Research Article

FUTURE ANXIETY UNDER COVID-19 CIRCUMSTANCES: TESTING THE EFFECT OF GRATITUDE AND MEDIATING ROLE OF THREAT PERCEPTION

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https://doi.org/10.33171/dtcfjournal.2024.64.1.9

Abstract

The Covid-19 outbreak increased the importance of dispositional qualities and easy-to-use self-help strategies to promote mental well-being. Previous research indicate that disposition to gratitude enhances well-being by protecting mental health. However, evidence for the efficacy of gratitude-inducing interventions in preventing psychological problems is mixed. Further, data on the gratitude-well-being link under Covid-19 circumstances are inconclusive. In the present reseach, we examined the role of trait gratitude and gratitude-listing intervention in alleviating future anxiety during the pandemic, and the mediating role of perceived realistic and symbolic threats from Covid-19. In the first study, a correlational study (N = 405), participants rated the predictor and outcome measures—the scales of gratitude, future anxiety, and perceived realistic and symbolic threats from Covid-19. In the second study, a pretest-posttest intervention study (N = 150), participants were randomized to list grateful experiences or important daily life events every two days for a month, or to complete only the pretest and posttest measures. Results indicated that disposition to gratitude was associated with lower future anxiety (study-1), whereas the gratitude-listing intervention did not reduce this anxiety (study-2). Furthermore, in both studies, the perceived Covid-19 threats did not mediate the relationship between gratitude and future anxiety. Exploratory qualitative analyses of participants’ gratitude lists and feedback in the second study showed that the pandemic situation hindered the benefits of the intervention. Overall, the results suggest that trait gratitude is more strongly associated with alleviation of psychological distress during the Covid-19 pandemic than gratitude listing. This supports the accumulating data that gratitude interventions, while beneficial for well-being, have limited effectiveness in reducing symptoms of ill-being, such as anxiety.

Ethical Statement

The studies reported in this manuscript were approved by the ethics committee of Ankara University (Approval date: 09.06.2020. Approval number: 0616). Informed consent was obtained from all participants before participation in the studies.

Supporting Institution

The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK)

