Research Article
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Sevgi Algısı Ölçeği: Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik Çalışması

Year 2022, Volume 20, Issue 43, 37 - 63, 25.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.34234/ded.1035332

Abstract

Bu araştırmanın amacı bireylerin sevgi algılarını ölçen geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçek geliştirmektir. Başlangıçta 42 maddeden oluşan taslak ölçeğe açımlayıcı faktör analizi yapılmış ve altı faktör altında 26 maddeden oluşan bir ölçek oluşmuştur. Bu 26 maddenin toplam varyansın %63.958’ini açıkladığı görülmüştür. Altı faktörlü yapıda yer alan faktörler isimlerinin: 1) Sevgi ve İşlevi, 2) Sevgi ve Davranışlar, 3) Sevgi ve Değerler, 4) Sevgi ve Kaynağı, 5) Sevgi ve Kişisel Özellikler ile 6) Sevgi ve Farklılıklar olarak isimlendirilmesinin uygun olduğuna karar verilmiştir. Ölçeğin faktör yapısının doğrulanması amacıyla yapılan DFA sonucu, X2/df değerinin 2.53, RMSEA değerinin 0.067, NFI değerinin 0.93, CFI değerinin 0.95, GFI değerinin 0.86 ve AGFI değerinin 0.83 olduğu belirlenmiş ve elde edilen bu değerlerin yapının doğrulanması için yeterli olduğu görülmüştür. Güvenirlik çalışmasında ölçeğin tümüne ait Cronbach's Alpha değeri 0.88 olarak bulunmuş, madde toplam korelasyon değerleri incelendiğinde 0.2’nin altında herhangi bir madde yer almadığı görülmüştür. Test tekrar test güvenirliğinde ise iki test arası korelasyon değeri 0.78 olarak bulunmuştur. Ölçeğin geçerlik ve güvenirlik sonuçları incelendiğinde ölçeğin bireylerin sevgi algılarını ölçebilecek geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracı olduğu düşünülmektedir.

