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Suda Dağılma Dayanımı İndeksi (SDI) Deneyinde Kullanılan Küre Örneklerinin Hazırlaması İçin Aşındırıcı Çanak Tasarımı

Year 2017, Volume 4, Issue 2, 8 - 14, 21.12.2017

Abstract

Şeyl ve kil içerikli zayıf kayaçların aşınma ve suda dağılmasının belirlenmesinde kullanılan Islak Kararlılık İndeksi (SDI) deneyinin sonuçlarını etkileyen birçok etken vardır. Bu etkenlerden birisi deneyde kullanılan temsili deney örneklerinin geometrik şeklidir. Temsili deney örneklerinin eşdeğer boyutlu küresel örnek olması önerilmesine rağmen uygulanan örnek hazırlama tekniği ile bu geometrik şeklin oluşturulması oldukça zordur. Ancak özel kesme ve aşındırma teknikleri kullanılarak eşdeğer boyutlu temsili küre örneklerin hazırlanması mümkündür. Bu tekniklerle temsili küre örneklerin hazırlanmasında kayaç mineralojisine ve yoğunluğuna bağlı olarak bazı zorluklar da ortaya çıkmaktadır. Özellikle plastik kil içeren kayaçlarda temsili küre deney örnek yüzeylerinde ve aşındırıcı çanak içinde kil sıvamaları ve kırıntı dolması meydana gelmektedir. Bu sorunlardan dolayı da aşındırıcı çanakta küre yapma süresi çok zaman almaktadır.

Bu çalışmada temsili küre deney örneklerinin aşındırılması sırasında yüzey sıvamalarını ve çanak içine kırıntı dolmalarını engelleyen uygun aşındırıcı çanak tasarımı yapılmıştır. Bu aşındırıcı çanaklarda yapılan aşındırma deneyleri sonunda da en uygun çanak geometrisi ve aşındırıcı tane boyutu belirlenmiştir.

