Year 2021, Volume , Issue 21, Pages 95 - 112 2021-01-31

PEG 6000 Tarafından Oluşturulan Kuraklık Stresinde Büyüyen Bitki Büyümesini Teşvik Eden Rizobakterilerin Amino Asit ve Hormon İçeriği
Amino Acid and Hormone Content of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Grown in Drought Stress Created by PEG6000

Ertan YILDIRIM [1] , Adem GÜNEŞ [2] , Metin TURAN [3] , Recep KOTAN [4] , Melek EKİNCİ [5]


Bu çalışmadaki bakteri suşları, Türkiye'nin Doğu Anadolu bölgesinde yetişen yabani ve geleneksel olarak yetiştirilen bitkilerin rizosferinden ve filosferinden izole edilmiştir. Bu çalışmada, abiyotik strese toleransı artıdığı düşünülen 9 farklı cinse (Pantoea, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Peanibacillus, Agrobacterium, Acinetobacter, Brevibacillus, Cellulomonas and Micrococcus sp.) ait toplam 60 bitki büyümesini teşvik eden rhizobacterial (PGPR) suşu kullanılmıştır. Bu suşlar polietilen glikol (PEG6000) ile kuraklık stresine maruz bırakıldıktan sonra hormon ve amino asit içerikleri belirlendi. Genel olarak bakterilerin amino asit ve hormon içeriği kuraklık stresine maruz kaldığında artmıştır. Yüksek aminoasit ve hormon seviyesi koruma sağlar ve stres baskısına maruz kalmayı azaltır. Özellikle amino asit içeriğindeki artış Pantoea agglomerans (RK-92, KIN-99 and RK-205), Bacillus megaterium (TV-20E and TV-22B), Bacillus subtilis (BA-140 and TV-17C), Pseudomonas flourescens (K-22B and FDG-37), Bacillus pumilus (TV-67C and TV-83A), Brevibacillus brevis (FD-1), Micrococcus luteus (TV-91B), Peanibacillus polymyxa (KIN-37), Pseudomonas chlororaphis (İK-38), Pseudomonas putida (BA-8) bakterilerinde, ve hormon içeriğindeki artış ise Bacillus pumilus RK-103, Bacillus sphaericus FD-48 and Peanibacillus polymyxa KIN-37 bakterilerinde gözlemlenmiştir. Çalışmadan, bu bakterilerin bitkinin sistemik toleransını arttırarak kuraklık stresinde verim kaybını azaltmak için kullanılabileceği sonucuna varılabilir.
In this study the bacterial strains had been isolated from the rhizosphere and phyllosphere of wild and traditionally cultivated plants growing in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. The present study used a total of 60 Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains belonging to 9 different genera (including Pantoea, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Peanibacillus, Agrobacterium, Acinetobacter, Brevibacillus, Cellulomonas and Micrococcus sp.), which are known to increase the tolerance to abiotic stress. The hormone and amino acid contents of PGPR were determined under drought stress by the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG6000). Our results showed that, drought stress generally increased the amino acid and hormone contents of the bacteria. While significant increases in amino acid contents were found in Pantoea agglomerans (RK-92, KIN-99 and RK-205), Bacillus megaterium (TV-20E and TV-22B), Bacillus subtilis (BA-140 and TV-17C), Pseudomonas flourescens (K-22B and FDG-37), Bacillus pumilus (TV-67C and TV-83A), Brevibacillus brevis (FD-1), Micrococcus luteus (TV-91B), Peanibacillus polymyxa (KIN-37), Pseudomonas chlororaphis (İK-38), Pseudomonas putida (BA-8); hormone contents were significantly increased in Bacillus pumilus RK-103, Bacillus sphaericus FD-48 and Peanibacillus polymyxa KIN-37. These findings suggest that, PGPR may be used to decrease the loss of yield in the drought stress by inducting the systemic tolerance of the plants.
  • Antoine, F. R., Wei, C. I., Littell, R. C., Marshall, M.R. (1999). HPLC method for analysis of free amino acids in fish using o-phthaldialdehyde precolumn derivatization. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47, 5100-5107.
  • Ardakani, S. S., Heydari, A., Tayebi, L.,  Mohammedi, M. (2010). Promotion of cotton seedlings growth characteristics by development and use of new bioformulations. International Journal of Botany, 6(2), 95–100.
  • Aristoy, M. C.,  Toldra, F. (1991). Deproteinization techniques for HPLC amino acid analy-sis in fresh pork muscle and dry-cured ham. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 39, 1792-1795.