References

  • Boateng, G. O., Neilands, T. B., Frongillo, E., A., Melgar-Quiñonez, H. R., & Young, S. L. (2018). Best practices for developing and validating scales for health, social, and behavioral research: A primer. Front. Public Health, 6(149), 1-18.
  • Carpenter, S. (2018). Ten steps in scale development and reporting: A guide for researchers. Communication Methods and Measures, 12(1), 25-44.
  • Castillo, F. (2016). Perceptions on the love of the young people: An assessment based on the love attitude scale. In S. F. Tang & L. Logonnathan (Eds.), Assessment for learning within and beyond the classroom. Singapore: Springer Science+Business Media.
  • Coaley, K. (2010). An introduction to psychological assessment and psychometrics. USA: SAGE Publications. Doll, W. J., Xia, W., X., & Torkzadeh, G. (1994). A confirmatory factor analysis of the end-user computing satisfaction instrument, MIS Quarterly, 18(4), 453-461.
  • Dovidio, J. F., & Penner, L. A. 2001. Helping and altruism. In M. Brewer & M. Hewstone (Eds.), Blackwell international handbook of social psychology: Interpersonal processes (pp. 162-195). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
  • Dönmez, A. (1998). Sosyal psikoloji [Social psychology ](3rd Edt.). İmge Kitabevi.
  • Fehr, B., & Sprecher, S. (2009). Prototype analysis of the concept of compassionate love. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 16, 343-364.
  • Freedman, J. L., Sears, D. O., & Carlsmith, J. M. (1981). Social psychology (4th Edt..). New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.
  • Fromm, E. (2011). Sevme sanatı [The art of loving] (Translation: Ö. S. Karadana). İzmir: İlya Yayınları.
  • Gasset, J. O. (1995). Sevgi üstüne çeşitli yaklaşımlar [Various approaches to love] (1st Edt.). Ankara: Yapı Kredi Yayınları.
  • Gliem, J. A., & Gliem, R. R. (2003). Calculating, interpreting, and reporting Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient for likert-type scales. Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education, The Ohio State University, Columbus.
  • Harrington, D. (2009). Confirmatory factor analysis. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.
  • Hatfield, E., & Sprecher, S. (1998). The passionate love scale. Handbook of Sexuality-Related Measures, 449-451.
  • Hendrick, C., & Hendrick, S. (1986). A theory and method of love. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 392-402.
  • Hinkin, T. R. (1995). A review of scale development practices in the study of organization. Journal of Management, 21(5), 967-988.
  • Hoyle, R. H. (2004). Confirmatory factor analysis. In M. Lewis-Beck, A. Bryman & T. Liao (Eds.), Encyclopedia of social science research methods. (pp. 169–175). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Jampolsky, G. (1995). Sevgi korkudan özgürleşmektir [Love is freedom from fear] (Translation: S. Serin). İstanbul: Pegasus Ajans.
  • Jolliffe, I. T., & Cadima, J. (2016). Principal component analysis: A review and recent developments. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci., 374, 1-16.
  • Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (4th ed.) New York, London: The Guilford Press.
  • Ladner, L. (2003). The lost art of compassion: Discovering the practice of happiness in the meeting of Buddhism and psychology. New York City: Harper Collins.
  • Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psy, 28, 563–575.
  • Lee, J. A. (1977). A typology of styles of loving. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 3(2), 173-182.
  • Li, C. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis with ordinal data: Comparing robust maximum likelihood and diagonally weighted least squares. Behav Res, 48, 936-949.
  • MacCallum, R. C., Widaman, K. F., Zhang, S., & Hong, S. (1999). Sample size in factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 4(1), 84-99.
  • Matsunaga, M. (2010). How to factor-analyze your data right: Do’s, dont’s, and how-to’s. International of Psychological Research, 3(1), 97-110.
  • Mîndrilă, D. (2010). Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Diagonally Weighted Least Squares (DWLS) estimation procedures: A comparison of estimation bias with ordinal and multivariate non-normal data. International Journal of Digital Society, 1(1), 60-66.
  • Mukaka, M. M. (2012). Statistics Corner: A guide to the appropriate use of correlation coefficient in medical research. Malawi Medical Journal, 24(3), 69-71.
