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FARKINDALIK TEMELLİ BİLİŞSEL TERAPİ: Temel Felsefesi, Kavramlar, Terapötik Süreç, Eleştiriler ve Katkılar

Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 1, 21 - 27, 31.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.47257/busad.934436

Abstract

Farkındalık temelli bilişsel terapi (MBCT), tekrarlayan depresyon ataklarını önlemek amacıyla farkındalık temelli stres azaltma programının (MBSR) genişletilmesi ve bilişsel davranışçı terapi tekniklerinin birleştirilmesiyle meydana gelen etkili bir programdır. MBCT, format olarak MBSR’ye benzese de stresten çok depresyonu anlamaya odaklanmış bir programdır. MBCT programı, haftada bir oturum olacak şekilde 8 hafta ve ortalama 2 saat süren bir uygulamadır. Uygulama, hem resmi meditasyon olarak nitelendirilen vücut taraması, yoga oturma ve yürüme meditasyonu gibi aktiviteleri hem de bir yaşam biçimi olarak yapılan günlük rutinleri içermektedir. Bilişsel davranışçı yaklaşımın temel ilkeleri olan “şimdi ve burada” çerçevesinde ana odaklanarak düşünce, duygu ve diğer bedensel duyumları yargılamadan ele alan bir çeşit grupla yapılan farkındalık meditasyonu uygulamaları bulunmaktadır. Oturumlarda farkındalık ve otomatik pilot, zihinlerimizde yaşamak, dağınık zihnin toplanması, beden farkındalığı, bilişsel çarpıtmalar gibi konularla birlikte kuru üzüm egzersizi, oturma ve yürüme meditasyonu ve duyumlara yönelme gibi alıştırmalar uygulanmaktadır. Programın ilk uygulama amacı kronik ağrı, depresyon, anksiyete ve stresi azaltmak olsa da zamanla koroner kalp, şeker ve kanser hastalıkları, bipolar bozukluk, kaygı bozuklukları, DEHB’li yetişkinler gibi klinik ve klinik olmayan birçok problemde etkili olduğu görülmektedir. Bu anlamda bireylerin yaşam kalitesi, iyi oluş, farkındalık, öz-şefkat, duygu düzenleme, yaşam doyumu, merhamet ve memnuniyet düzeylerinin arttırılmasında oldukça fayda sağladığı bilinmektedir. Ayrıca MBCT, yapılandırılmış bir program olmasına rağmen içerik ve müdahaleleri bakımından kültürel özelliklere duyarlı esnek bir uygulama niteliği taşımaktadır.