  • Barbara, J. T.,  Wong, T. Y. (1989). Cytokinins in Azotobacter vinelandii culture medium. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 55, 266–267.
  • Battal, P.,  Tileklioğlu, B. (2001). The effects of different mineral nutrients on the levels of cytokinins in Maize (Zea mays L.). Turkish Journal of Botany, 25, 123-130.
  • Bhattacharyya, P. N.,  Jha, D. K. (2012). Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): emergence in agriculture. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 28, 1327–1350.
  • Bohnert, H. J.,  Jensen, R. G. (1996). Strategies for engineering water stress tolerance in plants. Trends in Biotechnology, 14, 89-97.
  • Cakmakcı, R., Erman, M. Kotan, R. Cıg, F. Karagoz, K.  Sezen, M. (2010). Growth promotion and yield enhancement of sugar beet and wheat by application of plant growth promption rhizobacteria. International Conference on Organic Agriculture in Scope of Environmental Proplems. 03-07 February 2010. Famagusta, Cyprus Island. pp. 198-202.
  • Cheikh, N.,  Jonmes, R. J. (1994). Distruption of maize kernel growth and development by heat stress. Plant Physiology, 106, 45-51.
  • Chen, W.S. (1991). Changes in cytokinins before and during early flower bud differentitation in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.). Plant Physiology, 96, 1203-1206.
  • Crowe, J. H.,  Crowe, L. M. (1992). Membrane integrity in anhydrobiotic organisms: toward a mechanism for stabilizing dry cells. In G.N. Somero, C. B. Osmond,  C. L. Bolis (Eds.), Water and life, Springer, (1st ed., pp. 87–103). Berlin.
  • Cutting, J. G. M. (1991). Determination of the cytokinin complement in healthy and witches broom malformed protease. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 10, 85-89.
  • Davies, P.J. (1995). The plant hormones; their nature, occurence and functions. In P.J. Davies (Ed.), Plant Hormones (pp. 1-39), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.
  • Decoteau, D. R. (2000). Vegetable Crops. Upper Rever Company. New Jersey, USA.
  • Dey, R., Pal, K. K., Bhatt, D. M.,  Chaunhan, S. M. (2004). Growth Promotion and yield enchancement of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) by application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Microbiological Research, 159, 371–394.
  • Erman, M., Kotan, R., Cakmakcı, R., Cıg, F., Karagoz, F.,  Sezen, M. (2010). Effect of nitrogen and phosphate solubilizing rhizobacteria isolat from Van Lake Basin on growth and quality properties in wheat and suger beet. Turkish IV. Organic Agriculture Symposium, pp. 325-329.
  • Glick, B. R. (1995). The enhancement of plant growth by free-living bacteria. Canadian journal of microbiology, 41(2), 109-117.
  • Glick, B. R., Todorovic, B., Czarny, J., Cheng, Z., Duan, J.,  McConkey, B. (2007). Promotion of Plant Growth by Bacterial ACC Deaminase. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 26, 227–242.
  • Gordon, S.A.,  Weber, R.P. (1951). Colorimetric estimation of indole acetic acid. Plant Physiology, 26, 192–195.
  • Gray, E. J.,  Smith, D. L. (2005). Intracellular and extracellular PGPR: commonalities and distinctions in the plant–bacterium signaling processes. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 37, 395–412.
  • Hayat, R., Ali, S., Amara, U., Khalid, R.,  Ahmed, I. (2010). Soil beneficial bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion: a review. Annals of Microbiology, 60(4), 579–598.
  • Henderson, J. W., Ricker, R. D., Bidlingmeyer, B. A.,  Woodward, C. (1999). Amino acid analysis using Zorbax Eclipse-AAA Columns and the Agilent 1200 HPLC.
  • Henry, N.,  Hou´erou, L. (1996). Climate change, drought and desertification. Journal of Arid Environments, 34, 133–185.
  • Kantar, F., Cakmakcı, R.,  Kotan, R. (2009). Bio-inoculant and bio-pesticide research and production in Turkey. International Thematic Workshop onBbioinoculant/Biopesticide Production, Formulation and Application, 20-22 October, 2009, Comstech, İslamabad, Pakistan. pp: 2.
  • Karagoz, K., Ates, F., Karagoz, H., Kotan, R.,  Cakmakcı, R. (2012). Characterization of plant growth-promoting traits of bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of grapevine grown in alkaline and acidic soils. European Journal of Soil Biology, 50, 144-150.
  • Khalid A, M Arshad, ZA Zahir, 2004. Screening plant growthpromoting rhizobacteria for improving growth and yield of wheat. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 96(3), 473–480.