  • Nemoto, T., & Beglar, D. (2014). Developing likert-scale questionnaires. In N. Sonda & A. Krause (Eds.), JALT2013 Conference Proceedings, Tokyo: JALT.
  • Özen, Y., & Gülaçtı, F. (2010). Duyuşsal alan öğrencilerinden sevgi ve sevgi kuramları (Sevgiye dair söylenceler) [Love and love theories from affective field students (Myths about love)]. Ordu Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi, 1(2), 135-149.
  • Penrod, S. (1982). Social psychology. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
  • Piedmont, R. L. (2014). Inter-item correlations. In: Michalos A.C. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research. USA: Springer, Dordrecht.
  • Post, S. G. (2003). Unlimited love altruism, compassion, and service. USA: Templeton Foundation Press.
  • Post, B. B. (2010). From fear to love. USA: Post Institute & Associates.
  • Reis, H. T., Maniaci, M. R., & Rogge, R. D. (2014). The expression of compassionate love in everyday compassionate acts. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 31(5), 651-676.
  • Rubin, Z. (1970). Measurement of romantic love. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16(2), 265. Schacter, D. (2011). Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers.
  • Schober, P., Boer, C., & Schwarte, L. A. (2018). Correlation coefficients: Appropriate use and interpretation. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 126(5), 1763-1768.
  • Segars, A. H., & Grover, V. (1993). Re-examining perceived ease of use and usefulness: A confirmatory factor analysis, MIS Quarterly, 17(4), 517-525.
  • Sprecher, S., & Fehr, B. (2005). Compassionate love for close others and humanity. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 22(5), 629–651.
  • Sternberg, R. J. (1997). Construct validation of a triangular love scale. European Journal of Social Psychology, 27(3), 313-335.
  • Şahin, Ş., Ökmen, B., & Kılıç, A. (2019). The views of students related to compassionate love and compassionate love education course after taking compassionate love education course. Journal of Qualitative Research in Education, 7(1), 176-197.
  • Şahin, Ş. (2020). Öğrenci, öğretmen ve müdürlerin sevgi, demokrasi ve öğrenci merkezli eğitim algıları[Students, teachers and principals' perceptions of compassionate love, democracy and student-centered education] (Unpublished doctorate dissertation Düzce University.
  • Şahin, Ş., & Kılıç, A. (2020a). Okul müdürlerinin sevgi, demokrasi ve öğrenci merkezli eğitim söylemleri [School principals' discourse on compassionate love, democracy and student-centered education]. Akdeniz Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 14(33), 439-471.
  • Şahin, Ş., & Kılıç, A (2020b). Öğrencilerin sevgi, demokrasi ve öğrenci merkezli eğitim algıları [Students' perceptions of compassionate love, democracy and student-centered education]. Batı Anadolu Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 11(2), 294-325.
  • Şahin, Ş., & Kılıç, A. (2021). Öğrencilerin sevgi algılarına ilişkin kavram ağları [Concept networks on students' perceptions of compassionate love]. Marmara Üniversitesi Atatürk Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 53(53), 287-308.
  • Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2012). Using multivariate statistics (6. ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn ve Bacon.
  • Tozduman Yaralı, K., Özkan, H. K., & Güngör Aytar, A. (2016). Yedi ve on yaş çocuklarının sevgiyi ifade ediş biçimlerinin çizdikleri resimlere yansıması [Reflection of seven and ten year old children's expressions of love on the pictures they draw]. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, 24(5), 2181-2194.
  • Underwood, L. G. (2009). Compassionate love: A framework for research. In Fehr, B., Sprecher S., & Underwood L. G.(Eds.) The science of compassionate love. theory, research, and applications (pp. 3-25). West Sussex, UK: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Ursachi, G., I. A., Horodnic, & Zait, A. (2015). How reliable are measurement scales? External factors with indirect influence on reliability estimators. Procedia Economics and Finance, 20, 679-686.
  • Veneziano L., & Hooper J. (1997). A method for quantifying content validity of health-related questionnaires. American Journal of Health Behavior, 21(1), 67-70.
  • Yong, A. G., & Pearce, S. (2013). A beginner’s guide to factor analysis: Focusing on exploratory factor analysis. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 9(2), 79-94.

