Raporu (Periyot: 11-17 Eylül 2017). https://www.nilufer.bel.tr/dosya_yoneticisi/icerik/BEBKA/Eylul2_2017.pdf, (date of access: 11.05.2022).
  • [15] Karaer, F. (2011). The environment status report of TR41 region. Bursa Eskişehir Bilecik Development Agency (BEBKA). [16] Anonymous, (2017). The air quality data in Nilüfer district. https://www.nilufer.bel.tr, (date of access: 15.09.2017).
  • [17] Wakefield, J.M. & Bhattacharjee, J. (2012). Effect of air pollution on chlorophyll content and lichen morphology in Northeastern Louisiana. Evansia, 28(4): 104-114.
  • [18] Ates, A., Yıldız, A., Yıldız, N. & Çalımlı, A. (2007). Heavy Metal Removal from Aqueous Solution by Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf. Annali di Chimica, 97(5-6), 385-393.
  • [19] Yıldız, A., Aksoy, A., Akbulut, G., Demirezen, D., İşlek, C., Altuner, E.M. & Duman, F. (2011). Correlation between chlorophyll degradation and the amount of heavy metals found in Pseudevernia furfuracea in Kayseri (Turkey). Ekoloji, 20(78): 82-88.
  • [20] Gallo, L., Corapi, A., Loppi, S. & Lucadamo, L. (2014). Elements concentrations in the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf transplanted around a cement factory (S Italy). Ecological Indicators 46, 566 – 574.
  • [21] Mahmutoğlu, R., Aslan, A., Aras, S. & Cansaran-Duman, D. (2016). Environmental risk assessment under the pollutants exposure with using four lichen species and molecular assay in cement plant, Aşkale-Erzurum (Turkey). Turk Hij Den Biyol Derg, 73(3), 253 – 266.
  • [22] Yıldız, A., Vardar, Ç., Aksoy, A. & Ünal, E. (2018). Biomonitoring of heavy deposition with Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf in Çorum city, Turkey. Journal of Scientific Perspectives 2(1):,9-22.

Bursa şehrindeki Nilüfer ilçesinde epifitik likenlerin hava kalitesine karşı verdiği fizyolojik tepkiler

Year 2022, Volume 15, Issue 3, 294 - 302, 15.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.46309/biodicon.2022.1120833

Abstract

In this study, Abies sp. branches lined with lichens from the region determined in Uludag Kirazlıyayla, a rural area far from atmosferic pollutants, were placed in a region in Nilüfer, the central district of Bursa city, which is exposed to pollutants more by transplanting. Photosynthetic pigment content of epiphytic lichen species (Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl., Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf) was measured in three-months periods, and one-year pigment exchange rates and seasonal exposure to pollutants were statistically evaluated. Chlorophyll degradation increased in winter months and decreased in summer months for H. physodes samples compared to control. It decreased in winter and increased in summer for P. furfuracea specimens. In P. sulcata, no significant difference was found between the values measured in the control and transplanted samples. Chlorophyll degradation is significantly increased for P. furfuracea compared to control specimens with prolonged transplantation time and decreased for P. sulcata. The amount of chlorophyll a decreased significantly for H. physodes and P. sulcata compared to the control samples due to the prolongation of the transplantation period, while the change in P. furfuracea was not significant. Chlorophyll b and carotenoid content were significantly decreased in all three lichen species compared to the control samples due to the prolongation of the transplantation period.