Project Number

120K418

References

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  • Cregg, D., & Cheavens, J. S. (2020). Gratitude interventions: Effective self-help? A meta-analysis of the impact on symptoms of depression and anxiety. Journal of Happiness Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-020-00236-6
  • Datu, J. A. D., Valdez, J. P. M., McInerney, D. M., & Cayubit, R. F. (2022). The effects of gratitude and kindness on life satisfaction, positive emotions, negative emotions, and COVID‐19 anxiety: An online pilot experimental study. Applied Psychology: Health & Well‐Being, 14(2), 347-361. https://doi.org/10.1111/aphw.12306
  • Davis, D. E., Choe, E., Meyers, J., Wade, N., Varjas, K., Gifford, A., Quinn, A., Hook, J. N., Van Tongeren, D. R., Griffin, B. J., & Worthington, E. L., Jr. (2016). Thankful for the little things: A meta-analysis of gratitude interventions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63(1), 20–31. https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000107
  • Dennis, A., & Ogden, J. (2022). Nostalgia, gratitude, or optimism: The impact of a two-week intervention on well-being during COVID-19. Journal of Happiness Studies, 23(6), 2613-2634. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-022-00513-6
  • Dickens, L. R. (2017). Using gratitude to promote positive change: A series of meta-analyses investigating the effectiveness of gratitude interventions. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 39(4), 193-208. https://doi.org/10.1080/01973533.2017.1323638
  • Disabato, D. J., Kashdan, T. B., Short, J. L., & Jarden, A. (2017). What predicts positive life events that influence the course of depression? A longitudinal examination of gratitude and meaning in life. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 41, 444–458. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-016-9785-x
  • Dragioti, E., Li, H., Tsitsas, G., Lee, K. H., Choi, J., Kim, J., ... & Solmi, M. (2022). A large‐scale meta‐analytic atlas of mental health problems prevalence during the COVID‐19 early pandemic. Journal of medical virology, 94(5), 1935-1949. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27549
  • Duplaga, M., & Grysztar, M. (2021). The association between future anxiety, health literacy and the perception of the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study. Healthcare, 9(1), 43-61. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9010043
  • Emmons, R. A., & McCullough, M. E. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: An empirical investigation of gratitude and subjective wellbeing in daily life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 377–389. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.2.377
  • Emmons, R. A., & Crumpler, C. A. (2000). Gratitude as a human strength: Appraising the evidence. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19(1), 56-69. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2000.19.1.56
  • Emmons, R. A., & Mishra, A. (2011). Why gratitude enhances well-being: what we know, what we need to know. In K. M. Sheldon, T. B. Kashdan & M. F. Steger (Ed.), Designing Positive Psychology (pp. 248-262). Oxford University Press.
  • Emmons, R. A., & Stern, R. (2013). Gratitude as a psychotherapeutic intervention. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, 69(8), 846-855. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22020
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  • Froh, J.J., Yurkewicz, C., & Kashdan, T.B. (2009). Gratitude and subjective well-being in early adolescence: Examining gender differences. Journal of Adolescence, 32, 633–650. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2008.06.006
  • Fruehwirth J. C., Biswas S., & Perreira, K. M. (2021) The Covid-19 pandemic and mental health of first-year college students: Examining the effect of Covid-19 stressors using longitudinal data. PloSONE, 16(3): e0247999. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0247999
  • Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford Press.
  • Hayes, A. F. & Coutts, J. J. (2020) Use Omega Rather than Cronbach’s Alpha for Estimating Reliability. But…, Communication Methods and Measures, 14:1, 1-24. Doi: 10.1080/19312458.2020.1718629
  • Jans-Beken, L., Jacobs, N., Janssens, M., Peeters, S., Reijnders, J., Lechner, L., & Lataster, J. (2020) Gratitude and health: An updated review. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 15(6), 743-782. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2019.1651888
  • Kachanoff, F. J., Bigman, Y. E., Kapsaskis, K., & Gray, K. (2020). Measuring realistic and symbolic threats of Covid-19 and their unique impacts on well-being and adherence to public health behaviors. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 12(5), 603-616. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550620931634
  • Kashdan, T. B., Mishra, A., Breen, W. E., & Froh, J. J. (2009). Gender differences in gratitude: Examining appraisals, narratives, the willingness to express emotions, and changes in psychological needs. Journal of Personality, 77(3), 691-730. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2009.00562.x
  • Kloos, N., Austin, J., van ‘t Klooster, J. W., Drossaert, C., & Bohlmeijer, E. (2022). Appreciating the Good Things in Life During the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Randomized Controlled Trial and Evaluation of a Gratitude App. Journal of happiness studies, 23(8), 4001-4025. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-022-00586-3
  • Lambert, N. M., Fincham, F. D., & Stillman, T. F. (2012) Gratitude and depressive symptoms: The role of positive reframing and positive emotion, Cognition & Emotion, 26:4, 615-633. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022575
  • Lau, R. W. L., & Cheng, S-T. (2011). Gratitude lessens death anxiety. European Journal of Ageing, 8, 169-175. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10433-011-0195-3
  • Liu, S., Lithopoulos, A., Zhang, C. Q., Garcia-Barrera, M. A., & Rhodes, R. E. (2021). Personality and perceived stress during Covid-19 pandemic: Testing the mediating role of perceived threat and efficacy. Personality and Individual differences, 168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110351
  • Lyubomirsky, S., Dickerhoof, R., Boehm, J. K., & Sheldon, K. M. (2011). Becoming happier takes both a will and a proper way: An experimental longitudinal intervention to boost well-being. Emotion, 11(2), 391–402. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022575
  • McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(1), 112-127. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.82.1.112
  • McCullough, M. E., Kilpatrick, S. D., Emmons, R. A., & Larson, D. B. (2001). Is gratitude a moral affect? Psychological Bulletin, 127(2), 249–266. https://doi.org/10.1037//0033-2909.127.2.249
  • McNeish, D. (2018). Thanks coefficient alpha, we’ll take it from here. Psychological Methods, 23(3), 412–433. https://doi.org/10.1037/met0000144
  • Otto, A. K., Szczesny, E. C., Soriano, E. C., Laurenceau, J.-P., & Siegel, S. D. (2016). Effects of a randomized gratitude intervention on death-related fear of recurrence in breast cancer survivors. Health Psychology, 35(12), 1320–1328. https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000400
  • Paredes, M. R., Apaolaza, V., Fernandez-Robin, C., Hartmann, P., & Yañez-Martinez, D. (2021). The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on subjective mental well-being: The interplay of perceived threat, future anxiety and resilience. Personality and Individual Differences, 170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110455
  • Peters, G.-J. Y. (2014). The alpha and the omega of scale reliability and validity: Why and how to abandon Cronbach’s alpha and the route towards more comprehensive assessment of scale quality. European Health Psychologist, 16(2),56-69. doi: 10.31234/osf.io/h47fv
  • Schoemann, A. M., Boulton, A. J., & Short, S. D. (2017). Determining power and sample size for simple and complex mediation models. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 8(4), 379-386. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550617715068
  • Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive Psychology Progress: Empirical Validation of Interventions. American Psychologist, 60(5), 410–421. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.60.5.410
  • Stephan, W. G., & Stephan, C. W. (2000). An integrated threat theory of prejudice. In S. Oskamp (Ed.), Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination (pp. 23-45). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Vindegaard, N., & Benros, M. E. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic and mental health consequences: Systematic review of the current evidence. Brain, behavior, and immunity, 89, 531-542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.048
  • Wood, A.M., Froh, J.J. & Geraghty, A.W. (2010). Gratitude and well-being: a review and theoretical integration. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(7), 890-905. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.03.005
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COVİD-19 KOŞULLARINDA GELECEK KAYGISI: MİNNETTARLIĞIN ETKİSİ VE TEHDİT ALGISININ ARACI ROLÜNÜN TEST EDİLMESİ

