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Investigation of The Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Graphene Oxide Filled Polypropylene Composites

Year 2017, Volume 4, Issue 2, 34 - 40, 21.12.2017

Abstract

In this study, the effect of graphene oxide on the mechanical and thermal properties of polypropylene (PP) composites were examined. Twin-screw extruder was used in the production of graphene oxide filled PP polymer granules. Injection molding method is used for the production of mechanical and thermal test specimens. As a result, the graphene oxide added to the PP polymer increased the tensile strength and the modulus of elasticity by 42% and 71%, respectively, while decreasing the elongation at break and impact strength by 341% and 56%, respectively. Also, the graphene oxide added to the PP polymer increased the heat deformation temperature (HDT) and the vicat softening temperature (VSP). The fracture surfaces obtained after tensile test were analyzed by SEM.

References

  • [1]. Selvakumar, V., Palanikumar, K. and Palanivelu, K., "Studies on Mechanical Characterization of Polypropylene/Na+-MMT Nanocomposites," Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering, vol. 9/8, pp. 671-681, 2010.
  • [2]. Gabr, M.H., Okumura, W., Ueda, H., Kuriyama, W., Uzawa, K. and Kimpara, I., "Mechanical and thermal properties of carbon fiber/polypropylene composite filled with nano-clay," Composites Part B Engineering, vol. 69, pp. 94-100, 2015.
  • [3]. Leong,Y.W., Mohd. Ishak, Z.A. and Ariffin, A., "Mechanical and thermal properties of talc and calcium carbonate filled polypropylene hybrid composites," Journal of Aplied Polymer Science, vol. 91/5, pp. 3327–3336, 2004.
  • [4]. Tapas, K., Sambhu, B., Dahu, Y., Nam, H.K., Saswata, B. and Joong, H.L., "Recent advances in graphene based polymer composites," Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 35/11, pp. 1350–1375, 2010.
  • [5]. Alireza, A., Saman, M. and Reza, B., "Mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of short carbon fiber reinforced polypropylene composites using exfoliated graphene nanoplatelets coating," Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 38/25, pp. 37–42, 2016.
  • [6]. Faramarz, A.G., Ismail, G., Saman, M., Mohsen, A. and Alireza, A., "Optimization of mechanical properties of polypropylene/talc/graphene composites using response surface methodology," Polymer Testing, vol. 53, pp. 283–292, 2016.
  • [7]. Saman, M., Faramarz, A.G. and Ismail, G., "Simultaneous improvement in the strength and toughness of polypropylene by incorporating hybrid graphene/CaCO3 reinforcement," Polymer Testing, vol. 54, pp. 281–287, 2016.
  • [8]. Robert, A.S. and Frances, T.C., "Preparation and properties of poly(propylene-g-maleic anhydride) filled with expanded graphite oxide," Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 43/7, pp. 1092–1100, 2012.
  • [9]. M. El, A. and Qaiss, A., "Processing and properties of polyethylene reinforced by graphene nanosheets and carbon nanotubes," Materials & Design, vol. 44, pp. 81–89, 2013.
  • [10]. Ji-Zhao, L., Qiang, D., Gary Chi-Pong, T. and Chak-Yin, T., "Tensile properties of graphene nano-platelets reinforced polypropylene composites," Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 95/15, pp. 166–171,2016.
  • [11]. Jamal, S.M.Z, Burcu, S.O. and Yusuf M., "Manufacturing of multilayer graphene oxide/poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanocomposites with tunable crystallinity, chain orientations and thermal transitions," Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 176, pp. 58–67, 2016.
  • [12]. Chieng, B.W., Ibrahim, N.A and Yunus, W.M.Z.W., "Optimization of tensile strength of poly(lactic acid)/graphene nanocomposites using response surface methodology," Polymer Plastics Technology Engineering, vol. 51, pp. 791-799, 2012.
  • [13]. Geim, A.K. and Novoselov, K.S., "The rise of graphene," Nature Materials, vol. 6, pp. 183-191, 2007.
  • [14]. Ramanathan, T., Abdala, A.A., Stankovich, S., Dikin, D.A., Herrera-Alonso, M., Piner, R.D., Adamson, D.H., Schniepp, H.C., Chen, X., Ruoff, R.S., Nguyen, S.T., Aksay, I.A., Prud'Homme, R.K. and Brinson, L.C., "Functionalized graphene sheets for polymer nanocomposites," Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 3, pp. 327-331, 2008.
  • [15]. Roey, N., Michael, S., Matat, B., Sivan, P.D., Anton, K., Tuo, W., James, M.T. and Oren, R., "Graphene nanoribbon – Polymer composites: The critical role of edge functionalization," Carbon, vol. 99, pp. 444–450, 2016.
  • [16]. Saner, B., Dinç, F. and Yürüm, Y., "Utilization of multiple graphene nanosheets in fuel cells: 2. The effect of oxidation process on the characteristics of graphene nanosheets," Fuel, vol. 90, pp. 2609-2616, 2011.
  • [17]. Christopher, I.I. and Azman, H., "Characterization and preparation of conductive exfoliated graphene nanoplatelets kenaf fibre hybrid polypropylene composites," Synthetic Metals, vol. 212, pp. 91–104, 2016.
  • [18]. Sung, H.R. and Shanmugharaj, A.M., "Influence of long-chain alkylamine-modified graphene oxide on the crystallization, mechanical and electrical properties of isotactic polypropylene nanocomposites," Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 244, pp. 552–560, 2014.
  • [19]. Liang, J., Yi, H., Long, Z., Yan, W., Yanfeng, M., Tianyin, G. and Yongsheng, C., "Molecular-Level Dispersion of Graphene into Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Effective Reinforcement of their Nanocomposites," Advanced Funtional Materials, vol. 19/14, pp. 2297–2302, 2009.-

