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Translation of Patent Documents: Language of Descriptions and Claims

Year 2019, Volume , Issue 27, 220 - 241, 31.12.2019
https://doi.org/10.37599/ceviri.584725

Abstract

Technical advancements and new inventions highlighted the importance of technical translation, particularly patent translations as a specialised sub-field. In this respect, translation of patent application documents has emerged as a practice requiring specialisation, especially because the translated text is bound by the legal rules and restrictions in language use. The regulations governing the writing and wording of Claims and the textual characteristics in the patent documents require more attention. The main aim of this study is to provide a description of the general textual characteristics of patent documents as a subfield of technical translation, and particularly to provide examples to illustrate the characteristics of Claims with reference to related legal requirements. The focus of analysis is on English and Turkish language pair. The linguistic, contextual, structural and terminological properties of Turkish and English patent documents are introduced; then, Turkish and English versions of Claims are compared, to exemplify different sentence structures and translation requirements pertaining to specific textual conventions in TL. In the analyses of the translations, discussions centre not only on the translation itself, but also on what governs the translators’ decision process in terms of technically appropriate and legally acceptable text characteristics. It is claimed that it is not merely the technical and terminological knowledge, but in fact the expertise in this specific genre and style of writing that brings quality in the translation of patents. The discussions regarding the translation process and examples of textual conventions might be beneficial for professional and prospective translators who are interested in the translation of patent documents.