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https://doi.org/10.33171/dtcfjournal.2024.64.1.9

Abstract

Covid-19 salgını, zihinsel sağlığı desteklemek için kişilik özelliklerinin ve uygulanması kolay kendi kendine yardım stratejilerinin önemini artırdı. Önceki araştırmalar, bir kişilik özelliği olarak minnettarlık eğiliminin psikolojik sağlığı koruyarak iyi oluşu artırdığını göstermektedir. Buna karşın, minnettarlığı artırıcı müdahalelerin psikolojik sorunları önleme etkinliğine ilişkin kanıtlar karışıktır. Ayrıca, Covid-19 koşulları altında minnettarlık-iyi oluş bağlantısını araştıran çalışmaların verileri de karışık sonuçlara işaret etmektedir. Mevcut araştırmada, pandemi sırasında gelecek kaygısını hafifletmede bir kişilik özelliği olarak minnettarlık eğiliminin ve minnettarlık listeleme müdahalesinin etkisini inceledik. Ek olarak, gerçekçi ve sembolik tehdit algılarının minnetarlık-gelecek kaygısı ilişkisindeki aracı rolünü araştırdık. Korelasyonel bir desende yürütülen ilk çalışmada (N = 405), katılımcılar minnetarlık, gelecek kaygısı ve Covid-19’dan algılanan gerçekçi ve sembolik tehdit ölçeklerini yanıtlamıştır. Öntest-sontest desenli bir müdahale çalışması olan ikinci çalışmada ise (N = 150) katılımcılar bir ay boyunca her iki günde bir minnettarlık deneyimlerini veya önemli günlük yaşam olaylarını listelemek ya da sadece öntest ve sontest ölçümlerini tamamlamak üzere üç ayrı koşula seçkisiz olarak atanmıştır. Bulgular, minnettarlık eğiliminin gelecek kaygısını negatif yönde yordadığını (çalışma-1), minnettarlık listeleme müdahalesinin ise bu kaygıyı azaltamadığını ortaya koymuştur (çalışma-2). Ayrıca, algılanan Covid-19 tehditleri her iki çalışmada da minnetarlık ve gelecek kaygısı arasındaki ilişkiye aracılık edememiştir. Minnetarlık listeleri ve katılımcıların sontest geribildirimleri üzerinde yapılan açımlayıcı nitel analizler, salgın koşullarının minnetarlık müdahalesinin faydalarını engellediğini göstermiştir. Genel olarak bulgular, Covid-19 salgını koşullarında, minnetarlık listeleme müdahalesine oranla minnettarlık eğiliminin psikolojik sıkıntıları hafifletilmede daha etkili olduğuna işaret etmektedir. Bu bulgular ayrıca minnetarlık müdahalelerinin iyi oluş için faydalı olmakla birlikte, anksiyete gibi psikopatoloji belirtilerini azaltmada sınırlı etkinliğe sahip olduğuna dair birikmekte olan verileri de desteklemektedir.

