Research Article
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Investigation of The External and Internal Training Loads in Soccer Players.

Year 2018, Volume 1, Issue 1, 26 - 34, 31.12.2018

Abstract

Purpose: The concept of training load is one of the most widely used concepts in recent years. This concept is known as the internal loads (physiological responses) created by the athletes during the external loads (distance covered, number of shots per shot, etc.) exposed by the athletes. This study was aimed to determine the relationships between the external and internal training loads in soccer players.

Method: Eleven male soccer players (age = 22,7 ± 2,3 years; height = 177,6±7,1 cm) from an professional football club participated voluntarily in this study. In exception the strength training of the athletes, the GPsport (Cambera) device was used for 16 trainings in camp duration in all field workouts. Covered distance at various speeds and Rating of Perceived Exertion responses of soccer players (SRPE) were determined. The correlations between the values obtained were examined individually for each athlete by Pearson correlation test.

Results: When the results were examined, and there is no relation between the external loads and internal loads.

Conclusion: : In the lights of these results, sport scientist, health staff and coach should examine each values separately.

References

  • Alemdaroğlu U, Köklü Y. (2017). Antrenman yükü takibi ve sakatlık önlemedeki rolü. Turkiye Klinikleri J Sports Med-Special Topics. 3(3),184-90.
  • Bangsbo J, Iaia FM, Krustrup P. (2008). The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test: a useful tool for evaluation of physical performance in intermittent sports. Sports Med, 38(1), 37-51.
  • Bangsbo J, Mohr M, Krustrup P. (2006). Physical and metabolic demands of training and match-play in the elite football player. J Sports Sci. 24(7), 665-674. Barrett S, Midgley A, Lovell R, (2014). Player load TM: Reliability, convergent validity, and influence of unit position during treadmill running. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 9(6), 945–52.
  • Bartlett JD, O'Connor F, Pitchford N, Torres-Ronda L, Robertson SJ. (2017). Relationships between internal and external training load in team-sport athletes: Evidence for an individualized approach, Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 12(2), 230-234.
  • Borresen J, Lambert MI. (2009). The Quantification of training load, the training response and the effect on performance. Sport Med. 39(9),779–95.
  • Borresen J, Lambert MI. Quantifying training load: a comparison of subjective and objective methods. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 3(1),16–30. Bompa TO, Haff GG. (2009). Periodization: Theory and Methodology of Training. Human Kinetics Publishers.
  • Scott BR, Lockie RG, Knight TJ, Clark AC, Janse de Jonge XA. (2013). A Comparison of methods to quantify the in-season training load of professional soccer players, International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 8(2), 195-202.
  • Casamichana D, Castellano J, Calleja-Gonzalez J, San Román J, Castagna C. (2013). Relationship between indicators of training load in soccer player, J. Strength Cond Res, 27(2), 369-74.
  • Castagna C, D'Ottavio S, Abt G, (2003). Activity profile of young soccer players during actual match play. J Strength Cond Res, 17(4),775-780.
  • Colby MJ, Dawson B, Heasman J, Rogalski B, Gabbett TJ. Accelerometer and GPS-derived running loads and injury risk in elite Australian footballers. J Strength Cond Res, 28(8), 2244–2252.
  • Duffield R, Reid M, Baker J, Spratford W. (2010). Accuracy and reliability of GPS devices for measurement of movement patterns in confined spaces for court-based sports. J Sci Med Sport, 13(5), 523–525.
  • Costa EC, Vieira CM, Moreira A, Ugrinowitsch C, Castagna C, Aoki MS. (2013). Monitoring external and ınternal loads of Brazilian Soccer Referees during official matches, J Sports Sci Med, 12(3), 559-564.
  • Ekblom B. (1986). Applied physiology of soccer. Sport Med, 3(1), 50–60.
  • Faude O, Meyer T, Rosenberger F, Fries M, Huber G, Kindermann W. (2007). Physiological characteristics of badminton match play. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 100(4), 479–485.
  • Foster C, Florhaug JA, Franklin J, Gottschall L, Hrovatin LA, Parker S, et al. (2001). A new approach to monitoring exercise training. J Strength Cond Res, 15(1), 109–115.
  • Gabbett TJ, Whyte DG, Hartwig TB, Wescombe H, Naughton GA. (2014). The relationship between workloads, physical performance, injury and illness in adolescent male football players. Sports Med, 44(7), 989–1003.
  • Gabbett TJ. (2016). The training-injury prevention paradox: should athletes be training smarter and harder? Br J Sports Med, 50, 273–80. Hulin BT, Gabbett TJ, Lawson DW, Caputi P, Sampson JA. (2016). The acute:chronic workload ratio predicts injury: high chronic workload may decrease injury risk in elite rugby league players. Br J Sports Med, 50(4), 231–236.
  • Impellizzeri FM, Rampinini E, Coutts AJ, Sassi A, Marcora SM. (2004). Use of RPE based training load in soccer. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 36(6), 1042-1047.
  • Impellizzeri FM, Rampinini E, Marcora SM. (2005). Physiological assessment of aerobic training in soccer. J Sports Sci, 23, 583-592.
  • Jonathan DB, Fergus O, Nathan P, Lorena TR, Samuel JR. (2016). Relationships between internal and external training load in team sport athletes: Evidence for an individualised approach, International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 12(2), 230-234.
  • Krustrup P, Mohr M, Steensberg A, Bencke J, Kjaer M, Bangsbo J. (2006). Muscle and blood metabolites during a soccer game: implications for sprint performance, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 38, 1165-1174.
  • Lovell TWJ, Sirotic AC, Impellizzeri FM, Coutts AJ. (2013). Factors affecting perception of effort (session rating of perceived exertion) during rugby league training. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 8, 62–69.
  • Mclaren SJ, Weston M, Smith A, Cramb R, Portas MD. (2015). Variability of physical performance and player match loads in professional rugby union. J Sci Med Sport, 19(6), 493–497.
  • Manzi V, D’Ottavio S, Impellizzeri FM, Chaouachi A, Chamari K, Castagna C. (2010). Profile of weekly training load in elite male professional basketball players. J. Strength Cond. Res, 24(5), 1399–1406.
  • Prampero PE, Fusi S, Sepulcri L, Morin JB, Belli A, Antonutto G. (2005). Sprint running: A new energetic approach. Journal of Experimental Biology, 208, 2809-2816.
  • Reilly T. (1997). Energetics of high-intensity exercise (soccer) with particular reference to fatigue. J Sports Sci. 15,257-263. Thomas AWP, Barry M, James R, Victoria L, Goosey T. (2015). Individualized internal and external training load relationships in elite wheelchair rugby players, Front Physiol, 6, 388.
  • Stølen, T, Chamari K, Castagna C, Wisløff U. (2005). Physiology of soccer: an update. Sports Medicine, 35, 501-536.
  • Varley MC, Fairweather IH, Aughey RJ. (2012). Validity and reliability of GPS for measuring ınstantaneous velocity during acceleration, deceleration, and donstant motion. J Sports Sci, 30(2), 121–127.
  • Vanrenterghem J, Nedergaard NJ, Robinson MA, Drust B. (2017). Training load monitoring in team sports: A novel framework separating physiological and biomechanical load-adaptation pathways. Sports Med, 47(11), 2135-2142.