References

  • KAYNAKLAR [1] ISRM, E. T. Brown (ed.), Suggested Methods: Rock Cracterization, Testing and Monitoring, London, Permagon Press, 1981. [2] Franklin, J.A. and Chandra, R., “The slake durability test”, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 9, pp. 325-341, 1972. [3] ASTM, Standard Test Method for Slake Slake Durability of Shales and Similar Weak Rocks (D4644), Philadelphia, Annual book of ASTM standards, vol. 4-08, ASTM, pp 863–865, 1990. [4] Bella, F.G., Entwisle, D.C. and Culshaw M.G., “A geotechnical survey of some British Coal Measures mudstones, with particular emphasis on durability”, Engineering Geology, vol. 46, pp. 115-129, 1997. [5] Çetin, H., Laman, M. and Ertunc, A., “Settlement and slaking problems in the world’s fourth largest rock-fill dam, the Ataturk Dam in Turkey”, Engineering Geology, vol. 56, pp. 225–242, 2000. [6] Gemici, Ü., “Durability of shales in narlıdere, İzmir, Turkey, with an emphasis on the impact of water on slaking behavior”, Environmental Gelogy, vol. 41, pp. 430-439, 2001. [7] Dhakal, G., Yoneda, T., Kato, M. and Kaneko, K., “Slake durability and mineralogical properties of some pyroclastic and sedimentary rocks”, Engineering Geology, vol. 65, pp. 31–45, 2002. [8] Viterbo, V., McLemore, V., Donahue, K., Aimone-Martin, C., Fakhimi, A. and Sweeney, D., “Effects of chemistry, mineralogy, petrography and alteration on rock engineering properties of the Goathill north rock pile at the Molycorp Questa Mine, New Mexico”, SME Annual Meeting, Feb. 2007. [9] Ergüler, Z.A. and Ulusay, R., “Assessment of physical disintegration characteristics of clay-bearing rocks: Disintegration index test and a new durability classification chart”, Engineering Geology, vol. 105, pp. 11–19, 2009. [10] Koncagül, E. C. and Santi, P. M., “Predicting the unconfined compressive strength of the Breathitt shale using slake durability, Shore hardness and rock structural properties”, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 36, pp. 139-153, 1999. [11] Gökçeoğlu, C., Ulusay, R. and Sönmez, H., “Factors affecting the durability of selected weak and clay bearing rocks from Turkey, with particular emphasis on the influence of the number of drying and wetting cycles”, Engineering Geology, vol. 57, pp. 215–237, 2000. [12] Lashkaripor, G.R. and Boomeri, M., “The role of mineralogy on durability of weak rocks”, Pakistan Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 2(6), pp. 698-701, 2002. [13] Sri-in, T. and Fuenkajorn, K., Fuenkajorn & Phien-wej (eds.), Slake Durability Index and Strength Testing of Some Rocks in Thailand, Rock Mechanics, 2007, ISBN 978 974 533 613 , pp. 145-159, 2007. [14] Gupta, V. and Ahmed, I., “The effect of pH of water and mineralogical properties on the slake durability (degradability) of different rocks from the Lesser Himalaya, India”, Engineering Geology, vol. 95, pp. 79–87, 2007. [15] Yağız, S., “Correlation between slake durability and rock properties for some carbonate rocks”, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, vol. 70(3), pp. 377-383. 2011. [16] Sarkar, K., Tiwary, A. and Singh, T. N., “Estimation of strength parameters of rock using artificial neural Networks”, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, vol. 69(4), pp. 599-606, 2010. [17] Fuenkajorn, K. 2010. “Experimental assessment of long-term durability of some weak rocks”, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, vol. 70(2), pp. 203-211, 2011. [18] Kıncal, C., Koca, M. Y., Özden, G. and Demirbasa, N., “Fractal parameter approach on weathering grade determination of Çeşme (Izmir, Turkey) tuffs”, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, vol. 69(4), pp. 617-629, 2010. [19] Moradian, Z.A., Ghazvinian, A.H., Ahmadi, M. and Behnia, M., “Predicting slake durability index of soft sandstone using indirect tests”, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 47, pp. 666–671, 2010. [20] Kolay, E., Kayabalı, K. and Beyaz, T., “The effect of sample shape on the slake durability of some argillaceous rocks”, ROCKMEC′2004-VIIth Regional Rock Mechanics Symposium, Sivas, Turkey, 2004. [21] Kolay, E. and Kayabalı, K., “Investigation of the effect of aggregate shape and surface roughness on the slake durability index using the fractal dimension approach”, Engineering Geology, vol. 86, pp. 271–284. 2006. [22] ISRM, Ulusay, R., Hudson, J.A., (Eds.), The Complete ISRM Suggested Methods for Rock Characterization, Testing and Monitoring; 1974–2006, prepared by the Commission on Testing Methods, International Society for Rock Mechanics: ISRM Turkish National Group Ankara, Turkey. 628 ISBN 978-975-93675-4-1, 2007. [23] TSE, Kayaçların Şişme ve Suya Dayanıklılık Özelliklerinin Tayini, Türk Standardları Enstitüsü TSE 8543, Ankara, 1990. [24] Kolay, E., “Örnek mikro yapısının ve köşelililiğin suda dağılmaya karşı duraylılık indeksine etkisi ve suda dağılmaya karşı duraylılık indeksiyle bazı fiziksel özellikler arasındaki ilişki”, Yerbilimleri, vol. 28(2), pp. 271–284, 2007. [25] Ankara, H., Aksoy, M. ve Yerel, S., Suda Dağılmaya Karşı Duraylılık Testi için Kayaçlardan Eş Boyutlu Küresel Örneklerin Hazırlanması, BAP Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi Proje No: 201015013, 2013. [26] Ankara, H., Aksoy, M., Yerel, S. and Keser, Y., “A new sample preparation method for slake durability index test”, 4th Balkan Mining Congress, Ljubljana-Slovenia, pp. 571-575, 2011. [27] Ulusay, R., Gökçeoğlu, C ve Binal, A., Kaya Mekaniği Laboratuvar Deneyleri, TMMOB Jeoloji Mühendisleri Odası Yayınları 58, Ankara, pp. 35-40, 2011. [28] ASTM, Standard Test Method for Slake Durability of Shales and Similar Weak Rocks, D-4644-87, 1998.

