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Çocuklarda Florür alımının Dünya Sağlık Örgütü ve Avrupa Birliği Kılavuzlarına Göre Değerlendirilmesi

Year 2022, Issue 33, 354 - 362, 31.01.2022
https://doi.org/10.31590/ejosat.1051641

Abstract

Amaçlar: Bu derlemenin amacı, Dünya Sağlık Örgütü (WHO) ve Avrupa Birliği (AB) kılavuzlarına göre biberonla beslenen bebekler de dahil olmak üzere çocuklarda entegre florür maruziyeti ve “tolere edilebilir günlük alım” değerlendirmesini ele almaktır. Tüm insanlar, insan tüketimi için güvenli içme suyuna erişim hakkına sahiptir ve uluslararası sağlık düzenlemeleri ve insan haklarına uygun olarak, yaşamı sürdürmek için gerekli olan içme suyunun temini ve dağıtımını düzenlemek hükümetlerin sorumluluğundadır. Ulusal içme suyu standartları, değişen çevresel, sosyo-kültürel, sosyo-ekonomik, diyet ve potansiyel maruziyeti etkileyen diğer faktörlere dayanmalıdır. Toplam günlük florür alımı, örneğin havadaki florür konsantrasyonu, içme suyu ve tüketilen miktar, yiyecek ve içeceklerdeki seviyeler ve diş preparatlarının kullanımı gibi farklı maruziyet kaynaklarına bağlı olarak değişebilir. Florürün etkisi, maruz kalma süresine ve yaş, yani vücut ağırlığının kg'ı başına günlük mg doz gibi faktörlere dayalı olarak tahmin edilir. Biberonla beslenen bebekler, vücut ağırlıklarına göre yüksek maruziyet grubu olarak kabul edilir. Bu nedenle risk, özellikle 3 yaş altı çocuklar, kısmen anne sütü ve formül mama ile beslenen bebekler, kesinlikle hamile ve emziren anneler olmak üzere her yaşam evresi için ayrı ayrı değerlendirilmelidir. Sonuç: Bu makalede, çocuklar için ömür boyu tüketildiğinde sağlık açısından önemli bir risk oluşturmayan “Kılavuz Değer” ve “Tolere Edilebilir Günlük Alım” açıklanacaktır. Ek olarak, bu derleme, florür alımının değerlendirilmesinde başta çocuk sağlığı olmak üzere halk sağlığına ışık tutacak ve yüksek değerleri ortadan kaldırmak için sürmekte olan floridasyon ve derogasyona dayalı ulusal içme suyu kalitesini iyileştirebilir.

