Research Article
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Avrupa Din Eğitimi Politikası

Year 2022, Volume 20, Issue 43, 243 - 267, 25.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.34234/ded.1102688

Abstract

Avrupa’daki devlet okullarındaki din eğitimi, ilgili uluslararası insan hakları sözleşmelerinde ifade edilen ve ilgili davalara bakan Avrupa İnsan Hakları Mahkemesi gibi uluslararası mahkemelerin içtihatlarına uygun olmalıdır. Ayrıca, özellikle son yıllarda Avrupa Konseyi ve Avrupa Güvenlik ve İş Birliği Teşkilatı gibi uluslararası kuruluşlar okullarda din eğitimi ile ilgili tavsiyeler, yönergeler ve referans kitaplar yayınlamıştır. Tutarlı ve homojen bir Avrupa din eğitimi politikası ortaya çıktığını iddia etmek için erken olmakla beraber, bu yayınlarla en azından bu yönde bir eğilimin olduğu söylenebilir. Bu açıdan makale Avrupa din eğitimi politikasını özellikle de ilkelerini incelemektedir. Bu ilkeler din eğitiminin okullardaki yeri, modeli ve amaçları, din eğitiminden muafiyet hakkı ve ilgili paydaşlarla istişaredir. Nitel bir çalışma olan bu araştırma doküman analizine dayanmaktadır. Makalede, Avrupa din eğitimi politikasının ulusal din eğitimi politikaları üzerindeki muhtemel etkisi tartışılmaktadır.