  • Klement ZG, L Farkas, L Lovrekovich, 1964. Hypersensitive reaction induced by phytopathogenic bacteria in the tobacco leaf. Phytopathology, 54, 474-477.
  • Kloepper, J. W., Ryu, C. M.,  Zhang, S. A. (2004). Induced systemic resistance and promotion of plant growth by Bacillus spp. Phytopathology, 94, 1259-1266.
  • Kloepper, J. W., Gutierrez-Estrada, A.,  Mclnroy, J. A. (2007). Photoperiod regulates elicitation of growth promotion but not induced resistance by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 53(2), 159–167.
  • Kohler, J., Caravaca, F.,  Rolda´n, A. (2009). Effect of drought on the stability of rhizosphere soil aggregates of Lactuca sativa grown in a degraded soil inoculated with PGPR and AM fungi. Applied. Soil Ecology, 42, 160–165.
  • Kotan, R., Sahin, F.,  Ala, A. (2004). Nutritional similarity in carbon source utilization of Erwinia amylovora and its potential biocontrol agents. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology, 33(1-3), 25-38.
  • Kotan, R., Sahin, F.,  Ala, A. (2005). Identification and pathogenicity of bacteria isolated from pome fruits trees in eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 113, 8–13.
  • Kotan, R.,  Sahin, F. (2006). Biologicalcontrol of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and nutritional similarity in carbon source utilization of pathogen and its potential biocontrol agents. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology, 35(1-3), 1-13.
  • Kotan, R., Kant, C., Karagoz, K., Dadasoğlu, F., Cakmakcı, R., Fayetorbay, D., Sahin, F.,  Comaklı, B. (2009). Bazı Bakteri İnokülasyonlarının Kontrollü Şartlar Altında Yonca Bitkisinin (Medicago sativa L.) Büyümesi ve Kimyasal Kompozisyonu Üzerine Etkisi. 16. Ulusal Biyoteknoloji Kongresi, 13-16 Aralık 2009. Antalya. pp. 14.
  • Kuraishi, S., Tasaki, K., Sakurai, N.,  Sadatoku, K. (1991). Changes in levels of cytokinins in etiolated squash seedlings after illumination. Plant and Cell Physiology, 32, 585-591.
  • Marulanda, A., Porcel, R., Barea, J. M.,  Azco´n, R. (2007). Drought tolerance and antioxidant activities in lavender plants colonized by native rought-tolerant or drought-sensitive, Microbial Ecology, 54, 543–552.
  • Marulanda, A., Barea, J. M. R.,  Azco´n, R. (2009). Stimulation of plant growth and drought tolerance by native microorganisms (AM Fungi and Bacteria) from dry environments: mechanisms related to bacterial effectiveness. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 28, 115–124.
  • Mayak, S., Tirosh, T.,  Glick, B. R. (2004). Plant growth-promoting bacteria confer resistance in tomato plants to salt stress. Plant Physiololgy and Biochemitry, 42, 565–572.
  • Metraux, J. P. (2001). Systemic acquired resistance and salicylic acid: current state of knowledge. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 107, 13–18.
  • Miller, L. T. (1982). A single derivatization method for routine analysis of bacterial whole-cell fatty acid methyl esters, including hydroxy acids. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 16, 584–586.
  • Mishra, M., Kumar, U., Mishra, P. K.,  Prakash, V. (2010). Efficiency of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for the enhancement of Cicer arietinum L. growth and germination under salinity. Advances in Biological Research, 4(2), 92–96.
  • Money, P. A.,  Staden, J. V. (1984). Seasonal changes in the levels of endogenous cytokinins in Sargassum heterophyllum (Phaeophyceae). Botanica Marina, 17, 437-442.
  • Murillo-Amador, B., Troyo, D. E., Garcia, H. J. L., Lopez, A. R.,  Avila, N. Y. S. (2006). Effect of NaCl salinity in the genotypic variation of cowrea (Vigna unguiculata) during early vegetative growth. Scientia Horticulturae, 108, 432-431.
  • Narula, N., Deubel, A., Gans, W., Behl, R. K.,  Merbach, W. (2006). Paranodules and colonization of wheat roots by phytohormone producing bacteria in soil. Plant, Soil and Environment, 52(3), 119–129.
  • Ortíz-Castro, R., Valencia-Cantero, E.,  López-Bucio, J. (2008). Plant growth promotion by Bacillus megaterium involves cytokinin signaling. Plant Signaling and Behavior, 3, 263-265.