Grafen Oksit Katkılı Polipropilen Polimer Kompozitlerin Mekanik ve Termal Özelliklerin İncelenmesi

Year 2017, Volume 4, Issue 2, 34 - 40, 21.12.2017

Abstract

Bu çalışmada, grafen oksit miktarının Polipropilen polimerinin mekanik ve termal özellikleri üzerine etkisi incelenmiştir. Grafen oksit katkılı PP polimer granüller çift vidalı ekstruderde üretilmiştir. Mekanik ve termal test numuneleri enjeksiyon kalıplama yöntemi ile üretilmiştir. Çalışma sonucunda, grafen oksit katkılı PP polimer kompozitlerin çekme dayanımı %42, elastiklik modülü ise %71 oranında artarken kopma uzaması ve darbe dayanımları sırasıyla %341 ve %56 oranlarında azalmıştır. Aynı zamanda, grafen oksit katkılı PP kompozitlerin ısı sapma sıcaklıkları (HDT) ve Vicat yumuşama sıcaklığı (VSP) artmıştır. Çekme testi sonrası kırık yüzeyler SEM ile analiz edilmiştir. 

References

  • [1]. Selvakumar, V., Palanikumar, K. and Palanivelu, K., "Studies on Mechanical Characterization of Polypropylene/Na+-MMT Nanocomposites," Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering, vol. 9/8, pp. 671-681, 2010.
  • [2]. Gabr, M.H., Okumura, W., Ueda, H., Kuriyama, W., Uzawa, K. and Kimpara, I., "Mechanical and thermal properties of carbon fiber/polypropylene composite filled with nano-clay," Composites Part B Engineering, vol. 69, pp. 94-100, 2015.
  • [3]. Leong,Y.W., Mohd. Ishak, Z.A. and Ariffin, A., "Mechanical and thermal properties of talc and calcium carbonate filled polypropylene hybrid composites," Journal of Aplied Polymer Science, vol. 91/5, pp. 3327–3336, 2004.
  • [4]. Tapas, K., Sambhu, B., Dahu, Y., Nam, H.K., Saswata, B. and Joong, H.L., "Recent advances in graphene based polymer composites," Progress in Polymer Science, vol. 35/11, pp. 1350–1375, 2010.
  • [5]. Alireza, A., Saman, M. and Reza, B., "Mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of short carbon fiber reinforced polypropylene composites using exfoliated graphene nanoplatelets coating," Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 38/25, pp. 37–42, 2016.
  • [6]. Faramarz, A.G., Ismail, G., Saman, M., Mohsen, A. and Alireza, A., "Optimization of mechanical properties of polypropylene/talc/graphene composites using response surface methodology," Polymer Testing, vol. 53, pp. 283–292, 2016.
  • [7]. Saman, M., Faramarz, A.G. and Ismail, G., "Simultaneous improvement in the strength and toughness of polypropylene by incorporating hybrid graphene/CaCO3 reinforcement," Polymer Testing, vol. 54, pp. 281–287, 2016.
  • [8]. Robert, A.S. and Frances, T.C., "Preparation and properties of poly(propylene-g-maleic anhydride) filled with expanded graphite oxide," Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 43/7, pp. 1092–1100, 2012.
  • [9]. M. El, A. and Qaiss, A., "Processing and properties of polyethylene reinforced by graphene nanosheets and carbon nanotubes," Materials & Design, vol. 44, pp. 81–89, 2013.
  • [10]. Ji-Zhao, L., Qiang, D., Gary Chi-Pong, T. and Chak-Yin, T., "Tensile properties of graphene nano-platelets reinforced polypropylene composites," Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 95/15, pp. 166–171,2016.
