Year 2015, Volume 1 , Issue 1, Pages 1 - 8 2015-06-01

The Influence of Skidding Operations on Forest Soil Properties and Soil Compaction in Bartin, Turkey

İlyas Bolat [1] , Kenan Melemez [2] , Davut Ozer [3]



Mechanized harvesting operations yield high productivity; however, it damages forest soils seriously. The objective of this study is to determine the impacts of skidding operations on topsoil physical and chemical properties at four different forest floors (tractor road, skid trail, harvesting area and undisturbed area) after a harvesting season. Also, the relationship between soil compaction and soil moisture of these areas were analysed. Soil compaction was estimated with the values of topsoil penetration resistance on two soil depth layers (0-5 and 5-10 cm). In total, 24 soil samples were taken to the laboratory for some physical and chemical analyses. Three soil moisture levels were delineated for the different forest floor areas ranging from 28% to 54%. Significant negative correlation between penetration resistance and bulk density, soil pH and calcium carbonate and significant positive correlation between penetration resistance and organic C, total N and Corg/Ntotal ratio were found. It was determined that four study sites shared similar features all having heavy clay (53.5-65.2%) soils. According to soil analysis, the lowest bulk density value (0.89 g/cm3) was found in harvesting area and the highest bulk density value (1.15 g/cm3) was found on the tractor road. Also, the highest content of organic C was found on the skid trail as 5.57% and the lowest content of organic C was on the tractor road as 1.52%. As the soil moisture content increases when penetration resistance decreases, mechanized harvesting operations should be arranged according to precipitation and soil moisture.


