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Paleolitik Çağ'da Beslenme

Year 2020, Volume 4, Issue 1, 1 - 4, 19.11.2020
https://doi.org/10.47257/busad.715556

Abstract

İnsanın evrimsel süreci boyunca beslenme alışkanlıkları sürekli değişimler geçirmiştir. Erken hominidler, önceleri avcı-toplayıcı olarak sadece bulundukları çevredeki besinleri kullanırken, önce taş aletlerin kullanılması ve sonrasında ateşin bulunması ile birlikte beslenme konusunda farklı süreçlere sahip olmuşlardır. Sürecin başında genel olarak otçul beslenen erken hominidler, uzun bir zaman boyunca çevresel şartlardan dolayı ormanlık alanlarda yaşamış ve bu yüzden de farklı besinler alma ihtiyacı duymamıştır. Fakat zaman ilerledikçe, iklimsel değişmeler ve besin kaynaklarının azalmaya başlaması yeni besinler bulma arayışlarını hızlandırmış ve farklı bölgelere göçe neden olmuştur. Bu göçler sırasında ormanlık alandan savanaya geçmek durumunda kalan hominidler, yeni yaşamlarına adapte olmaya çalışırlarken ormanda bulunan bitki bolluğundan savanadaki daha az besin kaynağına da alışmak zorunda kamıştır. Savanalarda bitkiden çok etin bulunması sonucu hominidler, avcılık konusunda yeteneklerini arttırmaya ve daha fazla hayvansal protein içerikli bir beslenmeye dönmüştür. Hayvansal proteine dönüş sırasında hominidlerin başlangıçta birtakım zorluklar çekmiş olması muhtemeldir zira çiğ ete alışkın olmadıklarından dolayı bedenleri bu yeni besine farklı tepkiler vermiş olabilir. Fakat zamanla bedenleri bu yeni duruma adapte olmayı başarmış ve hatta et ağırlıklı bir beslenme alışkanlığı kazanmışlardır. Tamamen ot temelli bir beslenmenin ardından hayvansal proteinleri de kullanmaya başlamış olmak, insanın beyin kapasitesinin büyümesini de hızlandırmıştır. Etin içerisinde bitkilere nazaran daha fazla bulunan protein ve vitaminler, beynin yapısı, gelişmesi ve büyümesi açısından son derece önemlidir. Ateşin keşfi ve kontrol altına alınmasından sonraki dönemde ise hayvansal protein tüketimi daha da artmıştır. Bu makalede, öncelikle Paleolitik Çağ insanlarının beslenme alışkanlıkları incelenmiş, ardından Anadolu’dan ve dünyadan örnekler verilerek detaylandırılmıştır.