References

  • Aguilar, F., Charrondiere, U. R., Dusemund, B., Galtier, P., Gilbert, J., Gott, D. M., Grilli, S., Guertler, R., Kass, G. E. N., Koenig, J., Lambré, C., Larsen, J.-C., Leblanc, J.-C., Mortensen, A., Parent-Massin, D., Pratt, I., Rietjens, I., Stankovic, I., Tobback, P., … Woutersen, R. (2008). Calcium fluoride as a source of fluoride added for nutritional purposes to food supplements - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food. EFSA Journal, 6(12), 882. https://doi.org/10.2903/J.EFSA.2008.882
  • European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). (n.d.). Substance Information-Fluorine. Retrieved December 20, 2021, from https://echa.europa.eu/substance-information/-/substanceinfo/100.029.049?_disssubsinfo_WAR_disssubsinfoportlet_backURL=https%3A%2F%2Fecha.europa.eu%2Fsearch-for-chemicals%3Fp_p_id%3Ddisssimplesearch_WAR_disssearchportlet%26p_p_lifecycle%3D0%26p_p_state%3Dnormal%26p_p_mode%3Dview%26_disssimplesearch_WAR_disssearchportlet_sessionCriteriaId%3DdissSimpleSearchSessionParam101401639949356393
  • European Commission. (n.d.). Public Health, Scientific Committees, Toolbox. Fluorine. Retrieved December 20, 2021, from https://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/opinions_layman/en/dental-amalgam/glossary/def/fluoride.htm
  • European Commission. (1998). Council Directive 98/83/EC on the quality of water intended for human consumption. https://www.fao.org/faolex/results/details/en/c/LEX-FAOC018700/
  • European Commission. (2009). The exploitation and marketing of natural mineral waters (Recast) (Text with EEA relevance) (Council Directive 2009/54/EC). Official Journal of the European Union. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2009:164:0045:0058:EN:PDF
  • Referans (2014). COM(2014)363 - Synthesis Report on the Quality of Drinking Water in the EU examining the Member States’ reports for the period 2008-2010 under Directive 98/83/EC - EU. https://www.eumonitor.eu/9353000/1/j9vvik7m1c3gyxp/vk8jg48a3ax8
  • European Commission, S. C. on H. and E. R. (SCHER). (2011). Critical review of any new evidence on the hazard profile, health effects, and human exposure to fluoride and the fluoridating agents of drinking water . https://doi.org/10.2772/38897
  • European Union, E. F. S. A. (2005). Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) on a request from the Commission related to the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Fluoride. EFSA Journal, 3(3), 1–65. https://doi.org/10.2903/J.EFSA.2005.192
  • Food and Agriculture Organization & World Health Organization. (2014). Guidelines for the Simple Evaluation of Dietary Exposure to Food Additives CAC\/GL 3-1989 Adopted 1989 Revision 2014. https://www.coursehero.com/file/18429908/cxg-003e/
  • Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, 4th edition, incorporating the 1st addendum. (2017). https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241549950
  • International Programme on Chemical Safety, United Nations Environment Programme,International Labour Organization, W. H. O. &IPCS Ta. G. (1984). World Health Organization & IPCS Task Group on Environmental Health Criteria for Fluorine and Fluorides. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/37288
  • Lennon, M. A., Whelton, D O’mullane, H., & Ekstrand, J. (2004). Rolling Revision of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality Draft for review and comments (Not for citation) Fluoride.
  • National Research Council. (1993). Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride. In Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride (The Nation). National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/2204
  • United Kingdom, D. of H. (UK-D. (1991). Dietary reference values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report of the Panel on Dietary Reference Values of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy - PubMed. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1961974/
  • United Nation Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). (n.d.). The Protocol on Water and Health. Retrieved October 13, 2019, from https://unece.org/environment-policy/water/protocol-on-water-and-health/about-the-protocol/introduction
  • United States, E. P. A. (2011). New Fluoride Risk Assessment and Relative Source Contribution Documents (EPA 822-F-11-001). http://water.epa.gov/action/advisories/drinking/
  • United States, I. of M. (1997). Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. https://doi.org/10.17226/5776
  • W. SLooff, H. C. E., & J.P.M. Ros (eds.). (1988). Basisdocument Fluoriden. https://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/758474005.pdf; https://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/758474005.html
  • WHO. (2009). WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality: policies and procedures used in updating the WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/70050
  • World Health Organization. (1984). Guidelines for drinking-water quality: volume 1: recommendations. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/252072
  • World Health Organization. (1986). Appropriate use of fluorides for human health / edited by J. J. Murray. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/39103
  • World Health Organization. (2002). International Programme on Chemical Safety. Fluorides. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/42415
  • World Health Organization. (2004). Fluoride in Drinking-water Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/fluoride.pdf
  • World Health Organization. (2008, December 8). Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edition: Volume 1 - Recommendations incorporating the first and second addenda. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241547611
  • World Health Organization. (2011). Guidelines for drinking-water quality. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/44584
  • World Health Organization. (2013). World Health Organization Meetings on the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality Chemical Aspects Working Group Meeting Chemical Aspects and Microbial Aspects Working Group Meeting on Cross-cutting Issues Microbial Aspects Working Group Meeting and Chemical Mixtures Meeting. https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/GDWQ_2013_Repor_microbial_aspects.pdf
  • World Health Organization. (2018a). A global overview of national regulations and standards for drinking-water quality. Verordnung Über Die Qualitä t von Wasser Für Den Menschlichen Gebrauch (Trinkwasserverordnung -TrinkwV 2001). https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/272345
  • World Health Organization. (2018b). Developing drinking-water quality regulations and standards: general guidance with a special focus on countries with limited resources. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/272969
  • World Health Organization & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2009). Principles and methods for the risk assessment of chemicals in food. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/44065
  • World Health Organization: Fawell J, Bailey K,Chilton J,Dahi E,Fewtrell L, M. Y. (2006). Fluoride in drinking-water. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/43514
  • World Health Organization, I. A. for R. on C. (IARC). (1982). Some Aromatic Amines, Anthraquinones and Nitroso Compounds, and Inorganic Fluorides Used in Drinking-water and Dental Preparations (I. A. for Research on Cancer, Weltgesundheitsorganisation, & I. A. for Research on Cancer, Eds.; Vol. 27, Issue 27). International Agency for Research on Cancer.
  • World Health Organization. Sustainable Development and Healthy Environments Cluster. (2005). Fluoride. In Nutrients in drinking water. (pp. 180–183). https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/43403

