Year 2020, Volume 8 , Issue 4, Pages 2245 - 2265 2020-10-29

Bolu’da Ev Tozu ile İlişkili Sağlık Risklerinin Tahmin Edilmesi
Estimation of Health Risks Associated with Household Dust Contamination in Bolu (Turkey)

Abdullah ZARARSIZ [1] , Fatma ÖZTÜRK [2]


Kent merkezlerinde iç ortamda bulunan tozun metal içeriğinin dış ortamda çökelmiş halde bulunan toz ya da toprak içeriğine kıyasla daha yüksek olduğu bilinmektedir. Metaller insan vücuduna solunum, yutma ve deri teması ile alınabilmekte ve çok ciddi sağlık sorunlarına neden olmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın temel amaçlarını (i) Bolu’da evlerden toplanan tozun metal içeriğinin belirlenmesi, (ii) iç ortamda bu metallere maruz kalan bireylerin sağlık riskinin hesaplanması, olarak özetleyebiliriz. Bu amaçla, Kasım-Aralık 2017 tarihleri arasında Bolu şehir merkezinde bulunan on altı farklı evden toz içeren süpürge torbaları toplanmıştır. Toplanan örnekler Türkiye Atom Enerjisi Kurumu, Radyasyon ve Hızlandırıcı Teknolojileri Departmanı’nda (Ankara) Dalgaboyu Kırınımlı X-Işınları Floresan Spektrometre (WDXRF) cihazı ile majör (Al, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, P, S ve Si) ve eser (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sn, Sr, Ti, Y, Zn ve Zr) metalleri açısından analiz edilmiştir. Ölçülen metal seviyelerinin 6.52±1.60 µg g-1 (Y) ile %10.4±3.3 (Na) arasında değiştiği belirlenmiştir. Toz örneklerinin toprağa göre zenginleştirme faktörü (EFcrust) hesaplanarak örneklerin metaller açısından kontaminasyon düzeyi de bu çalışmada incelenmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar Si, Rb, Ti, Ba, K, Y ve Mn metallerinin toprak kompozisyonuna yakın seviyelerde olduğu belirlenirken, Zn, S ve Cl metallerinin toz örneklerinde belirlenen seviyelerinin toprak komposizyonuna kıyasla oldukça yüksek olduğu saptanmıştır. Toz örneklerinin metal seviyeleri dikkate alınarak yapılan sağlık riski değerlendirmesi hem çocuklar hem de yetişkinler için yutmanın ana maruziyet yolu olduğunu göstermiştir. Hesaplan HQ değerinin birden küçük olması, tozda bulunan metallerin bireylerin kanser olmayan risklere maruziyetinin önemli olmadığını işaret etmektedir. Kurşun ve Cr seviyeleri dikkate alınarak hesaplanan kanser riskinin ise EPA’nın güvenilir limiti aralığında (1x10-6 ve 1.0x10-4) olduğu belirlenmiştir.
The levels of metals associated with dust is higher in indoor environment as compared to settled dust or soil in the exterior counterpart in the urban centers. The metals can be transferred to human body via inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact upon exposure and pose a significant health problem. The primary objectives of this study are (i) to determine the levels of metals in home dust samples in Bolu, Turkey, (ii) to assess the associated health risk when citizens are exposed to these metals in indoor environment. To end this, sixteen vacuum cleaning bags containing dust were collected from the homes located in the city center of Bolu (Turkey) between November and December 2017. The collected samples were analyzed by employing Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometer in terms of major (Al, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, P, S and Si) and minor (As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sn, Sr, Ti, Y, Zn and Zr) metals at Turkish Atomic Energy Agency, Radiation and Accelerator Technologies Department, Ankara (Turkey). The measured levels of metals in the samples were ranged from 6.52±1.60 µg g-1 for Y to 10.4±3.3 % for Na. The crustal enrichment factor (EFcrust) was calculated in order to understand the contamination level of household dust samples as compared to soil composition. EFcrust results revealed that there is minimal enrichment of Si, Rb, Ti, Ba, K, Y and Mn in household dust samples with respect to soil composition. On the other hand, Zn, Cl, and S found to be extremely enriched in the samples according to EFcrust values. Health risk assessment due to household dust metal exposure depicted that ingestion of dust particles is the main route of exposure for both adults and children. Overall, the calculated HQ value <1.0 suggesting there is no significant non-carcinogenic health risk for the residents. Cancer risks associated with Pb and Cr were estimated to be within the EPA’s safe limits (1x10-6 and 1.0x10-4).
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Primary Language en
Subjects Engineering
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0001-7305-8156
Author: Abdullah ZARARSIZ
Institution: TÜRKİYE ATOM ENERJİSİ KURUMU BAŞKANLIĞI
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0001-5179-8444
Author: Fatma ÖZTÜRK (Primary Author)
Institution: Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal University (BAİBU), Environmental Engineering Department
Country: Turkey