References

  • Barnes, L. P. (2015). Religious Education: Teaching for Diversity. In J. M. Halstead (Ed.), Religious Education: Educating for Diversity (pp. 11–62). Bloomsbury.
  • Bereday, G. Z. F. (1964). Comparative Method in Education. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  • Berkmann, B. J. (2022). Religious Education before the ECtHR: The Opt-Out Clause does not Suffice Anymore. British Journal of Religious Education, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/01416200.2022.2029732
  • Bîrzéa, C. (2006). The Education Policy Perspective. In J. Keast (Ed.), Religious Diversity and Intercultural Education: A Reference Book for Schools (Provisional Edition) (pp. 7–8). Council of Europe Publishing.
  • Bondevik, J. H., Dautaj, A., O’Grady, K., & Vallianatos, A. (2020). Signposts Teacher Training Module: Teaching about Religions and Non-Religious World Views in Intercultural Education. Council of Europe. https://rm.coe.int/prems-055919-gbr-2508-signposts-teacher-training-module/1680a18a23
  • Bråten, O. M. H., & Everington, J. (2019). Issues in the Integration of Religious Education and Worldviews Education in an Intercultural Context. Intercultural Education, 30(3), 289–305. https://doi.org/10.1080/14675986.2018.1539307
  • Clayton, M., & Stevens, D. (2018). What is the Point of Religious Education? Theory and Research in Education, 16(1), 65–81. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477878518762217
  • Copley, T. (2005). Indoctrination, Education, and God: The Struggle for the Mind. SPCK.
  • Council of Europe. (1950). European Convention on Human Rights. https://www.echr.coe.int/documents/convention_eng.pdf
  • Council of Europe. (1993). Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1202 (1993) on Religious Tolerance in a Democratic Society. https://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=15236&lang=en
  • Council of Europe. (1999). Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1396 (1999) on Religion and Democracy. http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=16672&lang=en
  • Council of Europe. (2005). Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1720 (2005) on Education and Religion. http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=17373&lang=en
  • Council of Europe. (2007). Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1804 (2007) on State, Religion, Secularity and Human Rights. http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=17568&lang=en
  • Council of Europe. (2008a). Recommendation CM/Rec(2008)12 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the Dimension of Religions and Non-Religious Convictions within Intercultural Education. https://search.coe.int/cm/Pages/result_details.aspx?ObjectID=09000016805d20e8
  • Council of Europe. (2008b). White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue: ‘Living Together as Equals with Dignity’. https://www.coe.int/t/dg4/intercultural/source/white%20paper_final_revised_en.pdf
  • Council of Europe. (2011). Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1962 (2011) on the Religious Dimension of Intercultural Dialogue. https://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=17973&lang=en
  • Council of Europe. (2015). Human Rights and Religions: Recommendation, Invitation and Appeal. https://edoc.coe.int/en/conference-of-ingos/6701-human-rights-and-religions.html
  • Dale, R. (2000). Globalisation and Education: Demonstrating a ‘Common World Education Culture’ or Locating A ‘Globally Structured Educational Agenda’? Educational Theory, 50(4), 427–448.
  • ECtHR. (2007a). Case of Folgerø and Others v. Norway (Application no. 15472/02). http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-81356
  • ECtHR. (2007b). Case of Hasan and Eylem Zengin v. Turkey (Application no. 1448/04). http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-82580
  • ECtHR. (2009). Case of Appel-Irrgang and Others v. Germany (Application no. 45216/07). http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-112539
  • ECtHR. (2010). Case of Grzelak v. Poland (Application no. 7710/02). http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-99384
  • ECtHR. (2014). Case of Mansur Yalçın and Others v. Turkey (Application no. 21163/11). http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-146487
  • ECtHR. (2019). Case of Papageorgiou and Others v. Greece (Applications nos. 4762/18 and 6140/18). http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/fre?i=001-197254
  • European Commission. (2019). Turkey 2019 Report. https://www.avrupa.info.tr/sites/default/files/2019-05/20190529-turkey-report.pdf
  • Fabretti, V. (2013). Learning from Religions. Post Secular Schools and the Challenge of Pluralism. Italian Journal of Sociology of Education, 5(2), 46–66.