Assessment of Fluoride Intake in Children According to the World Health Organization and European Union Guidelines

Year 2022, Issue 33, 354 - 362, 31.01.2022
https://doi.org/10.31590/ejosat.1051641

Abstract

Aims: The purpose of this review is to consider the assessment of integrated fluoride exposure and “tolerable daily intake” in children including bottle-fed infants according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) and European Union (EU) guidelines. Background: All people have the right to access drinking-water that is safe for human consumption, and it is the responsibility of the governments to regulate the supply and distribution of drinking-water that is essential to sustain life with respect to international health regulations and human rights. National drinking-water standards must be based on varying environmental, socio-cultural, socio-economic, dietary, and other factors affecting potential exposure. Total daily fluoride intake may vary depending on the different sources of exposure that are for instance, fluoride concentration in the air, drinking water and the amount consumed, levels in food and beverages and using dental preparations. The impact of fluoride is estimated based on the exposure duration and factors such as age i.e., daily mg dose per kg of body weight. Bottle-fed infants are considered as a high exposure group relative to their body weights. Therefore, the risk should be separately assessed for every life stage, especially children under 3 years old, partially breastfed and formula fed infants, certainly pregnant and breastfeeding mothers. Conclusion: In this article, the “Guideline Value” and “Tolerable Daily Intake” for children which do not result in any significant risk to health over a lifetime of consumption will be explained. Additionally, this review will keep light on public health, especially children's health, in evaluating fluoride intake and it can improve national drinking-water quality based on fluoridation and derogation which is in progress to eliminate high values.