Futbolculardan Elde Edilen İç ve Dış Yüklerin İlişkilerinin İncelenmesi

Year 2018, Volume 1, Issue 1, 26 - 34, 31.12.2018

Abstract

Amaç: Antrenman yükü kavramı son dönemlerde yaygın şekilde kullanılan kavramların başında gelmektedir. Bu kavram sporcuların maruz kaldığı dış yüklerin (kat edilen mesafe, şut ya da atış sayısı v.b) sporcularda yarattığı iç yükler (fizyolojik cevaplar) olarak bilinmektedir.  Bu çalışma, Antrenmanda elde edilen algılanan zorluk derecesi (AAZD)  değerleri ile farklı hızlarda kat edilen mesafe değerleri arasındaki ilişkilerin belirlenmesi amacı ile yapılmıştır.

Yöntem: Bu çalışmaya Türkiye Birinci liginde oynayan 11 (yaş = 22,7 ± 2,3; boy= 177,6±7,1; 65± 8 ) profesyonel futbolcu gönüllü olarak katılmıştır. Sporcuların kuvvet antrenmanı dışında tüm saha antrenmanlarında GPsport (Cambera) cihazı ile yük takipleri yapılmıştır. Sezon başında gerçekleştirilen iki ayrı kamp sürecinde toplam 16 antrenmandan veri alınmıştır. Çalışmada kalecilere yer verilmezken, dört savunma, 5 orta saha ve 2 hücum oyuncusu dahil edilmiştir. Bu takipte sporcuların değişik hızarda kat ettikleri mesafeler ile onluk algılanan zorluk derecesi ve antrenman süresinin çarpımından elde edilen antrenmanın algılanan zorluk derecesi (AAZD) belirlenmiştir. Elde edilen değerler arasındaki ilişkilere Pearson korelasyon testi ile her bir sporcu için tek tek bakılmıştır.