Forestry, Forest soil, Harvesting, Skidding, Soil compaction, Tractor road
  • Akay, A.E., Yuksel, A., Reis, M., Tutus, A., 2007. The impacts of ground-based logging equipment on forest soil. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 16: 371–376.
  • Aksakal, E.L., 2004. Soil Compaction and Its Importance for Agriculture. Atatürk Univ. Ag. Fac. J.. 35(3-4): 247-252.
  • Alakukku, L., Weisskopf, P., Chamen, W.C., Tijink, F.G., van der Linden, J., Pires, S., Sommer, C., Spoor, G., 2003. Prevention strategies for field traffic-induced subsoil compaction: a review. Soil Till. Res. 73: 145–160.
  • Ampoorter, E., Goris, R., Cornelis, W.M., Verheyen, K., 2007. Impact of mechanized logging on compaction status of sandy forest soils. For. Ecol. Manage. 241:162–174.
  • Ampoorter, E., Van Nevel, L., De Vos, B., Hermy, M. Verheyen, K., 2010. Assessing the effects of initial soil characteristics, machine mass and traffic intensity on forest soil compaction. For. Ecol. Manage. 260:1664– 1676.
  • Ares, A., Terry, T., Miller, R., Anderson, H., Flaming, B., 2005. Ground-based forest harvesting effects on soil physical properties and Douglas-fir growth. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 69: 1822–1832.
  • ASAE (American Society of Agricultural Engineers) 1999. Soil Cone Penetrometer. ASAE Standard S313.3. American Society of Agr. Engineers: St. Joseph, MI, USA.
  • Avon C., Berges. L., Dumas, Y., Dupouey, J.L., 2010. Does the effect of forest road extend a few meters or more into the adjacent forest? A study on understory plant diversity in managed oak stands. For Ecol Manag 259:1546–1555.
  • Blake G.R., Hartge K.H., 1986. Bulk density. In: Klute A (ed) Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Methods, Agronomy Monograph 9, American Society of Agronomy-Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, pp 363–375.
  • Bouyoucos G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agron J 54: 464−465.
  • Brady, N.C., 1990. The nature and properties of soils, 10th edition. Macmillan, New York, USA.
  • Brais, S., 2001. Persistence of soil compaction and effects on seedling growth innorthwestern Quebec. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 65: 1263–1271.
  • Bygden, G., Eliasson, L., Wästerlund, I., 2004. Rut depth, soil compaction and rolling resistance when using bogie tracks. J. Terramech. 40, 179–190.
  • Cambi M., Certini G., Neri F., Marchi, E., 2015. The impact of heavy traffic on forest soils: A review, Forest Ecology and Management 338: 124-138.
  • Carter E.A., Aust W.M., Burger J.A., 2007. Soil strength response of select soil disturbance classes on a wet pine flat in South Carolina. Forest Ecology and Management. 247:131-139.
  • Cepel, N., 1996. Soil Science. İstanbul University Publication 3945, Faculty of Foretry Publication No: 438. İstanbul, Turkey.
  • Coyne, M.S., Thompson, J.A., 2006. Fundamental soil science. Delmar Learning, Clifton Park, New York, USA.
  • Demir M., Makineci E., Yilmaz E., 2007. Investigation of timber harvesting impacts on herbaceous cover, forest floor and surface soil properties on skid road in an oak (Quercus petrea L.) stand. Building and Environment 42:1194–1199.
  • Eroglu, H., 2012. Effects of Different Logging Techniques on Forest Soil Compaction at Mountainous Terrain (in Turkish). Artvin Coruh Universitesi Orman Fakultesi Dergisi 13(2): 213-225.
  • Frey, B., Rüdt, A., Sciacca, S., Matthies, D., 2009. Compaction of forest soils with heavy logging machinery affects soil bacterial community structure. Eur. J. Soil Biol. 45:312–320.
  • Froehlich, H.A., Miles, D.W.R., Robbins, R.W., 1986. Soil bulk density recovery on compacted skid trails in central Idaho. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 49:1015-1017.
  • Grace J. M., Skaggs R.W., Cassel, D.K., 2006. Soil physical changes associated with forest harvesting operations on an organic soil. Soil Sci .Soc. Am. J, 70: 503-509.
  • Han H., Dumroese, D., Han, S., Tirocke, J., 2005. Effect of Slash, machine passes, and soil wetness on soil strength in a cut-to-length harvesting. 28th Annual Meeting of COFE (Council on Forest Engineering). Soil, Water and Timber Management: Forest Engineering Solutions in Response to Forest Regulation. July, California, USA.
  • Horn, R., Vossbrink, J., Peth, S., Becker, S., 2007. Impact of modern forest vehicles on soil physical properties. For. Ecol. Manage. 248: 56–63.
  • Jansson, K., Johansson, J., 1998. Soil changes after traffic with a tracked and a wheeled forest machine: a case study on a silt loam in Sweden. Forestry 71: 57–66.
  • Kantarcı, M.D., 2000. Soil Science, İstanbul University Publication 4261, Faculty of Foretry Publication No: 462. İstanbul, Turkey.
  • Laffan M., Jordan G., Duhig N., 2001: Impacts on soils from cable-logging steep slopes in northeastern Tasmania, Australia. Forest Ecology and Management, 144: 91–99.
  • Makineci E., Demir M., Yilmaz, E., 2007. Long-term harvesting effects on skid road in a fir plantation forest. Building and Environment, 42:1538–1543.
  • Melemez, K., 2013. An environmental assessment of forest stands damages caused by excavators during road construction in Beech forests. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 10(4):645-650.
  • Melemez, K., Tunay, M., Emir T., 2014. A Comparison of Productivity in Five Small-Scale Harvesting Systems. Small-scale Forestry 13:35–45.
  • Menemencioglu, K., Bugday, E., Ercanlı, I. 2013. Impacts of forest harvesting operations on soil compaction in scotch pine-fir mixed stands (Cankırı sample). Bartin Faculty of Forestry Journal 15(1-2): 69-75.
  • Najafi, A., Solgi, A., Sadeghi, S.H., 2009. Soil disturbance following four wheel rubber skidder logging on the steep trail in the north mountainous forest of Iran. Soil Till. Res. 103:165–169.
  • Ozbek, H., Kaya, Z., Gok, M., Kaptan, H., 2001. Soil Sceince. CU Agricultural Faculty General Publication No 73, Course Notes Publication No A-16, 5. Edition, Adana.
  • Picchio, R., Neri, F., Petrini, E., Verani, S., Marchi, E., Certini, G., 2012. Machinery induced soil compaction in thinning two pine stands in central Italy. For. Ecol. Manage. 285:38–43.
  • Plaster, E.J., 1992. Soil Science and Management. Second Edition. Delmar Publishers Inc., Albany, New York, USA.
  • Rowell, D.L., 1994. Soil science; methods and applications. Longman Publishers (Pte) Ltd, Singapore.
  • Sinnett, D., Morgan, G., Williams M., Hutchings, T.R. 2008. Soil penetration resistance and tree root development. Soil Use and Management 24: 273–280.
  • Solgi A., Najafi, A., 2014. The impacts of ground-based logging equipment on forest soil. Journal of Forest Engineering 6(1): 28-34.
  • Spinelli, R., Magagnotti, N., Laina Relano, R., 2012. An alternative skidding technology to the current use of crawler tractors in Alpine logging operations. J. Clean. Prod. 31:73–79.
  • Startsev, A.D., McNabb D.H., 2001. Skidder traffic effects of water retention, pore-size distribution, and Van Genuchten parameters of Boreal forest soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J, 65: 224-231.
  • Sumner M.E., 1995. Sodic soils: new perspectives. In: Australian Sodic Soils: Distribution, Properties and Management (Naidu R, Sumner ME, Rengasamy P eds). CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 1-34.
  • Thornthwaite, C.W., 1948. An approach toward a rational classification of climate. Geogr Rev 38:55–94.
  • Trambulak, S.C., Frissell, C.A., 2000. Review of ecological effects of roads on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Conserv Biol 14:18–30.
  • TSMS (Turkish State Meteorological Service). 2012. Daily Meteorological Data. Ankara, Turkey.
  • Turgut, B., 2012. Soil compaction in forest soil (in Turkish). SDU Faculty of Forestry Journal 13:66-73.
  • Williamson, J.R., Neilsen, W.A., 2000. The influence of forest site on rate and extent of soil compaction and profile disturbance of skid trails during ground-based harvesting. Can. J. For. Res. 30:1196–1205.
Subjects Engineering
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Author: İlyas Bolat
Country: Turkey