Design of Cutter Cups For The Preparation of Sphere Samples Used in Slake Durability Index Test

Year 2017, Volume 4, Issue 2, 8 - 14, 21.12.2017

Abstract

There are various factors affecting the results of slake durability index test used to determine slake durability and abrasion resistance of shale and similar weak rocks. One of these factors is the geometrical shape of the representative test samples used in this test. Although it is purposed that representative test samples should have the shape of the equal sized spherical samples, it is very hard to prepare these representative test samples by applying the current sample preparation method. However, it is proven that the equal sized spherical representative test samples can be prepared by applying special cutting and abrasion techniques. But some difficulties related with rock mineralogy and densities have been encountered during the application of these techniques. One of these difficulties to be resolved is that the surface of specimen and the inner surface of cutter cup are coated and filled with the ground fine particles produced from the specimen itself during the sphere sample preparation. Because of this problem, it takes too much time to prepare spherical samples by using these cutter cups.

In this article, appropriate cutting cups will be designed to prevent the surface of representative sphere test samples and the inner surface of cutter cup from being coated and filled with fine ground particles produced. The most appropriate geometry and abrasive particle size of cutting cups was determined according to the results of tests performed on the representative sphere test samples.

References

  • KAYNAKLAR [1] ISRM, E. T. Brown (ed.), Suggested Methods: Rock Cracterization, Testing and Monitoring, London, Permagon Press, 1981. [2] Franklin, J.A. and Chandra, R., “The slake durability test”, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 9, pp. 325-341, 1972. [3] ASTM, Standard Test Method for Slake Slake Durability of Shales and Similar Weak Rocks (D4644), Philadelphia, Annual book of ASTM standards, vol. 4-08, ASTM, pp 863–865, 1990. [4] Bella, F.G., Entwisle, D.C. and Culshaw M.G., “A geotechnical survey of some British Coal Measures mudstones, with particular emphasis on durability”, Engineering Geology, vol. 46, pp. 115-129, 1997. [5] Çetin, H., Laman, M. and Ertunc, A., “Settlement and slaking problems in the world’s fourth largest rock-fill dam, the Ataturk Dam in Turkey”, Engineering Geology, vol. 56, pp. 225–242, 2000. [6] Gemici, Ü., “Durability of shales in narlıdere, İzmir, Turkey, with an emphasis on the impact of water on slaking behavior”, Environmental Gelogy, vol. 41, pp. 430-439, 2001. [7] Dhakal, G., Yoneda, T., Kato, M. and Kaneko, K., “Slake durability and mineralogical properties of some pyroclastic and sedimentary rocks”, Engineering Geology, vol. 65, pp. 31–45, 2002. [8] Viterbo, V., McLemore, V., Donahue, K., Aimone-Martin, C., Fakhimi, A. and Sweeney, D., “Effects of chemistry, mineralogy, petrography and alteration on rock engineering properties of the Goathill north rock pile at the Molycorp Questa Mine, New Mexico”, SME Annual Meeting, Feb. 2007. [9] Ergüler, Z.A. and Ulusay, R., “Assessment of physical disintegration characteristics of clay-bearing rocks: Disintegration index test and a new durability classification chart”, Engineering Geology, vol. 105, pp. 11–19, 2009. [10] Koncagül, E. C. and Santi, P. M., “Predicting the unconfined compressive strength of the Breathitt shale using slake durability, Shore hardness and rock structural properties”, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 36, pp. 139-153, 1999. [11] Gökçeoğlu, C., Ulusay, R. and Sönmez, H., “Factors affecting the durability of selected weak and clay bearing rocks from Turkey, with particular emphasis on the influence of the number of drying and wetting cycles”, Engineering Geology, vol. 57, pp. 215–237, 2000. [12] Lashkaripor, G.R. and Boomeri, M., “The role of mineralogy on durability of weak rocks”, Pakistan Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 2(6), pp. 698-701, 2002. [13] Sri-in, T. and Fuenkajorn, K., Fuenkajorn & Phien-wej (eds.), Slake Durability Index and Strength Testing of Some Rocks in Thailand, Rock Mechanics, 2007, ISBN 978 974 533 613 , pp. 145-159, 2007. [14] Gupta, V. and Ahmed, I., “The effect of pH of water and mineralogical properties on the slake durability (degradability) of different rocks from the Lesser Himalaya, India”, Engineering Geology, vol. 95, pp. 79–87, 2007. [15] Yağız, S., “Correlation between slake durability and rock properties for some carbonate rocks”, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, vol. 70(3), pp. 377-383. 