Compassionate Love Scale: Validity and Reliability Study

Year 2022, Volume 20, Issue 43, 37 - 63, 25.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.34234/ded.1035332

Abstract

In this research, it is aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale that measures the compassionate love perceptions of individuals. After exploratory factor analysis, a scale consisting of 26 items was formed under six factors. It was found that these 26 items explained 63.958% of the total variance. The factors’ names are: 1) Compassionate Love and its Function, 2) Compassionate Love and Behaviors, 3) Compassionate Love and Values, 4) Compassionate Love and Its Source, 5) Compassionate Love and Personal Traits, and 6) Compassionate Love and Differences. As a result of the confirmatory factor analysis, it was determined that the X2/df value was 2.53, the RMSEA value was 0.067, the NFI value was 0.93, the CFI value was 0.95, the GFI value was 0.86, and the AGFI value was 0.83. In the reliability study, the Cronbach's Alpha value of the whole scale was found to be 0.88. In the test-retest reliability, the correlation value between the two tests was found to be 0.78. When all the results of the validity and reliability studies of the scale are examined, it is thought that the scale is a valid and reliable measurement tool that can measure the compassionate love perceptions of individuals.

References

  • Boateng, G. O., Neilands, T. B., Frongillo, E., A., Melgar-Quiñonez, H. R., & Young, S. L. (2018). Best practices for developing and validating scales for health, social, and behavioral research: A primer. Front. Public Health, 6(149), 1-18.
  • Carpenter, S. (2018). Ten steps in scale development and reporting: A guide for researchers. Communication Methods and Measures, 12(1), 25-44.
  • Castillo, F. (2016). Perceptions on the love of the young people: An assessment based on the love attitude scale. In S. F. Tang & L. Logonnathan (Eds.), Assessment for learning within and beyond the classroom. Singapore: Springer Science+Business Media.
  • Coaley, K. (2010). An introduction to psychological assessment and psychometrics. USA: SAGE Publications. Doll, W. J., Xia, W., X., & Torkzadeh, G. (1994). A confirmatory factor analysis of the end-user computing satisfaction instrument, MIS Quarterly, 18(4), 453-461.
  • Dovidio, J. F., & Penner, L. A. 2001. Helping and altruism. In M. Brewer & M. Hewstone (Eds.), Blackwell international handbook of social psychology: Interpersonal processes (pp. 162-195). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
  • Dönmez, A. (1998). Sosyal psikoloji [Social psychology ](3rd Edt.). İmge Kitabevi.
  • Fehr, B., & Sprecher, S. (2009). Prototype analysis of the concept of compassionate love. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 16, 343-364.
  • Freedman, J. L., Sears, D. O., & Carlsmith, J. M. (1981). Social psychology (4th Edt..). New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.
  • Fromm, E. (2011). Sevme sanatı [The art of loving] (Translation: Ö. S. Karadana). İzmir: İlya Yayınları.
  • Gasset, J. O. (1995). Sevgi üstüne çeşitli yaklaşımlar [Various approaches to love] (1st Edt.). Ankara: Yapı Kredi Yayınları.
  • Gliem, J. A., & Gliem, R. R. (2003). Calculating, interpreting, and reporting Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient for likert-type scales. Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education, The Ohio State University, Columbus.
  • Harrington, D. (2009). Confirmatory factor analysis. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.
  • Hatfield, E., & Sprecher, S. (1998). The passionate love scale. Handbook of Sexuality-Related Measures, 449-451.
  • Hendrick, C., & Hendrick, S. (1986). A theory and method of love. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 392-402.
  • Hinkin, T. R. (1995). A review of scale development practices in the study of organization. Journal of Management, 21(5), 967-988.
  • Hoyle, R. H. (2004). Confirmatory factor analysis. In M. Lewis-Beck, A. Bryman & T. Liao (Eds.), Encyclopedia of social science research methods. (pp. 169–175). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Jampolsky, G. (1995). Sevgi korkudan özgürleşmektir [Love is freedom from fear] (Translation: S. Serin). İstanbul: Pegasus Ajans.
  • Jolliffe, I. T., & Cadima, J. (2016). Principal component analysis: A review and recent developments. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci., 374, 1-16.
  • Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (4th ed.) New York, London: The Guilford Press.
  • Ladner, L. (2003). The lost art of compassion: Discovering the practice of happiness in the meeting of Buddhism and psychology. New York City: Harper Collins.
  • Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psy, 28, 563–575.
  • Lee, J. A. (1977). A typology of styles of loving. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 3(2), 173-182.
  • Li, C. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis with ordinal data: Comparing robust maximum likelihood and diagonally weighted least squares. Behav Res, 48, 936-949.
  • MacCallum, R. C., Widaman, K. F., Zhang, S., & Hong, S. (1999). Sample size in factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 4(1), 84-99.
  • Matsunaga, M. (2010). How to factor-analyze your data right: Do’s, dont’s, and how-to’s. International of Psychological Research, 3(1), 97-110.