References

  • Ascheron, C. and Kickuth, A. (2005). Make your mark in science: Creativity, presenting, publishing, and patents: A guide for young scientists. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  • Byrne, J. (2006). Technical translation: Usability strategies for translating technical documentation. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
  • Byrne, J. (2007). Caveat translator: Understanding the legal consequences of Errors in Professional Translation. Journal of Specialised Translation 2007, 7, 2-24.
  • Carr, F. K. (2009). Patents Handbook. North Carolina: McFarland.
  • Daldeniz, E. (2004). Kültürlerarası aktarımda dil ve çeviri olgusuna bakış – Bir metin alt türü olarak patent metinlerinin türkçede oluşum serüveni. (Unpublished PhD Dissertation) İstanbul Üniversitesi, İstanbul.
  • Erten, A. (1997). Approaches to technical translation. Çeviribilim ve Uygulamaları Dergisi, 7, 17-22.
  • Estrin, H. A. (1963). Technical and professional writing: A practical anthology. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World.
  • European Patent Office (May 2010). How to get a European patent: Guide for applicants. 13th ed. Retrieved from http://documents.epo.org/projects/babylon/eponet.nsf/0/8266ED0366190630C12575E10051F40E/$File/guide_for_applicants_part1_05_10_en.pdf
  • European Patent Convention [EPC] (1973). 14th Edition, August 2010. European Patent Office. Retrieved from: http://documents.epo.org/projects/babylon/eponet.nsf/0/7bacb229e032863dc12577ec004ada98/$FILE/EPC_14th_edition.pdf
  • Finch, C. (1969). An approach to technical translation: An introductory guide for scientific readers. Oxford and New York: Pergamon Press.
  • Harhoff, D.; Hoisl, K.; Reichl, B. and van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, B. (2007). Patent validation at the country level - role of fees and translation costs. CEPR Discussion Paper No 6565.
  • Hirschhorn, H. H. (1980). Writing for science, industry, and technology. New York: D. Van Nostrand.
  • Hitchcock, D. (2009). Patent searching made easy (5th Edition). California: Nolo.
  • Lefevere, A. (1992). Translation, history, culture: A sourcebook. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Loring, D. (2005). The patent litigation. Chicago: American Bar Association.
  • Lyon, M. (2005). Japanese patents: Practical course in technical translation. Rockville, USA: Schreiber Publishing.
  • Maksimova, E. A. (2009). Russian translation: Theory and practice. Hoboken, NJ: Taylor and Francis.
  • Mimick, R.; Smith, W. E. and Thompson, M. (2005). Business diagnostics. Canada: Trafford Publishing.
  • Mohan, C. (2011, May 12). How to write an effective description for your patent application. Retrieved from: http://ezinearticles.com/?how-to-write-an-effective-description-for-your-patent-application&id=6262562
  • Munday, J. (2001). Introducing translation studies – Theories and applications. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Pasa, B. and Benacchio, A. (2005). The harmonization of civil and commercial law. Hungary: Akaprint Nyomda.
  • Patent Cooperation Treaty [PCT] (1970) As in force from April 1, 2002. World Intellectual Property Organization. Retrieved from http://www.wipo.int/pct/en/texts/articles/atoc.htm
  • Pienkos, J. T. (2004). The patent guidebook. Chicago: American Bar Association.
  • Sheremetyeva, S. (2003). Natural language analysis of patent claims. In Patent '03 Proceedings of The Acl-2003 Workshop On Patent Corpus Processing (pp. 66-73). Stroudsburg, PA, USA: Association for Computational Linguistics.
  • Sheremetyeva, S. and Nirenburg, S. (1996). Generating patent claims. In Proceedings of The 8th International Workshop on Natural Language Generation. Herstmonceux, Sussex, UK.
  • Shinmori, A., Okumura, M., Marukawa, Y. and Iwayama, M. (2003). Patent Claim Processing For Readability: Structure Analysis and Term Explanation. ACL-03 Workshop on Patent Corpus Processing, pp. 56-65.
  • Taner, G. (2011) A descriptive study on the Turkish translations of European patent documents. (Unpublished MA Thesis) Hacettepe University, Institute of Social Sciences, Ankara.
  • Tankha, A., Bout, L., Fernandes, S. and K.S., S. (2011). Patent your idea. Bloomington: Authorhouse.
  • Türk Patent Enstitüsü (January, 2010). Patent-faydalı model başvuru kılavuzu. Ankara: TPE.
  • Venuti, L. (Ed.) (2000) The translation studies reader. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Zerling, K. (2010, January). Translating a patent: translators' templates. Retrieved from Translation Journal, Vol.14 No.1: http://translationjournal.net/journal/51patents.htm
  • 551 Sayılı Patent Haklarının Korunması Hakkında Kanun Hükmünde Kararname. (1995). TC. Resmi Gazete, 22326, 27 Haziran 1995.
  • 551 Sayılı Patent Haklarının Korunması Hakkında Kanun Hükmünde Kararnamenin Uygulama Şeklini Gösterir Yönetmelik. (1995). TC. Resmi Gazete, 22454, 5 Kasım 1995.
  • Legal Documents
  • European Patent Convention, 14th Edition, 2010 and Implementing Regulations to the EPC, 2010 available on the official website of EPO: http://www.epo.org/law-practice/legal-texts/epc.html
  • Convention Establishing The World intellectual Property Organization (1967) As Amended On September 28, 1979. WIPO, 14 July 1967.
  • Patent Cooperation Treaty available on the official website of WIPO: http://www.wipo.int/pct/en/texts/articles/atoc.htm
  • Regulations Under the Patent Cooperation Treaty available on the official website of WIPO: http://www.wipo.int/pct/en/texts/rules/
  • Decree Law 551 Pertaining to the Protection of Patent Rights, 1995 available on the official website of TPI: http://www.tpe.gov.tr/dosyalar/EN_khk/Patent_DecreeLaw.pdf
  • The Implementing Regulations Under The Decree-Law No 551 Pertaining To The Protection of Patent Rights. available on the official website of TPI: http://www.tpe.gov.tr/dosyalar/EN_khk/Patent_Regulation.pdf

Patent Metinlerinin Çevirisi: Tarifname ve İstemlerin Dilsel Özellikleri

Year 2019, Volume , Issue 27, 220 - 241, 31.12.2019
https://doi.org/10.37599/ceviri.584725