Project Number

120K418

References

  • Bono, G., & Sender, J. (2018). How gratitude connects humans to the best in themselves and in others. The Research in Human Development, 15, 224–237. https://doi.org/10.1080/15427609.2018.1499350
  • Cregg, D., & Cheavens, J. S. (2020). Gratitude interventions: Effective self-help? A meta-analysis of the impact on symptoms of depression and anxiety. Journal of Happiness Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-020-00236-6
  • Datu, J. A. D., Valdez, J. P. M., McInerney, D. M., & Cayubit, R. F. (2022). The effects of gratitude and kindness on life satisfaction, positive emotions, negative emotions, and COVID‐19 anxiety: An online pilot experimental study. Applied Psychology: Health & Well‐Being, 14(2), 347-361. https://doi.org/10.1111/aphw.12306
  • Davis, D. E., Choe, E., Meyers, J., Wade, N., Varjas, K., Gifford, A., Quinn, A., Hook, J. N., Van Tongeren, D. R., Griffin, B. J., & Worthington, E. L., Jr. (2016). Thankful for the little things: A meta-analysis of gratitude interventions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63(1), 20–31. https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000107
  • Dennis, A., & Ogden, J. (2022). Nostalgia, gratitude, or optimism: The impact of a two-week intervention on well-being during COVID-19. Journal of Happiness Studies, 23(6), 2613-2634. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-022-00513-6
  • Dickens, L. R. (2017). Using gratitude to promote positive change: A series of meta-analyses investigating the effectiveness of gratitude interventions. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 39(4), 193-208. https://doi.org/10.1080/01973533.2017.1323638
  • Disabato, D. J., Kashdan, T. B., Short, J. L., & Jarden, A. (2017). What predicts positive life events that influence the course of depression? A longitudinal examination of gratitude and meaning in life. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 41, 444–458. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-016-9785-x
  • Dragioti, E., Li, H., Tsitsas, G., Lee, K. H., Choi, J., Kim, J., ... & Solmi, M. (2022). A large‐scale meta‐analytic atlas of mental health problems prevalence during the COVID‐19 early pandemic. Journal of medical virology, 94(5), 1935-1949. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27549
  • Duplaga, M., & Grysztar, M. (2021). The association between future anxiety, health literacy and the perception of the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study. Healthcare, 9(1), 43-61. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9010043
  • Emmons, R. A., & McCullough, M. E. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: An empirical investigation of gratitude and subjective wellbeing in daily life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 377–389. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.2.377
  • Emmons, R. A., & Crumpler, C. A. (2000). Gratitude as a human strength: Appraising the evidence. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19(1), 56-69. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2000.19.1.56
  • Emmons, R. A., & Mishra, A. (2011). Why gratitude enhances well-being: what we know, what we need to know. In K. M. Sheldon, T. B. Kashdan & M. F. Steger (Ed.), Designing Positive Psychology (pp. 248-262). Oxford University Press.
  • Emmons, R. A., & Stern, R. (2013). Gratitude as a psychotherapeutic intervention. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session, 69(8), 846-855. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22020
  • Epstein, S. (1972). The nature of anxiety with emphasis upon its relationship to expectancy. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.), Anxiety: Current trends in theory and research (Vol. 2, pp. 291–337). Academic Press.
  • Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A. G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 175–191). https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03193146
  • Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). Gratitude, like other positive emotions, broadens and builds. In R. A. Emmons & M. E. McCullough (Ed.), The Psychology of Gratitude (pp.145-165). Oxford University Press.
  • Froh, J.J., Yurkewicz, C., & Kashdan, T.B. (2009). Gratitude and subjective well-being in early adolescence: Examining gender differences. Journal of Adolescence, 32, 633–650. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2008.06.006
  • Fruehwirth J. C., Biswas S., & Perreira, K. M. (2021) The Covid-19 pandemic and mental health of first-year college students: Examining the effect of Covid-19 stressors using longitudinal data. PloSONE, 16(3): e0247999. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0247999
  • Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford Press.
  • Hayes, A. F. & Coutts, J. J. (2020) Use Omega Rather than Cronbach’s Alpha for Estimating Reliability. But…, Communication Methods and Measures, 14:1, 1-24. Doi: 10.1080/19312458.2020.1718629
  • Jans-Beken, L., Jacobs, N., Janssens, M., Peeters, S., Reijnders, J., Lechner, L., & Lataster, J. (2020) Gratitude and health: An updated review. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 15(6), 743-782. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2019.1651888