References

  • [1] Nash III, T. H. (2008). Lichen Biology, Cambridge University Press.
  • [2] Brodo, I.M., Sharnoff, S.D. & Sharnoff S. (2001). Lichens of North America. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. 795 p.
  • [3] Friedl, T. & Büdel, B. (1996). Photobionts (Chapter 2). 8-23. In Lichen Biology. Eds Nash III. T.H., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 315 p.
  • [4] Shrestha, G. & St. Clair, L. L. (2013). Lichens: a promisingsource of antibiotic and anticancer drugs. Phytochem Rev. 12: 229-244.
  • [5] Elix, J.A. (1996). Biochemistry and secondary metabolites, in Nash III, T.H., Lichen Biology, Cambridge University Press, London.
  • [6] Seneviratne, G. & Indrasena, I.K. (2006). Nitrogen fixation in lichens is important for improved rock weathering. Journal of Biosciences, 31(5), 639-643.
  • [7] Catán, S. P., Bubach, D., Messuti, M. I., Arribére, M. A. & Guevara, S. R. (2022). Mercury and REE contents in fruticose lichens from volcanic areas of the South volcanic zone. Atmospheric Pollution Research 13, 101384.
  • [8] Chuquimarca L. & Gaona, F.P., Iniguez – Armijos, C. and Benitez, A. (2019). Lichen responses to disturbance: Clues for biomonitoring land-use effects on Riparian Andean ecosystems. Diversity, 11, 73, doi:10.3390/d11050073.
  • [9] Gauslaa, Y., Solhaug, K.A. & Longinotti, S. (2017). Functional traits prolonging photosyynthetically active periods in epiphytic cephalolichens during desiccation. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 141: 83-91.
  • 10] Pirintsos, S.A., Paoli, L., Loppi, S. & Kotzabasis, K. (2011). Photosynthetic performance of lichen transplants as early indicator of climatic stress along on altitudinal gradient in the arid Mediterranean area. Climatic Change, 107, 305-328.
  • [11] Barnes JD., Balaguer L., Manrique E., Elvira S. & Davison, AW. (1992). A reappraisal of the use of DMSO for the extraction and determination of chlorophylls a and b in lichens and higher plants, Environ. Exp. Bot., 32: 85-100.
  • [12] Ronen R. & Galun, M. 1984. Pigment extraction from lichens with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and estimation of chlorophyll degradation. Environ. Exp. Bot., 24, 239-45.
  • [13] Wellburn, A.R. (1994). The spectral determination of chlorophylls a and b, as well as total carotenoids using various solvents with spectrophotometers of different resolution. J. Plant. Physiol., 144, 307-13.
  • [14] Taşdemir, Y. (2017). Nilüfer İlçesi’ndeki Klasik Hava Kirletici Ölçümlerinin Değerlendirilmesi Raporu (Periyot: 11-17 Eylül 2017). https://www.nilufer.bel.tr/dosya_yoneticisi/icerik/BEBKA/Eylul2_2017.pdf, (date of access: 11.05.2022).
  • [15] Karaer, F. (2011). The environment status report of TR41 region. Bursa Eskişehir Bilecik Development Agency (BEBKA). [16] Anonymous, (2017). The air quality data in Nilüfer district. https://www.nilufer.bel.tr, (date of access: 15.09.2017).
  • [17] Wakefield, J.M. & Bhattacharjee, J. (2012). Effect of air pollution on chlorophyll content and lichen morphology in Northeastern Louisiana. Evansia, 28(4): 104-114.
  • [18] Ates, A., Yıldız, A., Yıldız, N. & Çalımlı, A. (2007). Heavy Metal Removal from Aqueous Solution by Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf. Annali di Chimica, 97(5-6), 385-393.
  • [19] Yıldız, A., Aksoy, A., Akbulut, G., Demirezen, D., İşlek, C., Altuner, E.M. & Duman, F. (2011). Correlation between chlorophyll degradation and the amount of heavy metals found in Pseudevernia furfuracea in Kayseri (Turkey). Ekoloji, 20(78): 82-88.
  • [20] Gallo, L., Corapi, A., Loppi, S. & Lucadamo, L. (2014). Elements concentrations in the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf transplanted around a cement factory (S Italy). Ecological Indicators 46, 566 – 574.
  • [21] Mahmutoğlu, R., Aslan, A., Aras, S. & Cansaran-Duman, D. (2016). Environmental risk assessment under the pollutants exposure with using four lichen species and molecular assay in cement plant, Aşkale-Erzurum (Turkey). Turk Hij Den Biyol Derg, 73(3), 253 – 266.
  • [22] Yıldız, A., Vardar, Ç., Aksoy, A. & Ünal, E. (2018). Biomonitoring of heavy deposition with Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf in Çorum city, Turkey. Journal of Scientific Perspectives 2(1):,9-22.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Biodiversity Conservation
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Vesile Ebru KARAKAŞ>
Bursa Uludağ Üniversitesi
0000-0001-9953-0420
Türkiye


Şule ÖZTÜRK> (Primary Author)
ULUDAĞ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, FEN-EDEBİYAT FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-1284-7992
Türkiye


Şaban GÜVENÇ>
Bursa Uludağ Üniversitesi
0000-0001-8724-9981
Türkiye


Seyhan ORAN>
Bursa Uludağ Üniversitesi
0000-0001-8196-2065
Türkiye

Early Pub Date December 16, 2022
Publication Date December 15, 2022
Submission Date May 24, 2022
Acceptance Date September 2, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 15, Issue 3

Cite

APA Karakaş, V. E. , Öztürk, Ş. , Güvenç, Ş. & Oran, S. (2022). Bursa şehrindeki Nilüfer ilçesinde epifitik likenlerin hava kalitesine karşı verdiği fizyolojik tepkiler . Biyolojik Çeşitlilik ve Koruma , 15 (3) , 294-302 . DOI: 10.46309/biodicon.2022.1120833

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