  • Gearon, L. (2008). Religion, Politics and Pedagogy: Historical Contexts. British Journal of Religious Education, 30(2), 93–102.
  • Gearon, L. (2012). European Religious Education and European Civil Religion. British Journal of Educational Studies, 60(2), 151–169. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071005.2012.671929
  • Gearon, L. (2014). On Holy Ground: The Theory and Practice of Religious Education. Routledge.
  • Hendek, A., & Fancourt, N. (2021). The Effects of Judgements by the European Court of Human Rights on Religious Education in England and Turkey. Religion & Education, 48(4), 436–457. https://doi.org/10.1080/15507394.2021.1961658
  • Jackson, R. (2014). Signposts—Policy and Practice for Teaching about Religions and Non-Religious World Views in Intercultural Education. The Council of Europe.
  • Jackson, R., & O’Grady, K. (2019). The Religious and Worldview Dimension of Intercultural Education: The Council of Europe’s Contribution. Intercultural Education, 30(3), 247–259. https://doi.org/10.1080/14675986.2018.1539306
  • Kaymakcan, R., & Hendek, A. (2022). European Court of Human Rights’ Judgements and Compulsory Religious Education in Turkey. British Journal of Religious Education, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/01416200.2022.2045901
  • Keast, J. (Ed.). (2006). Religious Diversity and Intercultural Education: A Reference Book for Schools (Provisional Edition). Council of Europe Publishing.
  • Milot, M. (2006). The Religious Dimension in Intercultural Education. In J. Keast (Ed.), Religious Diversity and Intercultural Education: A Reference Book for Schools (Provisional Edition) (pp. 13–20). Council of Europe Publishing.
  • Moulin, D. (2012). Religious Education in England After 9/11. Religious Education, 107(2), 158–173.
  • OSCE. (2007). Toledo Guiding Principles on Teaching about Religions and Beliefs in Public Schools: Prepared by ODIHR Advisory Council of Experts on Freedom of Religion and Belief. OSCE/ODIHR.
  • OSCE, & Council of Europe. (2011). Guidelines for Educators on Countering Intolerance and Discrimination against Muslims: Addressing Islamophobia through Education. https://www.osce.org/files/f/documents/4/2/84495.pdf
  • Rothgangel, M., Jackson, R., & Jäggle, M. (Eds.). (2014). Religious Education at Schools in Europe. Part 2: Western Europe. Vienna University Press.
  • Schreiner, P. (2013). The Perspectives of the European Institutions Concerning the Place of Religion in Education. Pedagogiek, 33(2), 90–102. https://doi.org/10.5117/PED2013.2.SCHR
  • Schreiner, P. (2015). Religious Education in the European Context. In J. Berglund, T. Lundén, & P. Strandbrink (Eds.), Crossings, Crosses: Borders, Educations, and Religions in the Northern Europe (pp. 139–153). De Gruyter.
  • Schreiner, P. (2016). European Institutions, Human Rights and Interreligious Education. In M. L. Pirner, J. Lähnemann, & H. Bielefeldt (Eds.), Human Rights and Religion in Educational Contexts (pp. 273–283). Springer.
  • Štimac, Z. (2020). ‘Culture of Religion’ – a Controversial Secular School Subject. British Journal of Religious Education, 42(1), 65–74. https://doi.org/10.1080/01416200.2018.1516194
  • Ubani, M., Hyvärinen, E., Lemettinen, J., & Hirvonen, E. (2020). Dialogue, Worldview Inclusivity, and Intra-Religious Diversity: Addressing Diversity through Religious Education in the Finnish Basic Education Curriculum. Religions, 11(11), 581. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11110581
  • UN. (1948). Universal Declaration of Human Rights. https://www.un.org/en/about-us/universal-declaration-of-human-rights
  • UN. (1966a). International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. https://www.ohchr.org/en/instruments-mechanisms/instruments/international-covenant-civil-and-political-rights
  • UN. (1966b). International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. https://www.ohchr.org/en/instruments-mechanisms/instruments/international-covenant-economic-social-and-cultural-rights
  • UN. (1981). Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief. https://www.ohchr.org/en/instruments-mechanisms/instruments/declaration-elimination-all-forms-intolerance-and-discrimination
  • Weisse, W. (2009). REDCo: Final Activity Report. https://cordis.europa.eu/docs/results/28/28384/123869721-6_en.pdf
  • Willaime, J.-P. (2007). Different Models for Religion and Education in Europe. In R. Jackson, S. Miedema, W. Weisse, & J.-P. Willaime (Eds.), Religion and Education in Europe: Developments, Contexts and Debates (pp. 57–66). Waxmann.
  • Willaime, J.-P. (2008). Conclusions Presented by Mr Jean-Paul Willaime—General Rapporteur (118th Session of the Committee of Ministers—Council of Europe 2008 Exchange on the Religious Dimension of Intercultural Dialogue). https://search.coe.int/cm/Pages/result_details.aspx?ObjectID=09000016805d351f

