Year 2020, Volume 20 , Issue 86, Pages 1 - 24 2020-03-31

Okul Öncesinde Dezavantajlı Çocukların Okullu Olma Deneyimleri: Tutumlar, Katılım ve Etkileşimler
Schooling Experiences of Disadvantaged Children in Preschool: Attitudes, Engagement and Interactions

Arzu ARIKAN [1]


Problem Durumu: Geçmişten bugüne risk altında, kırılgan, düşük gelirli, yoksul, dezavantajlı gibi sıfatlarla tanımlanan çocukların özgün yaşam koşulları, eğitim ihtiyaçları ve bu koşulların çocuklar üzerindeki etkileri pek çok araştırma ve politika girişimine konu olmuştur. Çoğunlukla dezavantajlı gruplardan çocuklarla yapılan bu çalışmalarda kısa vadeli gözlenebilir etkiler konusunda bir fikir birliği vardır. Uzun dönemli etkilere yönelik ise çeşitli sorunlara işaret edilmektir. Bu gruplarda çocukların eğitim kaynaklarına erişimini sağlamak yeterli olmayıp aldıkları eğitimin her açıdan nitelikli olması gerekmektedir; çünkü bu, çocukların uluslararası sözleşmelerle güvence altına alınmış temel haklarındandır. Bu çalışma da hak temelli bir çerçeveden hareketle bu tür kurumlarda eğitimin niteliğinin tartışılmasında çocukların bakış açılarının dikkate alınmasını vurgulamaktadır. Çocukların bakış açılarına dayalı çeşitli araştırmalar olmakla birlikte dezavantajlı çocukların okul konusundaki deneyimlerine odaklanan çalışmalar sınırlıdır. Araştırmanın Amacı: Bu çalışmanın amacı dezavantajlı koşullarda yaşayan çocuklara hizmet veren bir anaokulunda çocukların eğitim deneyimlerini betimlemektir.

Araştırmanın Yöntemi: Bu çalışma farklı yöntemlerin sentezlendiği büyük çaplı bir nitel araştırmanın parçası olup, durum çalışması deseninde elde edilen verilerin bir kısmının işlenmesine dayanmaktadır. Çalışmanın katılımcılarını dezavantajlı gruplara hizmet veren bir anaokuluna kayıtlı 3-6 yaş aralığındaki çocuklar arasından belirlenen toplam 26 çocuk ve aileleri oluşturmuştur. Veri toplama tekniği olarak çoklu yöntemlere başvurulmuştur. Bu çalışma kapsamında çocukların bakış açılarına odaklanıldığından çocuklarla yapılan yarı-yapılandırılmış görüşmeler temel veri olarak kullanılmıştır. Ebeveyn görüşmelerinden bazılarına, gözlemler, yoklama listeleri, çocuk ve aileye ait bilgiler içeren kurum belgeleri ve araştırmacı günlüklerine ise çocukların bakış açılarını destekleyen ikincil veri kaynağı olarak başvurulmuştur. Çocuklarla yapılan görüşmelerde büyük boy bir dolgu bebek kullanılmıştır. Veri analizinde sürekli karşılaştırma ve tümevarım yaklaşımına başvurulmuş ve ATLAS.ti 7. Yazılımı kullanılmıştır.

Araştırmanın Bulguları: Araştırmanın gerçekleştirildiği anaokulu, her sınıfta iki öğretmen olmak üzere okul öncesi eğitim için yeterli fiziksel kaynaklara ve insan kaynaklarına sahiptir. Bununla birlikte, görüşmelerden ve kurumsal belgelerden elde edilen bulgular, kaynaklara erişimin tüm çocuklar için kaliteli eğitim deneyimleri anlamına gelmediğini ve eğitimde geliştirilmesi gereken yönler olduğunu göstermektedir. Çocukların neredeyse yarısı resmi sınırların üzerinde devamsızlık yapmış, farklı gelişim alanları için ekstra desteğe ihtiyaç duyduğu belirlenmiş ve hepsinin evde yetersiz uyaran ortamında yaşadığı anlaşılmıştır. Çalışmaya katılan dezavantajlı çocuklar okula karşı olumlu tutumlara sahipmiş gibi görünse de, deneyimlerinin belirli etkinliklere seçici katılım ve ebeveynlerle okul konusunda sınırlı etkileşimler içerdiği bulunmuştur. Ev ortamında eğitim deneyimlerinin yansımaları çocukların etkinlik tercihleri ve okuldaki çalışmalara seçici katılımı ile uyumlu olmakla birlikte çocukların okul deneyimlerinin ev yaşamını zenginleştirme yönünden zayıf olduğu görülmüştür. Cinsiyet, yaş, gelişimsel kazanımlar ve aile yapısına göre yapılan çeşitli karşılaştırmalarda çocukların deneyimlerinde dikkate değer farklılıklar gözlenmiştir. Dikkat çekici bulgulardan en önemlisi çocukların çoğunun okulu sevme sebebi olarak fiziksel ortama vurgu yapmış olmasıdır. Bu bağlamda, oyuncaklar ve yiyecek gibi öğelere konuşmalarında yer vermişlerdir. Öğrenme, etkinliklere katılma ve oynama gibi eylem içeren, sürece yönelik öğelere vurgu yapanlar ise daha az sayıdadır. Çocuklar en fazla oyun etkinliğine dikkat çekmiş, uyku rutini konusunda hoşnutsuzluklarını dile getirenler olmuştur. Çocuklar okulda ve evde sıklıkla TV izlemelerine karşın hoşlandıkları etkinlikleri açıklarken TV’den bahsetmemişlerdir. Çocuklardan bazıları kitap ve okuma gibi dil etkinliklerine konuşmalarında yer vermiş; yenilik/farklılık ve fiziksel hareket içeren etkinliklerde eğlendiklerini ifade etmişlerdir.