Author: Kenan Melemez
Institution: BARTIN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Author: Davut Ozer

Dates

Publication Date : June 1, 2015

Bibtex @research article { ejfe281333, journal = {European Journal of Forest Engineering}, issn = {}, eissn = {2149-5637}, address = {}, publisher = {Forest Engineering and Technologies Platform}, year = {2015}, volume = {1}, pages = {1 - 8}, doi = {}, title = {The Influence of Skidding Operations on Forest Soil Properties and Soil Compaction in Bartin, Turkey}, key = {cite}, author = {Bolat, İlyas and Melemez, Kenan and Ozer, Davut} }
APA Bolat, İ , Melemez, K , Ozer, D . (2015). The Influence of Skidding Operations on Forest Soil Properties and Soil Compaction in Bartin, Turkey. European Journal of Forest Engineering , 1 (1) , 1-8 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ejfe/issue/5186/281333
MLA Bolat, İ , Melemez, K , Ozer, D . "The Influence of Skidding Operations on Forest Soil Properties and Soil Compaction in Bartin, Turkey". European Journal of Forest Engineering 1 (2015 ): 1-8 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ejfe/issue/5186/281333>
Chicago Bolat, İ , Melemez, K , Ozer, D . "The Influence of Skidding Operations on Forest Soil Properties and Soil Compaction in Bartin, Turkey". European Journal of Forest Engineering 1 (2015 ): 1-8
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - The Influence of Skidding Operations on Forest Soil Properties and Soil Compaction in Bartin, Turkey AU - İlyas Bolat , Kenan Melemez , Davut Ozer Y1 - 2015 PY - 2015 N1 - DO - T2 - European Journal of Forest Engineering JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 8 VL - 1 IS - 1 SN - -2149-5637 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2015 ER -
EndNote %0 European Journal of Forest Engineering The Influence of Skidding Operations on Forest Soil Properties and Soil Compaction in Bartin, Turkey %A İlyas Bolat , Kenan Melemez , Davut Ozer %T The Influence of Skidding Operations on Forest Soil Properties and Soil Compaction in Bartin, Turkey %D 2015 %J European Journal of Forest Engineering %P -2149-5637 %V 1 %N 1 %R %U
ISNAD Bolat, İlyas , Melemez, Kenan , Ozer, Davut . "The Influence of Skidding Operations on Forest Soil Properties and Soil Compaction in Bartin, Turkey". European Journal of Forest Engineering 1 / 1 (June 2015): 1-8 .
AMA Bolat İ , Melemez K , Ozer D . The Influence of Skidding Operations on Forest Soil Properties and Soil Compaction in Bartin, Turkey. Eur J Forest Eng. 2015; 1(1): 1-8.
Vancouver Bolat İ , Melemez K , Ozer D . The Influence of Skidding Operations on Forest Soil Properties and Soil Compaction in Bartin, Turkey. European Journal of Forest Engineering. 2015; 1(1): 8-1.