2011. [16] Sarkar, K., Tiwary, A. and Singh, T. N., “Estimation of strength parameters of rock using artificial neural Networks”, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, vol. 69(4), pp. 599-606, 2010. [17] Fuenkajorn, K. 2010. “Experimental assessment of long-term durability of some weak rocks”, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, vol. 70(2), pp. 203-211, 2011. [18] Kıncal, C., Koca, M. Y., Özden, G. and Demirbasa, N., “Fractal parameter approach on weathering grade determination of Çeşme (Izmir, Turkey) tuffs”, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, vol. 69(4), pp. 617-629, 2010. [19] Moradian, Z.A., Ghazvinian, A.H., Ahmadi, M. and Behnia, M., “Predicting slake durability index of soft sandstone using indirect tests”, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, vol. 47, pp. 666–671, 2010. [20] Kolay, E., Kayabalı, K. and Beyaz, T., “The effect of sample shape on the slake durability of some argillaceous rocks”, ROCKMEC′2004-VIIth Regional Rock Mechanics Symposium, Sivas, Turkey, 2004. [21] Kolay, E. and Kayabalı, K., “Investigation of the effect of aggregate shape and surface roughness on the slake durability index using the fractal dimension approach”, Engineering Geology, vol. 86, pp. 271–284. 2006. [22] ISRM, Ulusay, R., Hudson, J.A., (Eds.), The Complete ISRM Suggested Methods for Rock Characterization, Testing and Monitoring; 1974–2006, prepared by the Commission on Testing Methods, International Society for Rock Mechanics: ISRM Turkish National Group Ankara, Turkey. 628 ISBN 978-975-93675-4-1, 2007. [23] TSE, Kayaçların Şişme ve Suya Dayanıklılık Özelliklerinin Tayini, Türk Standardları Enstitüsü TSE 8543, Ankara, 1990. [24] Kolay, E., “Örnek mikro yapısının ve köşelililiğin suda dağılmaya karşı duraylılık indeksine etkisi ve suda dağılmaya karşı duraylılık indeksiyle bazı fiziksel özellikler arasındaki ilişki”, Yerbilimleri, vol. 28(2), pp. 271–284, 2007. [25] Ankara, H., Aksoy, M. ve Yerel, S., Suda Dağılmaya Karşı Duraylılık Testi için Kayaçlardan Eş Boyutlu Küresel Örneklerin Hazırlanması, BAP Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi Proje No: 201015013, 2013. [26] Ankara, H., Aksoy, M., Yerel, S. and Keser, Y., “A new sample preparation method for slake durability index test”, 4th Balkan Mining Congress, Ljubljana-Slovenia, pp. 571-575, 2011. [27] Ulusay, R., Gökçeoğlu, C ve Binal, A., Kaya Mekaniği Laboratuvar Deneyleri, TMMOB Jeoloji Mühendisleri Odası Yayınları 58, Ankara, pp. 35-40, 2011. [28] ASTM, Standard Test Method for Slake Durability of Shales and Similar Weak Rocks, D-4644-87, 1998.

Details

Journal Section Articles
Authors

Hüseyin ANKARA>
ESKİŞEHİR OSMANGAZİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK-MİMARLIK FAKÜLTESİ, MADEN MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0003-2499-7928
Türkiye


Mehmet AKSOY>
ESKİŞEHİR OSMANGAZİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK-MİMARLIK FAKÜLTESİ, MADEN MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-3650-8493


Süheyla YEREL KANDEMİR>
BİLECİK ŞEYH EDEBALİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ, İNŞAAT MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ


Haydar ARAS>
ESKİŞEHİR OSMANGAZİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK-MİMARLIK FAKÜLTESİ, MAKİNE MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0001-8131-6426

Publication Date December 21, 2017
Application Date September 25, 2017
Acceptance Date November 21, 2017
Published in Issue Year 2017, Volume 4, Issue 2

Cite

APA Ankara, H. , Aksoy, M. , Yerel Kandemir, S. & Aras, H. (2017). Suda Dağılma Dayanımı İndeksi (SDI) Deneyinde Kullanılan Küre Örneklerinin Hazırlaması İçin Aşındırıcı Çanak Tasarımı . Bilecik Şeyh Edebali Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Dergisi , 4 (2) , 8-14 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/bseufbd/issue/33170/339772