Araştırmanın Sonuçları ve Öneriler: Çocukların bakış açılarına dayalı olarak elde edilen araştırma bulguları öncelikle dezavantajlı gruplarla ilgili yeni gelişmekte olan araştırmalara ve erken eğitim ortamlarında çocuk bakış açısını vurgulayan alanyazına katkıda bulunmaktadır. Araştırmadan elde edilen sonuçlar, dünya çapında kapsayıcı ve çocuk merkezli felsefeler yönünde değişen eğitimsel söylemler üzerinde yansıtma yapmanın gerekliliğini vurgulamaktadır. Dezavantajlı çocukların eğitimi konusunda öğretmen eğitiminde boşluklar olduğuna dikkat çekilmiş ve kapsayıcı eğitime yönelik politika değişikliğine gidilmesi yönünde karar vericilere çağrıda bulunulmuştur.

Purpose: The research adopting children’s perspectives about early care and education has flourished since the adoption of UNCRC; however, the studies investigating experiences of children from diverse backgrounds in the literature are still scarce. This study aims to describe disadvantaged children’s experiences in a target preschool from their own perspectives.

Research Methods: This study is part of a large-scale research project, and it focuses on disadvantaged children’s perspectives using a case study design. The case of interest included a specific group of people associated with a unique preschool designed for the disadvantaged children. The data comes from 26 children and their parents for this study. Child-interviews were the primary source of data. Parent-interviews, observations and other documents supplemented data analysis. The data was analyzed using ATLAS.ti 7 Software

Findings: The basic dimensions of schooling experiences included children’s attitudes toward school, engagement in daily activities, and echoes of school experiences at home. The findings suggest that access to resources does not mean quality educational experiences for all children, and there is room for improvement. Although disadvantaged children appeared to have positive attitudes toward school, their experiences involved limited engagement in certain activities. All children had inadequate stimulation and low-quality interactions with the parents at home regarding the school experiences. Comparing experiences based on gender, age, developmental milestones and family structure yielded some differences in children’s experiences of schooling.

Implications for Research and Practice: This study highlights the need for inclusive and enriched educational practices for disadvantaged children. Future research may investigate children’s educational experiences in mixed schools and examine home-school connections

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Primary Language en
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Author: Arzu ARIKAN
Institution: ANADOLU ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : March 31, 2020

Bibtex @research article { ejer728238, journal = {Eurasian Journal of Educational Research}, issn = {1302-597X}, eissn = {2528-8911}, address = {}, publisher = {Anı Yayıncılık Eğitim ve Danışmanlık Ltd. Şti.}, year = {2020}, volume = {20}, pages = {1 - 24}, doi = {}, title = {Schooling Experiences of Disadvantaged Children in Preschool: Attitudes, Engagement and Interactions}, key = {cite}, author = {Arıkan, Arzu} }
APA Arıkan, A . (2020). Schooling Experiences of Disadvantaged Children in Preschool: Attitudes, Engagement and Interactions . Eurasian Journal of Educational Research , 20 (86) , 1-24 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ejer/issue/54088/728238
MLA Arıkan, A . "Schooling Experiences of Disadvantaged Children in Preschool: Attitudes, Engagement and Interactions" . Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 20 (2020 ): 1-24 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ejer/issue/54088/728238>
Chicago Arıkan, A . "Schooling Experiences of Disadvantaged Children in Preschool: Attitudes, Engagement and Interactions". Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 20 (2020 ): 1-24
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Schooling Experiences of Disadvantaged Children in Preschool: Attitudes, Engagement and Interactions AU - Arzu Arıkan Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - DO - T2 - Eurasian Journal of Educational Research JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 24 VL - 20 IS - 86 SN - 1302-597X-2528-8911 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Eurasian Journal of Educational Research Schooling Experiences of Disadvantaged Children in Preschool: Attitudes, Engagement and Interactions %A Arzu Arıkan %T Schooling Experiences of Disadvantaged Children in Preschool: Attitudes, Engagement and Interactions %D 2020 %J Eurasian Journal of Educational Research %P 1302-597X-2528-8911 %V 20 %N 86 %R %U
ISNAD Arıkan, Arzu . "Schooling Experiences of Disadvantaged Children in Preschool: Attitudes, Engagement and Interactions". Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 20 / 86 (March 2020): 1-24 .
AMA Arıkan A . Schooling Experiences of Disadvantaged Children in Preschool: Attitudes, Engagement and Interactions. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research. 2020; 20(86): 1-24.
Vancouver Arıkan A . Schooling Experiences of Disadvantaged Children in Preschool: Attitudes, Engagement and Interactions. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research. 2020; 20(86): 1-24.
IEEE A. Arıkan , "Schooling Experiences of Disadvantaged Children in Preschool: Attitudes, Engagement and Interactions", Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, vol. 20, no. 86, pp. 1-24, Mar. 2020