  • Mîndrilă, D. (2010). Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Diagonally Weighted Least Squares (DWLS) estimation procedures: A comparison of estimation bias with ordinal and multivariate non-normal data. International Journal of Digital Society, 1(1), 60-66.
  • Mukaka, M. M. (2012). Statistics Corner: A guide to the appropriate use of correlation coefficient in medical research. Malawi Medical Journal, 24(3), 69-71.
  • Nemoto, T., & Beglar, D. (2014). Developing likert-scale questionnaires. In N. Sonda & A. Krause (Eds.), JALT2013 Conference Proceedings, Tokyo: JALT.
  • Özen, Y., & Gülaçtı, F. (2010). Duyuşsal alan öğrencilerinden sevgi ve sevgi kuramları (Sevgiye dair söylenceler) [Love and love theories from affective field students (Myths about love)]. Ordu Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi, 1(2), 135-149.
  • Penrod, S. (1982). Social psychology. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
  • Piedmont, R. L. (2014). Inter-item correlations. In: Michalos A.C. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research. USA: Springer, Dordrecht.
  • Post, S. G. (2003). Unlimited love altruism, compassion, and service. USA: Templeton Foundation Press.
  • Post, B. B. (2010). From fear to love. USA: Post Institute & Associates.
  • Reis, H. T., Maniaci, M. R., & Rogge, R. D. (2014). The expression of compassionate love in everyday compassionate acts. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 31(5), 651-676.
  • Rubin, Z. (1970). Measurement of romantic love. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16(2), 265. Schacter, D. (2011). Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers.
  • Schober, P., Boer, C., & Schwarte, L. A. (2018). Correlation coefficients: Appropriate use and interpretation. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 126(5), 1763-1768.
  • Segars, A. H., & Grover, V. (1993). Re-examining perceived ease of use and usefulness: A confirmatory factor analysis, MIS Quarterly, 17(4), 517-525.
  • Sprecher, S., & Fehr, B. (2005). Compassionate love for close others and humanity. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 22(5), 629–651.
  • Sternberg, R. J. (1997). Construct validation of a triangular love scale. European Journal of Social Psychology, 27(3), 313-335.
  • Şahin, Ş., Ökmen, B., & Kılıç, A. (2019). The views of students related to compassionate love and compassionate love education course after taking compassionate love education course. Journal of Qualitative Research in Education, 7(1), 176-197.
  • Şahin, Ş. (2020). Öğrenci, öğretmen ve müdürlerin sevgi, demokrasi ve öğrenci merkezli eğitim algıları[Students, teachers and principals' perceptions of compassionate love, democracy and student-centered education] (Unpublished doctorate dissertation Düzce University.
  • Şahin, Ş., & Kılıç, A. (2020a). Okul müdürlerinin sevgi, demokrasi ve öğrenci merkezli eğitim söylemleri [School principals' discourse on compassionate love, democracy and student-centered education]. Akdeniz Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 14(33), 439-471.
  • Şahin, Ş., & Kılıç, A (2020b). Öğrencilerin sevgi, demokrasi ve öğrenci merkezli eğitim algıları [Students' perceptions of compassionate love, democracy and student-centered education]. Batı Anadolu Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 11(2), 294-325.
  • Şahin, Ş., & Kılıç, A. (2021). Öğrencilerin sevgi algılarına ilişkin kavram ağları [Concept networks on students' perceptions of compassionate love]. Marmara Üniversitesi Atatürk Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 53(53), 287-308.
  • Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2012). Using multivariate statistics (6. ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn ve Bacon.
  • Tozduman Yaralı, K., Özkan, H. K., & Güngör Aytar, A. (2016). Yedi ve on yaş çocuklarının sevgiyi ifade ediş biçimlerinin çizdikleri resimlere yansıması [Reflection of seven and ten year old children's expressions of love on the pictures they draw]. Kastamonu Eğitim Dergisi, 24(5), 2181-2194.
  • Underwood, L. G. (2009). Compassionate love: A framework for research. In Fehr, B., Sprecher S., & Underwood L. G.(Eds.) The science of compassionate love. theory, research, and applications (pp. 3-25). West Sussex, UK: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Ursachi, G., I. A., Horodnic, & Zait, A. (2015). How reliable are measurement scales? External factors with indirect influence on reliability estimators. Procedia Economics and Finance, 20, 679-686.
  • Veneziano L., & Hooper J. (1997). A method for quantifying content validity of health-related questionnaires. American Journal of Health Behavior, 21(1), 67-70.
  • Yong, A. G., & Pearce, S. (2013). A beginner’s guide to factor analysis: Focusing on exploratory factor analysis. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 9(2), 79-94.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Humanities, Multidisciplinary
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Abdurrahman KILIÇ>
DÜZCE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-2704-2951
Türkiye


Şeyma ŞAHİN> (Primary Author)
T.C. MİLLİ EĞİTİM BAKANLIĞI
0000-0003-1727-4772
Türkiye


Burcu ÖKMEN>
T.C. Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı
0000-0002-0296-0078
Türkiye

Early Pub Date June 23, 2022
Publication Date June 25, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 20, Issue 43

Cite

APA Kılıç, A. , Şahin, Ş. & Ökmen, B. (2022). Compassionate Love Scale: Validity and Reliability Study . Değerler Eğitimi Dergisi , 20 (43) , 37-63 . DOI: 10.34234/ded.1035332