References

  • BİSHOP, S. R.,LAU, M., SHAPİRO, S., CARLSON, L., ANDERSON, N. D., CARMODY, J., SEGAL, Z.V., ABBEY, S., SPECA, M., VELTİNG, D. VE DEVİNS, G. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical psychology: Science and practice, 11(3), 230- 241.
  • BODHİ, B. (2000). A comprehensive manual of Abhidhamma. Seattle, WA: Buddhist Publication Society Pariyatti Editions.
  • BRODERİCK, P.C. & METZ, S. (2009). Learning to BREATHE: A pilot trial of a mindfulness curriculum for adolescents. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 2(1), 35-45.
  • BROWN, K. W., RYAN, R. M., & CRESWELL, J. D. (2007). Mindfulness: Theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18, 211–237.
  • CASH, M., & WHİTTİNGHAM, K. (2010). What facets of mindfulness contribute to psychological well-being and depressive, anxious, and stress-related symptomatology? Mindfulness, 1(3), 177-182.
  • CHİESA, A., & SERRETTİ, A. (2010). A systematic review of neurobiological and clinical features of mindfulness meditations. Psychological Medicine, 40, 1239–1252. CHAMBERS, R., LO, B. C. Y., & ALLEN, N. B. (2008). The impact of intensive mindfulness training on attentional control, cognitive style, and affect. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 303–322.
  • COFFEY, K. A., & HARTMAN, M. (2008). Mechanisms of action in the inverse relationship between mindfulness and psychological distress. Complementary health practice review, 13(2), 79-91.
  • COLLARD, P. (2013). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for dummies. ProQuest Ebook Central https://ebookcentral.proquest.com ÇATAK, P., & ÖGEL, K. (2010). Farkındalık temelli terapiler ve terapötik süreçler. Klinik Psikiyatri(13), 85-91.
  • DAVİS, D. M., HAYES, J. A. (2011). What are the benefits of mindfulness? A practice review of psychotherapy - related research. Psychotherapy, 48(2), 198.
  • DE RAEDT, R., BAERT, S., DEMEYER, I. et al. (2012). Changes in Attentional Processing of Emotional Information Following Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy in People with a History of Depression: Towards an Open Attention for all Emotional Experiences. Cogn Ther Res 36, 612–620. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-011-9411-x
  • DZİAK, M. (2019). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Salem Press Encylopedia of Health.
  • HAYES SC, S. K., HAYES, S., Strosahl, K., W, & Wilson, K. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy: An experiential approach to behavior change. New York: Guilford Press.
  • HUNOT V, MOORE TH, CALDWELL DM, FURUKAWA TA, DAVİES P, JONES H et al. (2013) 'Third wave' cognitive and behavioural therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 10:CD008704
  • JHA, A. P., KROMPİNGER, J., & BAİME, M. J. (2007). Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention. Cognitive Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 109–119.
  • KABAT-ZİNN, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York: Hyperion.
  • KABAT-ZİNN, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 144-153. DOI: 10.1093/ clipsy/bpg016
  • MEHDİPOUR F, RAFİEPOOR A, HAJİ ALİZADEH K. (2017). Kanser Hastalarında Negatif Otomatik Düşünceleri ve İşlevsiz Tutumları Azaltmada Farkındalık Temelli Bilişsel Grup Terapisinin Etkinliği, Zahedan J Res Med Sci.19(6): e10609. doi:10.5812 / zjrms.10609 .
  • NOLEN-HOEKSEMA, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effect on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 569–582.
  • O'Doherty, V., Carr, A., McGrann, A., O'Neill, J. O., Dinan, S., Graham, I., & Maher, V. (2015). A controlled evaluation of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for patients with coronary heart disease and depression. Mindfulness, 6(3), 405–416.
  • RAİCHLE, M. E., MACLEOD, A. M., SNYDER, A. Z., POWERS, W. J., GUSNARD, D. A., &SHULMAN, G. L. (2001). A default mode of brain function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98(2), 676-682.
  • SAFRAN, J. D., & SEGAL, Z. V. (1990). Cognitive therapy: An interpersonal process perspective. New York, NY: Basic.
  • SCHONERT-REİCHL, K. A. & LAWLOR, M. S. (2010). The effects of a mindfulnessbased education program on pre-and early adolescents’ well-being and social and emotional competence. Mindfulness, 1(3), 137- 151.
  • SEMPLE, R. J., LEE, J., ROSA, D., & MİLLER, L. F. (2010). A randomized trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for children: Promoting mindful attention to enhance social-emotional resiliency in children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(2), 218-229.
  • SEGAL, Z., WİLLİAMS, M., & TEASDALE, J. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford Press.
  • SEGAL, Z. V., WİLLİAMS, J. M. G., & TEASDALE, J. D. (2012). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression. ProQuest Ebook Central https://ebookcentral.proquest.com
  • SHAPİRO, S. L., CARLSON, L. E., ASTİN, J. A., & FREEDMAN, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 373–386.
  • TEASDALE, J. D., SEGAL, Z. V., WİLLİAMS, J. M. G., RİDGEWAY, V. A., SOULSBY, J. M., & LAU, M. A. (2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 615–623.
  • ORTNER, C. N. M., KİLNER, S. J., & ZELAZO, P. D. (2007). Mindfulness meditation and reduced emotional interference on a cognitive task. Motivation and Emotion, 31, 271–283.
  • ÖGEL, K. (2015). Farkındalık (mindfulness) temelli bilişsel davranışçı psikoterapiler. Turkiye Klinikleri Psychiatry - Special Topics, 8(2), 28–32. https://www.turkiyeklinikleri.com/article/en-farkindalik-mindfulness-temelli-bilissel-davranisci-psikoterapiler-71494.html
  • VAN DER VELDEN, A. M., KUYKEN, W., WATTER, W., et al. (2015). A systematic review of mechanisms of change in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in the treatment of recurrent major depressive disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 37, 26–39.
  • VATAN, S. (2016). Bilişsel Davranışçı Terapilerde Üçüncü Kuşak Yaklaşımlar- Third Wave of Cognitive Behavioral Therapies. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar-Current Approaches in Psychiatry, 8(3), 190–203. https://doi.org/10.18863/pgy.238183
  • WOODS, S. L., ROCKMAN, P., & COLLİNS, E. (2016). A Contemplative dialogue: The inquiry process in mindfulness-based interventions. Toronto, Canada: Centre for Mindfulness Studies. Retrieved from https://slwoods.com/wpcontent/uploads/2016/02/acomplentativedialogue-2–2012.pdf
  • WOODS, S. L., ROCKMAN, P., & COLLİNS, E. (2019). Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy : Embodied Presence and Inquiry in Practice. Oakland, CA: Context Press. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=e000xtr&an=1907846&lang=tr&site=ehost-live ZÜMBÜL, S. (2021). Bilinçli farkındalık temelli bilişsel terapi: bir inceleme çalışması. İstanbul Aydın Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 13(1), 155-194.