European Religious Education Policy

Year 2022, Volume 20, Issue 43, 243 - 267, 25.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.34234/ded.1102688

Abstract

Religious education in schools in Europe must comply with the human rights principles expressed in relevant international human rights conventions and with the case-law produced by supranational courts such as the European Court of Human Rights. Moreover, in recent decades, European organisations such as the Council of Europe and the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe have published recommendations, guidelines and reference books concerning religious education in schools. Even though it is early to claim that there is a coherent and homogenous European religious education policy, there is at least a tendency towards unifying it. Therefore, this article discusses the European religious education policy, particularly its principles, namely religious education's place in schools, its model and aims, the right of withdrawal from religious education, and consultation with relevant stakeholders. It is a qualitative research study, which adopts document analysis. The implications of the European religious education policy for national religious education policies are also discussed.

References

  • Barnes, L. P. (2015). Religious Education: Teaching for Diversity. In J. M. Halstead (Ed.), Religious Education: Educating for Diversity (pp. 11–62). Bloomsbury.
  • Bereday, G. Z. F. (1964). Comparative Method in Education. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
  • Berkmann, B. J. (2022). Religious Education before the ECtHR: The Opt-Out Clause does not Suffice Anymore. British Journal of Religious Education, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/01416200.2022.2029732
  • Bîrzéa, C. (2006). The Education Policy Perspective. In J. Keast (Ed.), Religious Diversity and Intercultural Education: A Reference Book for Schools (Provisional Edition) (pp. 7–8). Council of Europe Publishing.
  • Bondevik, J. H., Dautaj, A., O’Grady, K., & Vallianatos, A. (2020). Signposts Teacher Training Module: Teaching about Religions and Non-Religious World Views in Intercultural Education. Council of Europe. https://rm.coe.int/prems-055919-gbr-2508-signposts-teacher-training-module/1680a18a23
  • Bråten, O. M. H., & Everington, J. (2019). Issues in the Integration of Religious Education and Worldviews Education in an Intercultural Context. Intercultural Education, 30(3), 289–305. https://doi.org/10.1080/14675986.2018.1539307
  • Clayton, M., & Stevens, D. (2018). What is the Point of Religious Education? Theory and Research in Education, 16(1), 65–81. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477878518762217
  • Copley, T. (2005). Indoctrination, Education, and God: The Struggle for the Mind. SPCK.
  • Council of Europe. (1950). European Convention on Human Rights. https://www.echr.coe.int/documents/convention_eng.pdf
  • Council of Europe. (1993). Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1202 (1993) on Religious Tolerance in a Democratic Society. https://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=15236&lang=en
  • Council of Europe. (1999). Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1396 (1999) on Religion and Democracy. http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=16672&lang=en
  • Council of Europe. (2005). Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1720 (2005) on Education and Religion. http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=17373&lang=en
  • Council of Europe. (2007). Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1804 (2007) on State, Religion, Secularity and Human Rights. http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=17568&lang=en
  • Council of Europe. (2008a). Recommendation CM/Rec(2008)12 of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the Dimension of Religions and Non-Religious Convictions within Intercultural Education. https://search.coe.int/cm/Pages/result_details.aspx?ObjectID=09000016805d20e8
  • Council of Europe. (2008b). White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue: ‘Living Together as Equals with Dignity’. https://www.coe.int/t/dg4/intercultural/source/white%20paper_final_revised_en.pdf
  • Council of Europe. (2011). Parliamentary Assembly Recommendation 1962 (2011) on the Religious Dimension of Intercultural Dialogue. https://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-XML2HTML-en.asp?fileid=17973&lang=en
  • Council of Europe. (2015). Human Rights and Religions: Recommendation, Invitation and Appeal. https://edoc.coe.int/en/conference-of-ingos/6701-human-rights-and-religions.html
  • Dale, R. (2000). Globalisation and Education: Demonstrating a ‘Common World Education Culture’ or Locating A ‘Globally Structured Educational Agenda’? Educational Theory, 50(4), 427–448.
  • ECtHR. (2007a). Case of Folgerø and Others v. Norway (Application no. 15472/02). http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-81356
  • ECtHR. (2007b). Case of Hasan and Eylem Zengin v. Turkey (Application no. 1448/04). http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-82580
  • ECtHR. (2009). Case of Appel-Irrgang and Others v. Germany (Application no. 45216/07). http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-112539
  • ECtHR. (2010). Case of Grzelak v. Poland (Application no. 7710/02). http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-99384
  • ECtHR. (2014). Case of Mansur Yalçın and Others v. Turkey (Application no. 21163/11). http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/eng?i=001-146487
  • ECtHR. (2019). Case of Papageorgiou and Others v. Greece (Applications nos. 4762/18 and 6140/18). http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/fre?i=001-197254