  • [11]. Jamal, S.M.Z, Burcu, S.O. and Yusuf M., "Manufacturing of multilayer graphene oxide/poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanocomposites with tunable crystallinity, chain orientations and thermal transitions," Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 176, pp. 58–67, 2016.
  • [12]. Chieng, B.W., Ibrahim, N.A and Yunus, W.M.Z.W., "Optimization of tensile strength of poly(lactic acid)/graphene nanocomposites using response surface methodology," Polymer Plastics Technology Engineering, vol. 51, pp. 791-799, 2012.
  • [13]. Geim, A.K. and Novoselov, K.S., "The rise of graphene," Nature Materials, vol. 6, pp. 183-191, 2007.
  • [14]. Ramanathan, T., Abdala, A.A., Stankovich, S., Dikin, D.A., Herrera-Alonso, M., Piner, R.D., Adamson, D.H., Schniepp, H.C., Chen, X., Ruoff, R.S., Nguyen, S.T., Aksay, I.A., Prud'Homme, R.K. and Brinson, L.C., "Functionalized graphene sheets for polymer nanocomposites," Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 3, pp. 327-331, 2008.
  • [15]. Roey, N., Michael, S., Matat, B., Sivan, P.D., Anton, K., Tuo, W., James, M.T. and Oren, R., "Graphene nanoribbon – Polymer composites: The critical role of edge functionalization," Carbon, vol. 99, pp. 444–450, 2016.
  • [16]. Saner, B., Dinç, F. and Yürüm, Y., "Utilization of multiple graphene nanosheets in fuel cells: 2. The effect of oxidation process on the characteristics of graphene nanosheets," Fuel, vol. 90, pp. 2609-2616, 2011.
  • [17]. Christopher, I.I. and Azman, H., "Characterization and preparation of conductive exfoliated graphene nanoplatelets kenaf fibre hybrid polypropylene composites," Synthetic Metals, vol. 212, pp. 91–104, 2016.
  • [18]. Sung, H.R. and Shanmugharaj, A.M., "Influence of long-chain alkylamine-modified graphene oxide on the crystallization, mechanical and electrical properties of isotactic polypropylene nanocomposites," Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 244, pp. 552–560, 2014.
  • [19]. Liang, J., Yi, H., Long, Z., Yan, W., Yanfeng, M., Tianyin, G. and Yongsheng, C., "Molecular-Level Dispersion of Graphene into Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Effective Reinforcement of their Nanocomposites," Advanced Funtional Materials, vol. 19/14, pp. 2297–2302, 2009.-

Details

Journal Section Articles
Authors

Salih Hakan Yetgin>
DUMLUPINAR ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SİMAV TEKNOLOJİ FAKÜLTESİ, İMALAT MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
Türkiye


Bilhan Karadeniz This is me
DUMLUPINAR ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye


Mustafa GULEŞEN>
DUMLUPINAR ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ, MAKİNE MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0001-8781-2746
Türkiye

Publication Date December 21, 2017
Application Date October 27, 2017
Acceptance Date December 13, 2017
Published in Issue Year 2017, Volume 4, Issue 2

Cite

APA Yetgin, S. H. , Karadeniz, B. & Guleşen, M. (2017). Grafen Oksit Katkılı Polipropilen Polimer Kompozitlerin Mekanik ve Termal Özelliklerin İncelenmesi . Bilecik Şeyh Edebali Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Dergisi , 4 (2) , 34-40 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/bseufbd/issue/33170/347143