Abstract

Teknik ve teknolojik gelişmeler ve yeni buluşlar, hem teknik çeviri hem de özelinde patent çevirilerinin önemini arttırmıştır. Bu açıdan, patent başvuru dokümanlarının çevirisi, çeviri kuramcıları ve profesyonel çevirmenler tarafından, özellikle de çeviri metin yasal sınırlamalara maruz kaldığı için sıklıkla tartışılan bir kavramdır. İstemlerin yazımı ve stili ile ilgili yönetmelikler yanında patent disiplinindeki metin geleneği, patent çevirisini özel dikkat gerektiren bir alan kılmıştır. Bu çalışmanın temel amacı yürürlükteki mevzuatla da ilintili olarak, teknik metin olarak değerlendirilen patent metinlerinin genel özellikleri ile ilgili bilgi vermek ve özellikle de İstemlerin çevirisiyle ilgili örnekler sunmaktır. İlk olarak İngilizce ve Türkçe patent metinlerinin dilsel, bağlamsal, yapısal ve terimsel özellikleri açıklanmış, sonrasında örnek istemler üzerinden patent başvurularının İngilizce’den Türkçe’ye yapılan resmi onaylı çevirileri orijinal metinlerle karşılaştırılmıştır. Bu sayede farklı yapılardakı İstem türleri tanıtılmış, aynı zamanda çevirisi için Türkçe patent metni geleneğinde kullanılan kalıplar örneklendirilmiş ve çeviriler işlevsel açıdan da değerlendirilmiştir. Bu makalede sunulan teknik çeviri ve patent belgelerine dair incelemeler ve çeviri örnekleri alanda çalışan çevirmen ve çevirmen adayları için bu alan hakkında bilgi sağlaması açısından faydalı olacaktır. 

