Year 2020, Volume 3 , Issue 2, Pages 87 - 96 2020-12-24

Amelioration of External Surgical Wound by Topical Application of the Aqueous Formulation of Neem Leaves (Azadirachta indica) in Caprine Model

Ajmary SULTANA [1] , Marzia RAHMAN [2] , Md. Mahmudul ALAM [3]

The study was conducted to evaluate the healing potentials of Neem leaf on surgical wounds. A total of sixteen surgical wounds were studied under two groups; Neem (group A) and Normal saline (group B, control). Wound morphology, histopathology, and bacteriological examinations were carried out to assess wound healing potentials of this plant leaves. We have found a remarkably lower swollen area (3.91±0.10mm), suture line levation (2.64±0.19mm) and length of the wound (15.78±0.19mm) in the treatment group than the control (0.36±0.12mm, 3.59±0.12mm, and 17.11±0.08mm respectively). The mean healing period Neem treated wound was significantly (P<0.05) lower (12.33±0.42 days) than that of control (18.67±0.33 days). Histopathological study revealed the presence of substantial inflammation with fibroblastic proliferation in samples collected at day 3 in the control group whereas these features were distinctly reduced in the treatment group. There was a distinct thickening of the keratinized layer of the epidermis in Neem treated wound on day 21. In bacteriological study, huge bacterial colonies were found on day 3 in the control group whereas this was markedly reduced in number in the wound of Group-A. Thus, the present study supports the scientific rationale for the use of Neem leaf in the management of wounds.
Neem leaf, Surgical wound, Histopathology, Bacteriology, Amelioration
  • Alam, M.M., Islam, S.A., Hashim, M.A. and Saha, D., 2007. A comparison of the effect of medicinal plant extract and antibiotic on wound healing with changes of blood values in Black Bengal goat. Journal of Bangladesh Society for Agricultural Science and Technology, 4: 141-144.
  • Alam, M.M., Islam, S.A., Mohammed, Y., Juyena, N.S., and Hashim, M.A., 2005. Comparative efficacy of two medicinal plant extracts and an antibiotic on wound healing. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 8: 740-743. DOI:
  • Alzohairy, M.A., 2016. Therapeutics role of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and their active constituents in diseases prevention and treatment. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, (11):1-11. DOI:
  • Annan, K. and Houghton, P.J., 2008. Antibacterial, antioxidant and fibroblast growth stimulation of aqueous extracts of Ficus asperifolia Miq. and Gossypium arboreum L., wound-healing plants of Ghana. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 119: 141-144. DOI:
  • Ashraf, M.B., Akter, M.A., Saha, M., Mishra, P., Hoda, N., and Alam, M.M., 2019. Clinicopathological evaluation on capture myopathy due to chemical immobilization in spotted deer. Turkish Journal of Veterinary Research, 3: 81-84.
  • Biswas, K., Chattopadhyay I, Banerjee RK, and Bandyopadhyay U. 2002. Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem (Azadirachta indica). Current Science, 82, 1336-1345.
  • Hoda N, Talukder, Z, Mishra, P., Jaman, K., Alam, M.M., 2018. Occurrence of surgical affections in zoo herbivores: a retrospective study. Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, 5(2): 209-214. DOI:
  • Hossain, M.A., Al-Toubi, W.A.S., Weli, A.M., Al-Riyami, Q.A. and Al-Sabahi, J.N. 2013. Identification and characterization of chemical compounds in different crude extracts from leaves of Omani neem. Journal of Taibah University for Science, 7: 181-188. DOI:
  • Jaman, M.M., Mishra, P., Rahman, M. and Alam, M.M., 2018. Clinical and laboratory investigation on the recurrence of the umbilical hernia after herniorrhaphy in bovine calves. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University, 16: 464-470. DOI.
  • Juyena, N.S., Tapon, M.A.H., Ferdousy, R.N., Paul, S. and Alam, M.M., 2013. A retrospective study on the occurrence of myiasis in ruminant. Progressive Agriculture 24(1 & 2): 101-106. DOI:
  • Miah, M.A.H., Hasan, M., Sarker, Y.A., Alam, M.M., Juyena, N.S., 2017. Clinical evaluation of ethanolic extract of curcumin (Curcuma longa) on wound healing in Black Bengal goats. Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research 4 (2): 181-186. DOI.
  • Mummed, B., Abraha, A., Feyera, T., Nigusse, A., and Assefa, S., 2018. In vitro antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants in the traditional treatment of skin and wound infections in eastern Ethiopia. BioMed Research International,
  • Patel, J.D., Shrivastava, A.K. and Kumar, V., 2009. Evaluation of some medicinal plants used in traditional wound healing preparations for antibacterial property against some pathogenic bacteria. Journal of Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology Research, 1: 007-012.
  • Raina, R., Prawez, S., Verma, P.K. and Pankaj, N.K., 2008. Medicinal plants and their role in wound healing. Vet Scan 3: 1-7. Rassel, M.G.R., Mishra, P., Rahman, M. and Alam, M.M. 2020. Exploring bacterial pathogens and risk factors associated with the occurrence of navel ill in calves. Journal of Istanbul Veterinary Sciences, 4(2): 37-42. DOI:
  • Rivandi, M., Emami, M.R., Rad, M., Kazemi Mehrjerdi, H., Azizzadeh, M. and Ghasemi S. 2012. Bacteriological Evaluation of Aloe vera L. Fresh Gel on Experimental Infected Full-Thickness Open Wounds Induced with Staphylococcus aureus in Dogs. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Surgery 7: 75-84.
  • Sarker, D., Akter, M.A., Rahman, M.S., Yesmin, N. and Alam, M.M., 2020. Clinicopathological consequences of urinary retention due to urolithiasis in indigenous goats. PSM Veterinary Research 5(2): 28-37.
  • Sorg, H., Tilkorn, D.J., Hager, S., Hauser, J. and Mirastschijski, U., 2017. Skin wound healing: an update on the current knowledge and concepts. European Surgical Research 58: 81-94. DOI:
  • Subapriya, R., Kumaraguruparan, R. and Nagini, S., 2006. Expression of PCNA, cytokeratin, Bcl-2 and p53 during chemoprevention of hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis by ethanolic neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract. Clinical biochemistry 39: 1080-1087. DOI:
  • Talukder, Z., Hoda, N., Jha, P.K., Mishra. P., Momy, M.K. and Alam, M.M., 2018. A retrospective study on the occurrence of surgical affection in zoo carnivores of the national zoological garden at Dhaka, Bangladesh. Research in Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, 5(3): 335-339. DOI.
  • Tamanna, S.J., Shihab, M.M., Akter, M.A., Rahman, M. and Alam, M.M., 2020. Therapeutic potentialities of green tea (Camellia sinensis) and aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) on Staphylococcus aureus induced septic wound in goats. Journal of Bangladesh Agricultural University 18: 105-110. DOI:
  • Tan, M.A., Akter, M.A., Rahman, M.S., Rahman, M. and Alam, M.M. 2020. Standardization of surgical site preparation with various formulations of Povidone Iodine, Chlorhexidine, and Chlorxylenol in goat model. Journal of Innovative Sciences. 6(1): 34-40. DOI:
Primary Language en
Subjects Biology
Journal Section Research Articles

Orcid: 0000-0003-3617-3985
Author: Ajmary SULTANA
Institution: Bangladesh Agricultural University
Country: Turkey

Orcid: 0000-0002-8646-3246
Author: Marzia RAHMAN
Institution: Bangladesh Agricultural University
Country: Bangladesh

Orcid: 0000-0002-3464-4125
Author: Md. Mahmudul ALAM (Primary Author)
Institution: Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh
Country: Bangladesh


Publication Date : December 24, 2020

APA Sultana, A , Rahman, M , Alam, M . (2020). Amelioration of External Surgical Wound by Topical Application of the Aqueous Formulation of Neem Leaves (Azadirachta indica) in Caprine Model . Current Perspectives on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CUPMAP) , 3 (2) , 87-96 . DOI: 10.38093/cupmap.828751