References

  • ANGEL, J.L. (1984), “Health as a CrucialFactor in theChangefromHuntingtoDevelopedFarming in the Eastern Medditerranean”, Mark Nathan Cohen, Geroge J. Armelos (Ed.), Paleopathology at the Origins of Agriculture (s. 51-73). Academic Press Inc.
  • ARSEBÜK, G. (1996), “An Old Settlement in Thrace: Halfburgaz Cave Lower Paleolithic Age Findings”. Anatolian Studies, 33-50.
  • ARSLANTAŞ, Y. (2014), “Paloelitik and Mesolitik (Shelter in the Epi-Paleolithic Age).” Fırat University Journal of Social Sciences, Volume: 24, Issue: 2, Page: 319-343.
  • CORDAİN, L., MILLER, J.B., EATON, S.B., MANN, N., HOLT, S.H.A., & SPETH, J.D. (2000), “Plant-animalsubsistenceratiosandmacronutrientenergyestimations in worldwidehunter-gathererdiets”, AmericanJournal of Clinical Nutrition, 71, 682-692.
  • GÜLEÇ, E. (1996), “New Findings on the First Inhabitants of Anatolia fromtheDursunlu Site: A Preliminary Appraisal”, Settlement and Housing International Symposium in Anatolia Through the Ages, Ege Publishing, Istanbul, 211-16.
  • GÜLEÇ, E. ve AÇIKKOL, A. (2006), “Paleolithic Nutrition”. Gift to Hayat Erkanal: In Reflection of Cultures, Homer Publishing, Istanbul, 389-397.
  • GÜLEÇ, E., HOWELL, F.C., WHITE, T.D. (1999), “Dursunlu, A New Lower Pleistocene Faunaland Artifact-bearing Locality in Southern Amatolia”. H. Ullrich (ed.), Hominid Evolution, Life style sand Survival Strategies, Berlin: Archea, 349-364. KARTAL, M. (2009), Last Hunter-Gatherer in Turkey, Archeology and Art Publications, İstanbul.
  • KLEIN, R.G. (1989), The Human Career. Human BiologicalandCulturalOrigins. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. KUHN, S. L., STINER, M. C., GÜLEÇ, E., ÖZER, İ., YILMAZ, H., İSMAİL B., AÇIKKOL, A.,GOLDBERG, P., MOLİNA, M., K., ÜNAY, E., “The Early Upper Paleolithic Occupations at Üçağızlı Cave (Hatay, Turkey)”. Journal of Human Evolution, 87-113.
  • SUATA-ALPASLAN, F. (2009), “The Early Upper Paleolithic Occupations at Üç ağızlı Cave (Hatay, Turkey)”, Journal of Human Evolution, 87-113.
  • LARSEN, C. S. (2000), “Dietary Reconstructionand Nutritional Assessment of Past Peoples: The Bioanthropological Record. Kenneth F. Kipple ve Kriemhild Conee Ornelas” (Ed.), in The Cambridge World History of Food, Cambridge University Press, 13-34.
  • LIEBERMAN, D. E. (2015), Story of the Human Body. Say Publications.
  • LOUCHART, A., MOURER- CHAUVIRE, C., GÜLEÇ, E., HOWELL, F.C., WHITE, T.D. (1998), “L’avifaune de Dursunlu, Turquie, Pleistocene Inferieur: Climat, Environnement et Biogeographie”, palentologşe (paleontologşedesVertebres), 327:341-6
  • MİLTON, K. (2000), “Hunter-gathererdiets: a different perspective”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71, 665-667.
  • POIRIER, F. E. ve MCKEE J.K. (1999), Understanding Human Evolution, (4th ed.) Prentice Hall, Newyork.
  • ROSE, S. (2006), O cérebro do século XXI. SãoPaulo: Globo.
  • UNGAR, P.S. (2007), Evolution of thehumandiet: theknown, theunknown, andtheunknowable, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • UNGAR, P.S., & TEAFORD, M.F. (2002). Human diet: itsoriginandevolution, Westport: Bergin & Garvey.
  • WESTON, P. "It was discovered that primitive people made canned marrow 400,000 years ago.", (https://www.independentturkish.com/node/80516/bilim/ilkel-insanlar) (05.03.2020)
  • WOTEKI, C.E. ve THOMAS, P.R. (1992), Eatfor Life: TheFoodandNutritionBoard’s Guide toReducingYour Risk of ChronicDisease. Washington, DC, USA: NationalAcademiesPress
  • YALÇINKAYA, İ., TAŞKIRAN, H., ATICI, A.L., KÖSEM, B., ÖZÇELİK, K., KARTAL, M., EREK, C.M. (2001), Karain Excavations in 1999, 22. Excavation Results Meeting, 1: 9-20.
  • WRANGHAM, R. (2009), Pegandofogo: porquecozin harno stornohumano, Rio de Janeiro: Zahar.

Nutrition at Paleolithic Age

Year 2020, Volume 4, Issue 1, 1 - 4, 19.11.2020
https://doi.org/10.47257/busad.715556

Abstract

Nutritional habits have changed constantly throughout the evolutionary process of man. Early hominids, while using only the nutrients in their surroundings as a hunter-gatherer, had different processes regarding nutrition with the use of stone tools first and then the presence of fever. Early hominids fed herbivore in general at the beginning of the process lived for a long time in forest areas due to environmental conditions and therefore did not need to take different nutrients. However, as time progressed, climatic changes and the decrease in food sources accelerated the search for new foods and caused migration to different regions. During these migrations, hominids, who had to move from the woodland to the savannah, try to adapt to their new life, and have to get used to less food sources in the savanna from the abundance of plants in the forest. As a result of the presence of more meat than the plant in savannahs, hominids turned to increasing their hunting skills and a diet containing more animal protein. It is likely that hominids initially had some difficulties during the conversion to animal protein, because their bodies may have reacted differently to this new food because they are not used to raw meat. But over time, their bodies managed to adapt to this new situation and even gained a meat-based diet. Having started using animal proteins after a completely herb-based diet has also accelerated the growth of human brain capacity. Proteins and vitamins, which are found in meat more than plants, are extremely important for the structure, development and growth of the brain. In the period after the discovery and control of the fever, animal protein consumption increased even more. In this article, the eating habits of Paleolithic Age people were first examined, and then detailed from Anatolia and the world.