MİNDFULNESS-BASED COGNITIVE THERAPY: Basic Philosophy, Concepts, Therapeutic Process, Criticisms and Contributions

Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 1, 21 - 27, 31.07.2021
https://doi.org/10.47257/busad.934436

Abstract

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is an effective program that combines awareness-based stress reduction (MBSR) expansion and cognitive behavioral therapy techniques in the risk of recurrent episodes of depression. Although MBCT is similar to MBSR in format, it is a program focused on understanding depression rather than stress. The MBCT program is a practice session for 8 weeks and an average of 2 hours per week. The application includes activities such as body scan, yoga sitting and walking meditation, which are described as formal meditation, and daily routines as a lifestyle. There are mindfulness meditation practices performed with a group that deals with thoughts, emotions and other bodily sensations without judgment by focusing on the main principles of the cognitive behavioral approach, "here and now". In the sessions, exercises such as mindfulness and autopilot, living in our minds, collecting the scattered mind, body awareness, cognitive distortions, as well as dry exercise grapes, sitting and walking meditation, and orientation to sensations are applied. Although the first application purpose of the program is to reduce chronic pain, depression, anxiety and stress, over time it is seen that it is effective in many clinical and non-clinical problems such as coronary heart, diabetes and diseases, bipolar disorder, anxiety patients, ADHD. In this sense, beneficial benefits are reported in increasing the quality of life, well-being, awareness, self-compassion, emotion regulation, life satisfaction, compassion and satisfaction levels of individuals. In addition, MBCT, according to a structured program content and content, is important in terms of content and content with other content and application content.