Bulgular: Sonuçlar incelendiğinde AAZD değerleri ile kat edilen mesafe değerleri arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki tespit edilmemiştir (p> .05).

Sonuç: Bu sonuçlar göz önünde bulundurulduğunda futbolcuların antrenmanda algıladıkları zorluk derecesi ile kat edilen mesafeler arasında ilişki olmadığı ve algılanan zorluk derecesi farklı faktörlerin etkilemiş olabileceği söylenebilir. Bu neden ile antrenörlerin, spor bilimcilerin ve sağlık heyetlerinin bu değerlerin her birini kendi içinde değerlendirmesi gerektiği düşünülmektedir.

References

  • Alemdaroğlu U, Köklü Y. (2017). Antrenman yükü takibi ve sakatlık önlemedeki rolü. Turkiye Klinikleri J Sports Med-Special Topics. 3(3),184-90.
  • Bangsbo J, Iaia FM, Krustrup P. (2008). The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test: a useful tool for evaluation of physical performance in intermittent sports. Sports Med, 38(1), 37-51.
  • Bangsbo J, Mohr M, Krustrup P. (2006). Physical and metabolic demands of training and match-play in the elite football player. J Sports Sci. 24(7), 665-674. Barrett S, Midgley A, Lovell R, (2014). Player load TM: Reliability, convergent validity, and influence of unit position during treadmill running. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 9(6), 945–52.
  • Bartlett JD, O'Connor F, Pitchford N, Torres-Ronda L, Robertson SJ. (2017). Relationships between internal and external training load in team-sport athletes: Evidence for an individualized approach, Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 12(2), 230-234.
  • Borresen J, Lambert MI. (2009). The Quantification of training load, the training response and the effect on performance. Sport Med. 39(9),779–95.
  • Borresen J, Lambert MI. Quantifying training load: a comparison of subjective and objective methods. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 3(1),16–30. Bompa TO, Haff GG. (2009). Periodization: Theory and Methodology of Training. Human Kinetics Publishers.
  • Scott BR, Lockie RG, Knight TJ, Clark AC, Janse de Jonge XA. (2013). A Comparison of methods to quantify the in-season training load of professional soccer players, International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 8(2), 195-202.
  • Casamichana D, Castellano J, Calleja-Gonzalez J, San Román J, Castagna C. (2013). Relationship between indicators of training load in soccer player, J. Strength Cond Res, 27(2), 369-74.
  • Castagna C, D'Ottavio S, Abt G, (2003). Activity profile of young soccer players during actual match play. J Strength Cond Res, 17(4),775-780.
  • Colby MJ, Dawson B, Heasman J, Rogalski B, Gabbett TJ. Accelerometer and GPS-derived running loads and injury risk in elite Australian footballers. J Strength Cond Res, 28(8), 2244–2252.
  • Duffield R, Reid M, Baker J, Spratford W. (2010). Accuracy and reliability of GPS devices for measurement of movement patterns in confined spaces for court-based sports. J Sci Med Sport, 13(5), 523–525.
  • Costa EC, Vieira CM, Moreira A, Ugrinowitsch C, Castagna C, Aoki MS. (2013). Monitoring external and ınternal loads of Brazilian Soccer Referees during official matches, J Sports Sci Med, 12(3), 559-564.
  • Ekblom B. (1986). Applied physiology of soccer. Sport Med, 3(1), 50–60.
  • Faude O, Meyer T, Rosenberger F, Fries M, Huber G, Kindermann W. (2007). Physiological characteristics of badminton match play. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 100(4), 479–485.
  • Foster C, Florhaug JA, Franklin J, Gottschall L, Hrovatin LA, Parker S, et al. (2001). A new approach to monitoring exercise training. J Strength Cond Res, 15(1), 109–115.
  • Gabbett TJ, Whyte DG, Hartwig TB, Wescombe H, Naughton GA. (2014). The relationship between workloads, physical performance, injury and illness in adolescent male football players. Sports Med, 44(7), 989–1003.
  • Gabbett TJ. (2016). The training-injury prevention paradox: should athletes be training smarter and harder? Br J Sports Med, 50, 273–80. Hulin BT, Gabbett TJ, Lawson DW, Caputi P, Sampson JA. (2016). The acute:chronic workload ratio predicts injury: high chronic workload may decrease injury risk in elite rugby league players. Br J Sports Med, 50(4), 231–236.
  • Impellizzeri FM, Rampinini E, Coutts AJ, Sassi A, Marcora SM. (2004). Use of RPE based training load in soccer. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 36(6), 1042-1047.
  • Impellizzeri FM, Rampinini E, Marcora SM. (2005). Physiological assessment of aerobic training in soccer. J Sports Sci, 23, 583-592.
  • Jonathan DB, Fergus O, Nathan P, Lorena TR, Samuel JR. (2016). Relationships between internal and external training load in team sport athletes: Evidence for an individualised approach, International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 12(2), 230-234.
  • Krustrup P, Mohr M, Steensberg A, Bencke J, Kjaer M, Bangsbo J. (2006). Muscle and blood metabolites during a soccer game: implications for sprint performance, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 38, 1165-1174.
  • Lovell TWJ, Sirotic AC, Impellizzeri FM, Coutts AJ. (2013). Factors affecting perception of effort (session rating of perceived exertion) during rugby league training. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 8, 62–69.
  • Mclaren SJ, Weston M, Smith A, Cramb R, Portas MD. (2015). Variability of physical performance and player match loads in professional rugby union. J Sci Med Sport, 19(6), 493–497.
  • Manzi V, D’Ottavio S, Impellizzeri FM, Chaouachi A, Chamari K, Castagna C. (2010). Profile of weekly training load in elite male professional basketball players. J. Strength Cond. Res, 24(5), 1399–1406.
  • Prampero PE, Fusi S, Sepulcri L, Morin JB, Belli A, Antonutto G. (2005). Sprint running: A new energetic approach. Journal of Experimental Biology, 208, 2809-2816.
  • Reilly T. (1997). Energetics of high-intensity exercise (soccer) with particular reference to fatigue. J Sports Sci. 15,257-263. Thomas AWP, Barry M, James R, Victoria L, Goosey T. (2015). Individualized internal and external training load relationships in elite wheelchair rugby players, Front Physiol, 6, 388.
  • Stølen, T, Chamari K, Castagna C, Wisløff U. (2005). Physiology of soccer: an update. Sports Medicine, 35, 501-536.
  • Varley MC, Fairweather IH, Aughey RJ. (2012). Validity and reliability of GPS for measuring ınstantaneous velocity during acceleration, deceleration, and donstant motion. J Sports Sci, 30(2), 121–127.
  • Vanrenterghem J, Nedergaard NJ, Robinson MA, Drust B. (2017). Training load monitoring in team sports: A novel framework separating physiological and biomechanical load-adaptation pathways. Sports Med, 47(11), 2135-2142.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Sport Sciences
Published Date 2018
Journal Section Makaleler
Authors