References

  • Ascheron, C. and Kickuth, A. (2005). Make your mark in science: Creativity, presenting, publishing, and patents: A guide for young scientists. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  • Byrne, J. (2006). Technical translation: Usability strategies for translating technical documentation. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
  • Byrne, J. (2007). Caveat translator: Understanding the legal consequences of Errors in Professional Translation. Journal of Specialised Translation 2007, 7, 2-24.
  • Carr, F. K. (2009). Patents Handbook. North Carolina: McFarland.
  • Daldeniz, E. (2004). Kültürlerarası aktarımda dil ve çeviri olgusuna bakış – Bir metin alt türü olarak patent metinlerinin türkçede oluşum serüveni. (Unpublished PhD Dissertation) İstanbul Üniversitesi, İstanbul.
  • Erten, A. (1997). Approaches to technical translation. Çeviribilim ve Uygulamaları Dergisi, 7, 17-22.
  • Estrin, H. A. (1963). Technical and professional writing: A practical anthology. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World.
  • European Patent Office (May 2010). How to get a European patent: Guide for applicants. 13th ed. Retrieved from http://documents.epo.org/projects/babylon/eponet.nsf/0/8266ED0366190630C12575E10051F40E/$File/guide_for_applicants_part1_05_10_en.pdf
  • European Patent Convention [EPC] (1973). 14th Edition, August 2010. European Patent Office. Retrieved from: http://documents.epo.org/projects/babylon/eponet.nsf/0/7bacb229e032863dc12577ec004ada98/$FILE/EPC_14th_edition.pdf
  • Finch, C. (1969). An approach to technical translation: An introductory guide for scientific readers. Oxford and New York: Pergamon Press.
  • Harhoff, D.; Hoisl, K.; Reichl, B. and van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, B. (2007). Patent validation at the country level - role of fees and translation costs. CEPR Discussion Paper No 6565.
  • Hirschhorn, H. H. (1980). Writing for science, industry, and technology. New York: D. Van Nostrand.
  • Hitchcock, D. (2009). Patent searching made easy (5th Edition). California: Nolo.
  • Lefevere, A. (1992). Translation, history, culture: A sourcebook. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Loring, D. (2005). The patent litigation. Chicago: American Bar Association.
  • Lyon, M. (2005). Japanese patents: Practical course in technical translation. Rockville, USA: Schreiber Publishing.
  • Maksimova, E. A. (2009). Russian translation: Theory and practice. Hoboken, NJ: Taylor and Francis.
  • Mimick, R.; Smith, W. E. and Thompson, M. (2005). Business diagnostics. Canada: Trafford Publishing.
  • Mohan, C. (2011, May 12). How to write an effective description for your patent application. Retrieved from: http://ezinearticles.com/?how-to-write-an-effective-description-for-your-patent-application&id=6262562
  • Munday, J. (2001). Introducing translation studies – Theories and applications. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Pasa, B. and Benacchio, A. (2005). The harmonization of civil and commercial law. Hungary: Akaprint Nyomda.
  • Patent Cooperation Treaty [PCT] (1970) As in force from April 1, 2002. World Intellectual Property Organization. Retrieved from http://www.wipo.int/pct/en/texts/articles/atoc.htm
  • Pienkos, J. T. (2004). The patent guidebook. Chicago: American Bar Association.
  • Sheremetyeva, S. (2003). Natural language analysis of patent claims. In Patent '03 Proceedings of The Acl-2003 Workshop On Patent Corpus Processing (pp. 66-73). Stroudsburg, PA, USA: Association for Computational Linguistics.
  • Sheremetyeva, S. and Nirenburg, S. (1996). Generating patent claims. In Proceedings of The 8th International Workshop on Natural Language Generation. Herstmonceux, Sussex, UK.
  • Shinmori, A., Okumura, M., Marukawa, Y. and Iwayama, M. (2003). Patent Claim Processing For Readability: Structure Analysis and Term Explanation. ACL-03 Workshop on Patent Corpus Processing, pp. 56-65.
  • Taner, G. (2011) A descriptive study on the Turkish translations of European patent documents. (Unpublished MA Thesis) Hacettepe University, Institute of Social Sciences, Ankara.
  • Tankha, A., Bout, L., Fernandes, S. and K.S., S. (2011). Patent your idea. Bloomington: Authorhouse.
  • Türk Patent Enstitüsü (January, 2010). Patent-faydalı model başvuru kılavuzu. Ankara: TPE.
  • Venuti, L. (Ed.) (2000) The translation studies reader. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Zerling, K. (2010, January). Translating a patent: translators' templates. Retrieved from Translation Journal, Vol.14 No.1: http://translationjournal.net/journal/51patents.htm
  • 551 Sayılı Patent Haklarının Korunması Hakkında Kanun Hükmünde Kararname. (1995). TC. Resmi Gazete, 22326, 27 Haziran 1995.
  • 551 Sayılı Patent Haklarının Korunması Hakkında Kanun Hükmünde Kararnamenin Uygulama Şeklini Gösterir Yönetmelik. (1995). TC. Resmi Gazete, 22454, 5 Kasım 1995.
  • Legal Documents
  • European Patent Convention, 14th Edition, 2010 and Implementing Regulations to the EPC, 2010 available on the official website of EPO: http://www.epo.org/law-practice/legal-texts/epc.html
  • Convention Establishing The World intellectual Property Organization (1967) As Amended On September 28, 1979. WIPO, 14 July 1967.
  • Patent Cooperation Treaty available on the official website of WIPO: http://www.wipo.int/pct/en/texts/articles/atoc.htm
  • Regulations Under the Patent Cooperation Treaty available on the official website of WIPO: http://www.wipo.int/pct/en/texts/rules/
  • Decree Law 551 Pertaining to the Protection of Patent Rights, 1995 available on the official website of TPI: http://www.tpe.gov.tr/dosyalar/EN_khk/Patent_DecreeLaw.pdf
  • The Implementing Regulations Under The Decree-Law No 551 Pertaining To The Protection of Patent Rights. available on the official website of TPI: http://www.tpe.gov.tr/dosyalar/EN_khk/Patent_Regulation.pdf

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Gülden TANER (Primary Author)
ÇANKAYA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0001-8040-5195
Türkiye

Publication Date December 31, 2019
Published in Issue Year 2019, Volume , Issue 27

Cite

APA Taner, G. (2019). Translation of Patent Documents: Language of Descriptions and Claims . Çeviribilim ve Uygulamaları Dergisi , (27) , 220-241 . DOI: 10.37599/ceviri.584725