  • Palni, L. M., Summons, R. E.,  Letham, D. S. (1983). Mass spectrometric analysis of cytokin-ins in plant tissues: V. Identification of the cytokinin complex of Datura innoxia crown gall tissue. Plant Physiology, 72, 858–863.
  • Pathma, J., Kennedy, R. K.,  Sakthivel, N. (2011). Mechanisms of fluorescent pseudomonads that mediate biological control of phytopathogens and plant growth promotion of crop plants. In D. K. Maheshwari (Ed.), Bacteria in agrobiology: plant growth responses (pp. 77–105). Springer, Berlin.
  • Patten, C.,  Glick, B. R. (1996). Bacterial biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid. Caadian Journal of Microbiology,. 42, 207–220.
  • Potts, M. (1994). Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes. Microbiological Reviews, 58, 755–805. Qamaruddin, M. (1996). Apperance of the zeatin riboside type of cytokinin in Pinus sylvestris seeds after red light treatment. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 6, 41-46.
  • Reymond, P.,  Farmer, E. E. (1998). Jasmonate and salicylate as global signals for defense gene expression. Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 5, 404–411.
  • Ryan, P. R., Dessaux, Y., Thomashow, L. S.,  Weller, D. M. (2009). Rhizosphere engineering and management for sustainable agriculture. Plant Soil, 321, 363–383.
  • Sadeghi, A., Karimi, E., Dahaji, P. A., Javid, M. G., Dalvand, Y.,  Askari, H. (2012). Plant growth promoting activity of an auxin and siderophore. World Journal of Microbioogy and. Biotechnology, 28: 1503–1509.
  • Saikia, R., Kumar, R., Arora, D. K., Gogoi, D. K.,  Azad, P. (2006). Pseudomonas aeruginosa inducing rice resistance against Rhizoctonia solani: production of salicylic acid and peroxidases. Folia Microbiologica, 51, 375–380.
  • Saleem, M., Arshad, M., Hussain, S.,  Bhatti, A. S. (2007). Perspective of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) containing ACC deaminase in stress agriculture. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 34(10), 635–648.
  • Sandhya, V., Ali, S. Z., Venkateswarlu, B., Reddy, G.,  Grover, M. (2010). Effect of osmotic stress on plant growth promoting Pseudomonas spp. Archives of Microbiology, 192, 867–876.
  • SAS. (1997). SAS/STAT software: changes and enhancements through release 6.12. SAS Institute, Cary, NC. Spaepen, S., Vanderleyden, J.,  Remans, R. (2007). Indole-3-acetic acid in microbial and microorganism-plant signaling. In F. Unden (Ed.), FEMS Microbiol Review (pp. 1–24), Blackwell Publishing Ltd., New York.
  • Swain, M. R., Naskar, S. K.,  Ray, R. C. (2007). Indole-3-acetic acid production and effect on sprouting of yam (Dioscorea rotundata L.) minisetts by Bacillus subtilis isolated from culturable cowdung microflora. Polish Journal of Microbiology, 56, 103–110.
  • Tempest, D. W., Meers, J. L.,  Brown, C. M. (1970). Influence of environment on the content and composition of microbial free amino acid pools. Journal of General Microbiology, 64, 171–185.
  • Tozlu, E., Karagoz, K., Babagil, G. E., Dizikısa, T.,  Kotan, R. (2012). Effect of some plant growth promoting bacteria on yield, yield components of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Aras 98). Journal of Agricultural Faculty Atatürk University, 43, 101–106.
  • Van Loon, L. C., Bakker, P. A. H. M.,  Pieterse, C. M. J. (1998). Systemic resistance induced by rhizosphere bacteria. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 36, 453-83.
  • Yang, J., Kloepper, J. W.,  Ryu, C. M. (2009). Rhizosphere bacteria help plants tolerate abiotic stress. Trends Plant Science, 14, 1-4.
Primary Language en
Subjects Engineering
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0003-3369-0645
Author: Ertan YILDIRIM (Primary Author)
Institution: ATATÜRK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0003-0411-6134
Author: Adem GÜNEŞ
Institution: ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0002-4849-7680
Author: Metin TURAN
Institution: YEDİTEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0001-6493-8936
Author: Recep KOTAN
Institution: ATATÜRK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Orcid: 0000-0002-7604-3803
Author: Melek EKİNCİ
Institution: ATATÜRK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : January 31, 2021

APA Yıldırım, E , Güneş, A , Turan, M , Kotan, R , Ekinci, M . (2021). Amino Acid and Hormone Content of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Grown in Drought Stress Created by PEG6000 . Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi , (21) , 95-112 . DOI: 10.31590/ejosat.831176