  • Kachanoff, F. J., Bigman, Y. E., Kapsaskis, K., & Gray, K. (2020). Measuring realistic and symbolic threats of Covid-19 and their unique impacts on well-being and adherence to public health behaviors. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 12(5), 603-616. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550620931634
  • Kashdan, T. B., Mishra, A., Breen, W. E., & Froh, J. J. (2009). Gender differences in gratitude: Examining appraisals, narratives, the willingness to express emotions, and changes in psychological needs. Journal of Personality, 77(3), 691-730. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2009.00562.x
  • Kloos, N., Austin, J., van ‘t Klooster, J. W., Drossaert, C., & Bohlmeijer, E. (2022). Appreciating the Good Things in Life During the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Randomized Controlled Trial and Evaluation of a Gratitude App. Journal of happiness studies, 23(8), 4001-4025. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-022-00586-3
  • Lambert, N. M., Fincham, F. D., & Stillman, T. F. (2012) Gratitude and depressive symptoms: The role of positive reframing and positive emotion, Cognition & Emotion, 26:4, 615-633. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022575
  • Lau, R. W. L., & Cheng, S-T. (2011). Gratitude lessens death anxiety. European Journal of Ageing, 8, 169-175. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10433-011-0195-3
  • Liu, S., Lithopoulos, A., Zhang, C. Q., Garcia-Barrera, M. A., & Rhodes, R. E. (2021). Personality and perceived stress during Covid-19 pandemic: Testing the mediating role of perceived threat and efficacy. Personality and Individual differences, 168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110351
  • Lyubomirsky, S., Dickerhoof, R., Boehm, J. K., & Sheldon, K. M. (2011). Becoming happier takes both a will and a proper way: An experimental longitudinal intervention to boost well-being. Emotion, 11(2), 391–402. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022575
  • McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(1), 112-127. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.82.1.112
  • McCullough, M. E., Kilpatrick, S. D., Emmons, R. A., & Larson, D. B. (2001). Is gratitude a moral affect? Psychological Bulletin, 127(2), 249–266. https://doi.org/10.1037//0033-2909.127.2.249
  • McNeish, D. (2018). Thanks coefficient alpha, we’ll take it from here. Psychological Methods, 23(3), 412–433. https://doi.org/10.1037/met0000144
  • Otto, A. K., Szczesny, E. C., Soriano, E. C., Laurenceau, J.-P., & Siegel, S. D. (2016). Effects of a randomized gratitude intervention on death-related fear of recurrence in breast cancer survivors. Health Psychology, 35(12), 1320–1328. https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000400
  • Paredes, M. R., Apaolaza, V., Fernandez-Robin, C., Hartmann, P., & Yañez-Martinez, D. (2021). The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on subjective mental well-being: The interplay of perceived threat, future anxiety and resilience. Personality and Individual Differences, 170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110455
  • Peters, G.-J. Y. (2014). The alpha and the omega of scale reliability and validity: Why and how to abandon Cronbach’s alpha and the route towards more comprehensive assessment of scale quality. European Health Psychologist, 16(2),56-69. doi: 10.31234/osf.io/h47fv
  • Schoemann, A. M., Boulton, A. J., & Short, S. D. (2017). Determining power and sample size for simple and complex mediation models. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 8(4), 379-386. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550617715068
  • Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive Psychology Progress: Empirical Validation of Interventions. American Psychologist, 60(5), 410–421. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.60.5.410
  • Stephan, W. G., & Stephan, C. W. (2000). An integrated threat theory of prejudice. In S. Oskamp (Ed.), Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination (pp. 23-45). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Vindegaard, N., & Benros, M. E. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic and mental health consequences: Systematic review of the current evidence. Brain, behavior, and immunity, 89, 531-542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.048
  • Wood, A.M., Froh, J.J. & Geraghty, A.W. (2010). Gratitude and well-being: a review and theoretical integration. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(7), 890-905. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.03.005
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There are 44 citations in total.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Learning, Motivation and Emotion, Social Cognition
Authors

Ahmet Demirdağ 0000-0002-1288-4830

Derya Hasdağ 0000-0002-6299-0666

Elif Ulutaş 0000-0001-5661-5942

Project Number 120K418
Publication Date
Submission Date September 22, 2023

Cite

APA Demirdağ, A., Hasdağ, D., & Ulutaş, E. (n.d.). FUTURE ANXIETY UNDER COVID-19 CIRCUMSTANCES: TESTING THE EFFECT OF GRATITUDE AND MEDIATING ROLE OF THREAT PERCEPTION. Ankara Üniversitesi Dil Ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi Dergisi. https://doi.org/10.33171/dtcfjournal.2024.64.1.9

Ankara Üniversitesi Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi Dergisi

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