Bilal Utku ALEMDAROĞLU (Primary Author)
PAMUKKALE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SPOR BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0002-1025-0965
Türkiye


Erhan IŞIKDEMİR (Primary Author)
NEVŞEHİR HACI BEKTAŞ VELİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SPOR BİLİMLERİ VE TEKNOLOJİSİ YÜKSEKOKULU
0000-0002-4443-2222
Türkiye


Harun Emrah TÜRKDOĞAN This is me
PAMUKKALE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Türkiye


Yusuf KÖKLÜ
PAMUKKALE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SPOR BİLİMLERİ FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0003-2736-9214
Türkiye


Yunus ARSLAN
Türkiye


Ayşenur AKBAŞ This is me
Türkiye


Ahmet EDREMİT
DENİZLİSPOR KULÜBÜ DERNEĞİ
0000-0002-1025-0965
Türkiye

Publication Date December 31, 2018
Published in Issue Year 2018, Volume 1, Issue 1

Cite

APA Alemdaroğlu, B. U. , Işıkdemir, E. , Türkdoğan, H. E. , Köklü, Y. , Arslan, Y. , Akbaş, A. & Edremit, A. (2018). Futbolculardan Elde Edilen İç ve Dış Yüklerin İlişkilerinin İncelenmesi . Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi Spor Bilimleri Dergisi , 1 (1) , 26-34 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/comusbd/issue/43232/509129

Sayın Araştırmacılar,

Spor Bilimleri alanındaki çalışmaları içeren uluslararası nitelikte ve hakemli dergi olarak yayımlanan ÇOMÜ Spor Bilimleri Dergisi'nin Aralık 2021'de çıkacak olan sayısı için dergimizin kapsamı dahilinde olan konularla ilgili özgün araştırma ve derleme türünde makaleler kabul edilecektir. Bu anlamda ilgili sayı için makaleler 2021 yılının Ekim ayı sonuna kadar gönderilebilir.

 Bilgilerinize sunulur.

Editör

Prof. Dr. Hürmüz KOÇ