References

  • BİSHOP, S. R.,LAU, M., SHAPİRO, S., CARLSON, L., ANDERSON, N. D., CARMODY, J., SEGAL, Z.V., ABBEY, S., SPECA, M., VELTİNG, D. VE DEVİNS, G. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical psychology: Science and practice, 11(3), 230- 241.
  • BODHİ, B. (2000). A comprehensive manual of Abhidhamma. Seattle, WA: Buddhist Publication Society Pariyatti Editions.
  • BRODERİCK, P.C. & METZ, S. (2009). Learning to BREATHE: A pilot trial of a mindfulness curriculum for adolescents. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 2(1), 35-45.
  • BROWN, K. W., RYAN, R. M., & CRESWELL, J. D. (2007). Mindfulness: Theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18, 211–237.
  • CASH, M., & WHİTTİNGHAM, K. (2010). What facets of mindfulness contribute to psychological well-being and depressive, anxious, and stress-related symptomatology? Mindfulness, 1(3), 177-182.
  • CHİESA, A., & SERRETTİ, A. (2010). A systematic review of neurobiological and clinical features of mindfulness meditations. Psychological Medicine, 40, 1239–1252. CHAMBERS, R., LO, B. C. Y., & ALLEN, N. B. (2008). The impact of intensive mindfulness training on attentional control, cognitive style, and affect. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 32, 303–322.
  • COFFEY, K. A., & HARTMAN, M. (2008). Mechanisms of action in the inverse relationship between mindfulness and psychological distress. Complementary health practice review, 13(2), 79-91.
  • COLLARD, P. (2013). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for dummies. ProQuest Ebook Central https://ebookcentral.proquest.com ÇATAK, P., & ÖGEL, K. (2010). Farkındalık temelli terapiler ve terapötik süreçler. Klinik Psikiyatri(13), 85-91.
  • DAVİS, D. M., HAYES, J. A. (2011). What are the benefits of mindfulness? A practice review of psychotherapy - related research. Psychotherapy, 48(2), 198.
  • DE RAEDT, R., BAERT, S., DEMEYER, I. et al. (2012). Changes in Attentional Processing of Emotional Information Following Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy in People with a History of Depression: Towards an Open Attention for all Emotional Experiences. Cogn Ther Res 36, 612–620. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-011-9411-x
  • DZİAK, M. (2019). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Salem Press Encylopedia of Health.
  • HAYES SC, S. K., HAYES, S., Strosahl, K., W, & Wilson, K. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy: An experiential approach to behavior change. New York: Guilford Press.
  • HUNOT V, MOORE TH, CALDWELL DM, FURUKAWA TA, DAVİES P, JONES H et al. (2013) 'Third wave' cognitive and behavioural therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 10:CD008704
  • JHA, A. P., KROMPİNGER, J., & BAİME, M. J. (2007). Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention. Cognitive Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 109–119.
  • KABAT-ZİNN, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York: Hyperion.
  • KABAT-ZİNN, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 144-153. DOI: 10.1093/ clipsy/bpg016
  • MEHDİPOUR F, RAFİEPOOR A, HAJİ ALİZADEH K. (2017). Kanser Hastalarında Negatif Otomatik Düşünceleri ve İşlevsiz Tutumları Azaltmada Farkındalık Temelli Bilişsel Grup Terapisinin Etkinliği, Zahedan J Res Med Sci.19(6): e10609. doi:10.5812 / zjrms.10609 .
  • NOLEN-HOEKSEMA, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effect on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 569–582.
  • O'Doherty, V., Carr, A., McGrann, A., O'Neill, J. O., Dinan, S., Graham, I., & Maher, V. (2015). A controlled evaluation of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for patients with coronary heart disease and depression. Mindfulness, 6(3), 405–416.
  • RAİCHLE, M. E., MACLEOD, A. M., SNYDER, A. Z., POWERS, W. J., GUSNARD, D. A., &SHULMAN, G. L. (2001). A default mode of brain function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98(2), 676-682.
  • SAFRAN, J. D., & SEGAL, Z. V. (1990). Cognitive therapy: An interpersonal process perspective. New York, NY: Basic.
  • SCHONERT-REİCHL, K. A. & LAWLOR, M. S. (2010). The effects of a mindfulnessbased education program on pre-and early adolescents’ well-being and social and emotional competence. Mindfulness, 1(3), 137- 151.
  • SEMPLE, R. J., LEE, J., ROSA, D., & MİLLER, L. F. (2010). A randomized trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for children: Promoting mindful attention to enhance social-emotional resiliency in children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(2), 218-229.
  • SEGAL, Z., WİLLİAMS, M., & TEASDALE, J. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford Press.
  • SEGAL, Z. V., WİLLİAMS, J. M. G., & TEASDALE, J. D. (2012). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression. ProQuest Ebook Central https://ebookcentral.proquest.com
  • SHAPİRO, S. L., CARLSON, L. E., ASTİN, J. A., & FREEDMAN, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 373–386.
  • TEASDALE, J. D., SEGAL, Z. V., WİLLİAMS, J. M. G., RİDGEWAY, V. A., SOULSBY, J. M., & LAU, M. A. (2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 615–623.
  • ORTNER, C. N. M., KİLNER, S. J., & ZELAZO, P. D. (2007). Mindfulness meditation and reduced emotional interference on a cognitive task. Motivation and Emotion, 31, 271–283.
  • ÖGEL, K. (2015). Farkındalık (mindfulness) temelli bilişsel davranışçı psikoterapiler. Turkiye Klinikleri Psychiatry - Special Topics, 8(2), 28–32. https://www.turkiyeklinikleri.com/article/en-farkindalik-mindfulness-temelli-bilissel-davranisci-psikoterapiler-71494.html
  • VAN DER VELDEN, A. M., KUYKEN, W., WATTER, W., et al. (2015). A systematic review of mechanisms of change in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in the treatment of recurrent major depressive disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 37, 26–39.
  • VATAN, S. (2016). Bilişsel Davranışçı Terapilerde Üçüncü Kuşak Yaklaşımlar- Third Wave of Cognitive Behavioral Therapies. Psikiyatride Güncel Yaklaşımlar-Current Approaches in Psychiatry, 8(3), 190–203. https://doi.org/10.18863/pgy.238183
  • WOODS, S. L., ROCKMAN, P., & COLLİNS, E. (2016). A Contemplative dialogue: The inquiry process in mindfulness-based interventions. Toronto, Canada: Centre for Mindfulness Studies. Retrieved from https://slwoods.com/wpcontent/uploads/2016/02/acomplentativedialogue-2–2012.pdf
  • WOODS, S. L., ROCKMAN, P., & COLLİNS, E. (2019). Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy : Embodied Presence and Inquiry in Practice. Oakland, CA: Context Press. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=e000xtr&an=1907846&lang=tr&site=ehost-live ZÜMBÜL, S. (2021). Bilinçli farkındalık temelli bilişsel terapi: bir inceleme çalışması. İstanbul Aydın Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 13(1), 155-194.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Psychology
Journal Section ARTICLES
Authors

Vedat BAKIR (Primary Author)
KÜTAHYA DUMLUPINAR ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-5458-5110
Türkiye

Publication Date July 31, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 1

Cite

APA Bakır, V. (2021). FARKINDALIK TEMELLİ BİLİŞSEL TERAPİ: Temel Felsefesi, Kavramlar, Terapötik Süreç, Eleştiriler ve Katkılar . Bilge Uluslararası Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi , 5 (1) , 21-27 . DOI: 10.47257/busad.934436