  • European Commission. (2019). Turkey 2019 Report. https://www.avrupa.info.tr/sites/default/files/2019-05/20190529-turkey-report.pdf
  • Fabretti, V. (2013). Learning from Religions. Post Secular Schools and the Challenge of Pluralism. Italian Journal of Sociology of Education, 5(2), 46–66.
  • Gearon, L. (2008). Religion, Politics and Pedagogy: Historical Contexts. British Journal of Religious Education, 30(2), 93–102.
  • Gearon, L. (2012). European Religious Education and European Civil Religion. British Journal of Educational Studies, 60(2), 151–169. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071005.2012.671929
  • Gearon, L. (2014). On Holy Ground: The Theory and Practice of Religious Education. Routledge.
  • Hendek, A., & Fancourt, N. (2021). The Effects of Judgements by the European Court of Human Rights on Religious Education in England and Turkey. Religion & Education, 48(4), 436–457. https://doi.org/10.1080/15507394.2021.1961658
  • Jackson, R. (2014). Signposts—Policy and Practice for Teaching about Religions and Non-Religious World Views in Intercultural Education. The Council of Europe.
  • Jackson, R., & O’Grady, K. (2019). The Religious and Worldview Dimension of Intercultural Education: The Council of Europe’s Contribution. Intercultural Education, 30(3), 247–259. https://doi.org/10.1080/14675986.2018.1539306
  • Kaymakcan, R., & Hendek, A. (2022). European Court of Human Rights’ Judgements and Compulsory Religious Education in Turkey. British Journal of Religious Education, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/01416200.2022.2045901
  • Keast, J. (Ed.). (2006). Religious Diversity and Intercultural Education: A Reference Book for Schools (Provisional Edition). Council of Europe Publishing.
  • Milot, M. (2006). The Religious Dimension in Intercultural Education. In J. Keast (Ed.), Religious Diversity and Intercultural Education: A Reference Book for Schools (Provisional Edition) (pp. 13–20). Council of Europe Publishing.
  • Moulin, D. (2012). Religious Education in England After 9/11. Religious Education, 107(2), 158–173.
  • OSCE. (2007). Toledo Guiding Principles on Teaching about Religions and Beliefs in Public Schools: Prepared by ODIHR Advisory Council of Experts on Freedom of Religion and Belief. OSCE/ODIHR.
  • OSCE, & Council of Europe. (2011). Guidelines for Educators on Countering Intolerance and Discrimination against Muslims: Addressing Islamophobia through Education. https://www.osce.org/files/f/documents/4/2/84495.pdf
  • Rothgangel, M., Jackson, R., & Jäggle, M. (Eds.). (2014). Religious Education at Schools in Europe. Part 2: Western Europe. Vienna University Press.
  • Schreiner, P. (2013). The Perspectives of the European Institutions Concerning the Place of Religion in Education. Pedagogiek, 33(2), 90–102. https://doi.org/10.5117/PED2013.2.SCHR
  • Schreiner, P. (2015). Religious Education in the European Context. In J. Berglund, T. Lundén, & P. Strandbrink (Eds.), Crossings, Crosses: Borders, Educations, and Religions in the Northern Europe (pp. 139–153). De Gruyter.
  • Schreiner, P. (2016). European Institutions, Human Rights and Interreligious Education. In M. L. Pirner, J. Lähnemann, & H. Bielefeldt (Eds.), Human Rights and Religion in Educational Contexts (pp. 273–283). Springer.
  • Štimac, Z. (2020). ‘Culture of Religion’ – a Controversial Secular School Subject. British Journal of Religious Education, 42(1), 65–74. https://doi.org/10.1080/01416200.2018.1516194
  • Ubani, M., Hyvärinen, E., Lemettinen, J., & Hirvonen, E. (2020). Dialogue, Worldview Inclusivity, and Intra-Religious Diversity: Addressing Diversity through Religious Education in the Finnish Basic Education Curriculum. Religions, 11(11), 581. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11110581
  • UN. (1948). Universal Declaration of Human Rights. https://www.un.org/en/about-us/universal-declaration-of-human-rights
  • UN. (1966a). International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. https://www.ohchr.org/en/instruments-mechanisms/instruments/international-covenant-civil-and-political-rights
  • UN. (1966b). International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. https://www.ohchr.org/en/instruments-mechanisms/instruments/international-covenant-economic-social-and-cultural-rights
  • UN. (1981). Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief. https://www.ohchr.org/en/instruments-mechanisms/instruments/declaration-elimination-all-forms-intolerance-and-discrimination
  • Weisse, W. (2009). REDCo: Final Activity Report. https://cordis.europa.eu/docs/results/28/28384/123869721-6_en.pdf
  • Willaime, J.-P. (2007). Different Models for Religion and Education in Europe. In R. Jackson, S. Miedema, W. Weisse, & J.-P. Willaime (Eds.), Religion and Education in Europe: Developments, Contexts and Debates (pp. 57–66). Waxmann.
  • Willaime, J.-P. (2008). Conclusions Presented by Mr Jean-Paul Willaime—General Rapporteur (118th Session of the Committee of Ministers—Council of Europe 2008 Exchange on the Religious Dimension of Intercultural Dialogue). https://search.coe.int/cm/Pages/result_details.aspx?ObjectID=09000016805d351f

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Religion
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Abdurrahman HENDEK> (Primary Author)
Sakarya Üniversitesi
0000-0003-2832-3445
Türkiye

Early Pub Date June 23, 2022
Publication Date June 25, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 20, Issue 43

Cite

APA Hendek, A. (2022). European Religious Education Policy . Değerler Eğitimi Dergisi , 20 (43) , 243-267 . DOI: 10.34234/ded.1102688