References

  • Aguilar, F., Charrondiere, U. R., Dusemund, B., Galtier, P., Gilbert, J., Gott, D. M., Grilli, S., Guertler, R., Kass, G. E. N., Koenig, J., Lambré, C., Larsen, J.-C., Leblanc, J.-C., Mortensen, A., Parent-Massin, D., Pratt, I., Rietjens, I., Stankovic, I., Tobback, P., … Woutersen, R. (2008). Calcium fluoride as a source of fluoride added for nutritional purposes to food supplements - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food. EFSA Journal, 6(12), 882. https://doi.org/10.2903/J.EFSA.2008.882
  • European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). (n.d.). Substance Information-Fluorine. Retrieved December 20, 2021, from https://echa.europa.eu/substance-information/-/substanceinfo/100.029.049?_disssubsinfo_WAR_disssubsinfoportlet_backURL=https%3A%2F%2Fecha.europa.eu%2Fsearch-for-chemicals%3Fp_p_id%3Ddisssimplesearch_WAR_disssearchportlet%26p_p_lifecycle%3D0%26p_p_state%3Dnormal%26p_p_mode%3Dview%26_disssimplesearch_WAR_disssearchportlet_sessionCriteriaId%3DdissSimpleSearchSessionParam101401639949356393
  • European Commission. (n.d.). Public Health, Scientific Committees, Toolbox. Fluorine. Retrieved December 20, 2021, from https://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/opinions_layman/en/dental-amalgam/glossary/def/fluoride.htm
  • European Commission. (1998). Council Directive 98/83/EC on the quality of water intended for human consumption. https://www.fao.org/faolex/results/details/en/c/LEX-FAOC018700/
  • European Commission. (2009). The exploitation and marketing of natural mineral waters (Recast) (Text with EEA relevance) (Council Directive 2009/54/EC). Official Journal of the European Union. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2009:164:0045:0058:EN:PDF
  • Referans (2014). COM(2014)363 - Synthesis Report on the Quality of Drinking Water in the EU examining the Member States’ reports for the period 2008-2010 under Directive 98/83/EC - EU. https://www.eumonitor.eu/9353000/1/j9vvik7m1c3gyxp/vk8jg48a3ax8
  • European Commission, S. C. on H. and E. R. (SCHER). (2011). Critical review of any new evidence on the hazard profile, health effects, and human exposure to fluoride and the fluoridating agents of drinking water . https://doi.org/10.2772/38897
  • European Union, E. F. S. A. (2005). Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) on a request from the Commission related to the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Fluoride. EFSA Journal, 3(3), 1–65. https://doi.org/10.2903/J.EFSA.2005.192
  • Food and Agriculture Organization & World Health Organization. (2014). Guidelines for the Simple Evaluation of Dietary Exposure to Food Additives CAC\/GL 3-1989 Adopted 1989 Revision 2014. https://www.coursehero.com/file/18429908/cxg-003e/
  • Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, 4th edition, incorporating the 1st addendum. (2017). https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241549950
  • International Programme on Chemical Safety, United Nations Environment Programme,International Labour Organization, W. H. O. &IPCS Ta. G. (1984). World Health Organization & IPCS Task Group on Environmental Health Criteria for Fluorine and Fluorides. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/37288
  • Lennon, M. A., Whelton, D O’mullane, H., & Ekstrand, J. (2004). Rolling Revision of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality Draft for review and comments (Not for citation) Fluoride.
  • National Research Council. (1993). Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride. In Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride (The Nation). National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/2204
  • United Kingdom, D. of H. (UK-D. (1991). Dietary reference values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report of the Panel on Dietary Reference Values of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy - PubMed. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1961974/
  • United Nation Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). (n.d.). The Protocol on Water and Health. Retrieved October 13, 2019, from https://unece.org/environment-policy/water/protocol-on-water-and-health/about-the-protocol/introduction
  • United States, E. P. A. (2011). New Fluoride Risk Assessment and Relative Source Contribution Documents (EPA 822-F-11-001). http://water.epa.gov/action/advisories/drinking/
  • United States, I. of M. (1997). Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. https://doi.org/10.17226/5776
  • W. SLooff, H. C. E., & J.P.M. Ros (eds.). (1988). Basisdocument Fluoriden. https://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/758474005.pdf; https://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/758474005.html
  • WHO. (2009). WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality: policies and procedures used in updating the WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/70050
  • World Health Organization. (1984). Guidelines for drinking-water quality: volume 1: recommendations. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/252072
  • World Health Organization. (1986). Appropriate use of fluorides for human health / edited by J. J. Murray. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/39103
  • World Health Organization. (2002). International Programme on Chemical Safety. Fluorides. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/42415
  • World Health Organization. (2004). Fluoride in Drinking-water Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/fluoride.pdf
  • World Health Organization. (2008, December 8). Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 3rd edition: Volume 1 - Recommendations incorporating the first and second addenda. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241547611
  • World Health Organization. (2011). Guidelines for drinking-water quality. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/44584
  • World Health Organization. (2013). World Health Organization Meetings on the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality Chemical Aspects Working Group Meeting Chemical Aspects and Microbial Aspects Working Group Meeting on Cross-cutting Issues Microbial Aspects Working Group Meeting and Chemical Mixtures Meeting. https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/GDWQ_2013_Repor_microbial_aspects.pdf
  • World Health Organization. (2018a). A global overview of national regulations and standards for drinking-water quality. Verordnung Über Die Qualitä t von Wasser Für Den Menschlichen Gebrauch (Trinkwasserverordnung -TrinkwV 2001). https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/272345
  • World Health Organization. (2018b). Developing drinking-water quality regulations and standards: general guidance with a special focus on countries with limited resources. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/272969
  • World Health Organization & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2009). Principles and methods for the risk assessment of chemicals in food. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/44065
  • World Health Organization: Fawell J, Bailey K,Chilton J,Dahi E,Fewtrell L, M. Y. (2006). Fluoride in drinking-water. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/43514
  • World Health Organization, I. A. for R. on C. (IARC). (1982). Some Aromatic Amines, Anthraquinones and Nitroso Compounds, and Inorganic Fluorides Used in Drinking-water and Dental Preparations (I. A. for Research on Cancer, Weltgesundheitsorganisation, & I. A. for Research on Cancer, Eds.; Vol. 27, Issue 27). International Agency for Research on Cancer.
  • World Health Organization. Sustainable Development and Healthy Environments Cluster. (2005). Fluoride. In Nutrients in drinking water. (pp. 180–183). https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/43403