References

  • ANGEL, J.L. (1984), “Health as a CrucialFactor in theChangefromHuntingtoDevelopedFarming in the Eastern Medditerranean”, Mark Nathan Cohen, Geroge J. Armelos (Ed.), Paleopathology at the Origins of Agriculture (s. 51-73). Academic Press Inc.
  • ARSEBÜK, G. (1996), “An Old Settlement in Thrace: Halfburgaz Cave Lower Paleolithic Age Findings”. Anatolian Studies, 33-50.
  • ARSLANTAŞ, Y. (2014), “Paloelitik and Mesolitik (Shelter in the Epi-Paleolithic Age).” Fırat University Journal of Social Sciences, Volume: 24, Issue: 2, Page: 319-343.
  • CORDAİN, L., MILLER, J.B., EATON, S.B., MANN, N., HOLT, S.H.A., & SPETH, J.D. (2000), “Plant-animalsubsistenceratiosandmacronutrientenergyestimations in worldwidehunter-gathererdiets”, AmericanJournal of Clinical Nutrition, 71, 682-692.
  • GÜLEÇ, E. (1996), “New Findings on the First Inhabitants of Anatolia fromtheDursunlu Site: A Preliminary Appraisal”, Settlement and Housing International Symposium in Anatolia Through the Ages, Ege Publishing, Istanbul, 211-16.
  • GÜLEÇ, E. ve AÇIKKOL, A. (2006), “Paleolithic Nutrition”. Gift to Hayat Erkanal: In Reflection of Cultures, Homer Publishing, Istanbul, 389-397.
  • GÜLEÇ, E., HOWELL, F.C., WHITE, T.D. (1999), “Dursunlu, A New Lower Pleistocene Faunaland Artifact-bearing Locality in Southern Amatolia”. H. Ullrich (ed.), Hominid Evolution, Life style sand Survival Strategies, Berlin: Archea, 349-364. KARTAL, M. (2009), Last Hunter-Gatherer in Turkey, Archeology and Art Publications, İstanbul.
  • KLEIN, R.G. (1989), The Human Career. Human BiologicalandCulturalOrigins. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. KUHN, S. L., STINER, M. C., GÜLEÇ, E., ÖZER, İ., YILMAZ, H., İSMAİL B., AÇIKKOL, A.,GOLDBERG, P., MOLİNA, M., K., ÜNAY, E., “The Early Upper Paleolithic Occupations at Üçağızlı Cave (Hatay, Turkey)”. Journal of Human Evolution, 87-113.
  • SUATA-ALPASLAN, F. (2009), “The Early Upper Paleolithic Occupations at Üç ağızlı Cave (Hatay, Turkey)”, Journal of Human Evolution, 87-113.
  • LARSEN, C. S. (2000), “Dietary Reconstructionand Nutritional Assessment of Past Peoples: The Bioanthropological Record. Kenneth F. Kipple ve Kriemhild Conee Ornelas” (Ed.), in The Cambridge World History of Food, Cambridge University Press, 13-34.
  • LIEBERMAN, D. E. (2015), Story of the Human Body. Say Publications.
  • LOUCHART, A., MOURER- CHAUVIRE, C., GÜLEÇ, E., HOWELL, F.C., WHITE, T.D. (1998), “L’avifaune de Dursunlu, Turquie, Pleistocene Inferieur: Climat, Environnement et Biogeographie”, palentologşe (paleontologşedesVertebres), 327:341-6
  • MİLTON, K. (2000), “Hunter-gathererdiets: a different perspective”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71, 665-667.
  • POIRIER, F. E. ve MCKEE J.K. (1999), Understanding Human Evolution, (4th ed.) Prentice Hall, Newyork.
  • ROSE, S. (2006), O cérebro do século XXI. SãoPaulo: Globo.
  • UNGAR, P.S. (2007), Evolution of thehumandiet: theknown, theunknown, andtheunknowable, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • UNGAR, P.S., & TEAFORD, M.F. (2002). Human diet: itsoriginandevolution, Westport: Bergin & Garvey.
  • WESTON, P. "It was discovered that primitive people made canned marrow 400,000 years ago.", (https://www.independentturkish.com/node/80516/bilim/ilkel-insanlar) (05.03.2020)
  • WOTEKI, C.E. ve THOMAS, P.R. (1992), Eatfor Life: TheFoodandNutritionBoard’s Guide toReducingYour Risk of ChronicDisease. Washington, DC, USA: NationalAcademiesPress
  • YALÇINKAYA, İ., TAŞKIRAN, H., ATICI, A.L., KÖSEM, B., ÖZÇELİK, K., KARTAL, M., EREK, C.M. (2001), Karain Excavations in 1999, 22. Excavation Results Meeting, 1: 9-20.
  • WRANGHAM, R. (2009), Pegandofogo: porquecozin harno stornohumano, Rio de Janeiro: Zahar.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Social
Journal Section ARTICLES
Authors

Yunus Emre TANSÜ (Primary Author)
GAZİANTEP üNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-6183-5306
Türkiye

Publication Date November 19, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2020, Volume 4, Issue 1

Cite

APA Tansü, Y. E. (2020). Paleolitik Çağ'da Beslenme . Bilge Uluslararası Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi , 4 (1) , 1-4 . DOI: 10.47257/busad.715556