Supporting Institution Bulunmamaktadır
Project Number Bulunmamaktadır
Thanks Authors thank to volunteer homes in this study for providing their vacuum cleaner bags for us. Moreover, authors are grateful to the undergraduate students of Environmental Engineering Department of BAİBU (Sahip Gök, Elif Kemal, Gizem Alagöz, Gülden Atalay, Tarık Arslan, İlyas Sezgin and Hamada Niyigena) for their helps in collecting the samples and filling the questionnaires at the visited homes, and preparing the samples prior to analyses.
Dates

Publication Date : October 29, 2020

Bibtex @research article { dubited706362, journal = {Düzce Üniversitesi Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi}, issn = {}, eissn = {2148-2446}, address = {}, publisher = {Duzce University}, year = {2020}, volume = {8}, pages = {2245 - 2265}, doi = {10.29130/dubited.706362}, title = {Estimation of Health Risks Associated with Household Dust Contamination in Bolu (Turkey)}, key = {cite}, author = {Zararsız, Abdullah and Öztürk, Fatma} }
APA Zararsız, A , Öztürk, F . (2020). Estimation of Health Risks Associated with Household Dust Contamination in Bolu (Turkey) . Düzce Üniversitesi Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi , 8 (4) , 2245-2265 . DOI: 10.29130/dubited.706362
MLA Zararsız, A , Öztürk, F . "Estimation of Health Risks Associated with Household Dust Contamination in Bolu (Turkey)" . Düzce Üniversitesi Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi 8 (2020 ): 2245-2265 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/dubited/issue/57598/706362>
Chicago Zararsız, A , Öztürk, F . "Estimation of Health Risks Associated with Household Dust Contamination in Bolu (Turkey)". Düzce Üniversitesi Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi 8 (2020 ): 2245-2265
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Estimation of Health Risks Associated with Household Dust Contamination in Bolu (Turkey) AU - Abdullah Zararsız , Fatma Öztürk Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.29130/dubited.706362 DO - 10.29130/dubited.706362 T2 - Düzce Üniversitesi Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 2245 EP - 2265 VL - 8 IS - 4 SN - -2148-2446 M3 - doi: 10.29130/dubited.706362 UR - https://doi.org/10.29130/dubited.706362 Y2 - 2020 ER -
EndNote %0 Düzce Üniversitesi Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi Estimation of Health Risks Associated with Household Dust Contamination in Bolu (Turkey) %A Abdullah Zararsız , Fatma Öztürk %T Estimation of Health Risks Associated with Household Dust Contamination in Bolu (Turkey) %D 2020 %J Düzce Üniversitesi Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi %P -2148-2446 %V 8 %N 4 %R doi: 10.29130/dubited.706362 %U 10.29130/dubited.706362
ISNAD Zararsız, Abdullah , Öztürk, Fatma . "Estimation of Health Risks Associated with Household Dust Contamination in Bolu (Turkey)". Düzce Üniversitesi Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi 8 / 4 (October 2020): 2245-2265 . https://doi.org/10.29130/dubited.706362
AMA Zararsız A , Öztürk F . Estimation of Health Risks Associated with Household Dust Contamination in Bolu (Turkey). DÜBİTED. 2020; 8(4): 2245-2265.
Vancouver Zararsız A , Öztürk F . Estimation of Health Risks Associated with Household Dust Contamination in Bolu (Turkey). Düzce Üniversitesi Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi. 2020; 8(4): 2245-2265.
IEEE A. Zararsız and F. Öztürk , "Estimation of Health Risks Associated with Household Dust Contamination in Bolu (Turkey)", Düzce Üniversitesi Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 2245-2265, Oct. 2020, doi:10.29130/dubited.706362