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Engineering
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Sabiha Zeynep Aydenk KÖSEOĞLU> (Primary Author)
Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim Universitesi
0000-0001-7936-8462
Türkiye

Supporting Institution Yok
Project Number -
Thanks -
Early Pub Date January 30, 2022
Publication Date January 31, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume , Issue 33

Cite

Bibtex @review { ejosat1051641, journal = {Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi}, eissn = {2148-2683}, address = {}, publisher = {Osman SAĞDIÇ}, year = {2022}, number = {33}, pages = {354 - 362}, doi = {10.31590/ejosat.1051641}, title = {Çocuklarda Florür alımının Dünya Sağlık Örgütü ve Avrupa Birliği Kılavuzlarına Göre Değerlendirilmesi}, key = {cite}, author = {Köseoğlu, Sabiha Zeynep Aydenk} }
APA Köseoğlu, S. Z. A. (2022). Çocuklarda Florür alımının Dünya Sağlık Örgütü ve Avrupa Birliği Kılavuzlarına Göre Değerlendirilmesi . Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi , (33) , 354-362 . DOI: 10.31590/ejosat.1051641
MLA Köseoğlu, S. Z. A. "Çocuklarda Florür alımının Dünya Sağlık Örgütü ve Avrupa Birliği Kılavuzlarına Göre Değerlendirilmesi" . Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi (2022 ): 354-362 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ejosat/issue/68221/1051641>
Chicago Köseoğlu, S. Z. A. "Çocuklarda Florür alımının Dünya Sağlık Örgütü ve Avrupa Birliği Kılavuzlarına Göre Değerlendirilmesi". Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi (2022 ): 354-362
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Assessment of Fluoride Intake in Children According to the World Health Organization and European Union Guidelines AU - Sabiha Zeynep AydenkKöseoğlu Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.31590/ejosat.1051641 DO - 10.31590/ejosat.1051641 T2 - Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 354 EP - 362 VL - IS - 33 SN - -2148-2683 M3 - doi: 10.31590/ejosat.1051641 UR - https://doi.org/10.31590/ejosat.1051641 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 European Journal of Science and Technology Çocuklarda Florür alımının Dünya Sağlık Örgütü ve Avrupa Birliği Kılavuzlarına Göre Değerlendirilmesi %A Sabiha Zeynep Aydenk Köseoğlu %T Çocuklarda Florür alımının Dünya Sağlık Örgütü ve Avrupa Birliği Kılavuzlarına Göre Değerlendirilmesi %D 2022 %J Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi %P -2148-2683 %V %N 33 %R doi: 10.31590/ejosat.1051641 %U 10.31590/ejosat.1051641
ISNAD Köseoğlu, Sabiha Zeynep Aydenk . "Çocuklarda Florür alımının Dünya Sağlık Örgütü ve Avrupa Birliği Kılavuzlarına Göre Değerlendirilmesi". Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi / 33 (January 2022): 354-362 . https://doi.org/10.31590/ejosat.1051641
AMA Köseoğlu S. Z. A. Çocuklarda Florür alımının Dünya Sağlık Örgütü ve Avrupa Birliği Kılavuzlarına Göre Değerlendirilmesi. EJOSAT. 2022; (33): 354-362.
Vancouver Köseoğlu S. Z. A. Çocuklarda Florür alımının Dünya Sağlık Örgütü ve Avrupa Birliği Kılavuzlarına Göre Değerlendirilmesi. Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi. 2022; (33): 354-362.
IEEE S. Z. A. Köseoğlu , "Çocuklarda Florür alımının Dünya Sağlık Örgütü ve Avrupa Birliği Kılavuzlarına Göre Değerlendirilmesi", Avrupa Bilim ve Teknoloji Dergisi, no. 33, pp. 354-362, Jan. 2022, doi:10.31590/ejosat.1051641