Research Article
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Year 2021, Volume 10, Issue 1, 43 - 60, 30.06.2021

Abstract

References

  • Atay, D., & Kurt, G. (2006). Prospective Teachers and L2 Writing Anxiety. The Asian EFL Journal, 100-118.
  • Ay, S. (2010). Young adolescent students’ foreign language anxiety in relation to language skills at different levels. The Journal of International Social Research, 89-92.
  • Aydın, S. (2008). An Investigation on the Language Anxiety and Fear of Negative Evaluation among Turkish EFL Learners . Asian EFL Journal, 421-444.
  • Aydın, S. (2018). Technology and foreign language anxiety: Implications for practice and future. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 193-211.
  • Blau, A. (1955). A Unitary Hypothesis of Emotion: I. Anxiety, Emotions of Displeasure, and Affective Disorders. The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 75-103.
  • Campbell, C. M., & Ortiz, J. (1991). Helping students overcome foreign language anxiety: A foreign language anxiety workshop. E. K. Horwitz, & D. J. Young içinde, Language anxiety: From theory to research to classroom implications (s. 153-168). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  • Cheng, Y.-s., Horwitz, E. K., & Schallert, D. L. (1999). Language Anxiety: Differentiating Writing and Speaking Components. Language Learning, 417-446.
  • Daly, J. A. (1985). Writing apprehension. R. Mike içinde, When a Writer Can't Write: Studies in Writer's Block and Other Composing-Process Problems. Perspectives in Writing Research Series. (s. 43-82). New York: The Guildford Pres s. Daly, J. A., & Miller, M. D. (1975). The empirical development of an instrument of writing apprehension. Research in the Teaching of English, 242-249.
  • Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2008). The lanscape of qualitative research. U.S.A: Sage Publications.
  • Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Ellis, R. (2012). Language teaching research and language pedagogy. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning. London: Edward Arnold.
  • Gardner, R. C., & MacIntyre, P. D. (1993). On the Measurement of Affective Variables in Second Language Learning. Language Learning, 157-194.
  • Hassan, B. (2001). The relationship of writing apprehension and self-esteem to the writing quality and quantity of EFL university students. Mansoura Faculty of Education Journal, 1-36.
  • Hennink, M., Hutter, I., & Bailey, A. (2020). Qualitative Research Methods. Sage Publications.
  • Horwitz, E. (2001). Language anxiety and achievement. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 112-126.
  • Horwitz, E. K., & Young, D. J. (1991). Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  • Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 125-132.
  • Huang, Q. (2012). Study on Correlation of Foreign Language Anxiety and English Reading Anxiety. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 1520-1525.
  • Kara, E., Ayaz, A. D., & Dündar, T. (2017). Challenges in EFL Speaking Classes in Turkish Context. European Journal of Language and Literature Studies, 66-74.
  • Kayaoğlu, M. N., & Sağlamel, H. (2013). Students’ Perceptions of Language Anxiety in Speaking Classes . Journal of History, Culture and Art Research, 142-160.
  • Koch, A. S., & Terrell, T. D. (1991). Affective reactions of foreign language students to natural approach activities and teaching procedures. E. K. Horwitz, & D. J. Young içinde, Language anxiety (s. 109-125). London: Princeton Hall International.
  • Kurt, G., & Atay, D. (2007). The effects of peer feedback on the writing anxiety of prospective Turkish teachers of EFL. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 12-23.
  • Leki, I. (1999). Techniques for reducing second language writing anxiety. J. Young içinde, Affect in foreign language and second language learning: A practical guide to creating a low-anxiety classroom atmosphere (s. 64-88). Boston: McGraw-Hill.
  • Liu, M., & Jackson, J. (2008). An Exploration of Chinese EFL Learners' Unwillingness to Communicate and Foreign Language Anxiety. Modern Language Journal, 71-86.
  • Okay, A., & Balçıkanlı, C. (2017). Belief Patterns and Anxiety Levels of Turkish EFL Students in Relation to Level of Instruction. Journal on Educational Psychology, 18-28.
  • Philips, E. M. (1992). The effects of language anxiety on students’ oral test performance and attitudes. Modern Language Journal, 14-26.
  • Price, M. L. (1991). The subjective experience of foreign language anxiety: Interviews with high anxiety students. E. K. Horwitz, & D. J. Young içinde, Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom applications (s. 101-108). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
  • Scovel, T. (1978). The effects of affect on foreign language learning: A review of the anxiety research. Language Learning, 123-142.
  • Sparks, R. L., & Ganschow, L. (1991). Foreign language learning differences: Affective or native language aptitude differences? The Modern Language Journal, 3-16.
  • Sparks, R. L., & Ganschow, L. (1995). A strong inference approach to causal factors in foreign language learning: A response to MacIntyre. The Modern Language Journal, 235-244.
  • Spileberger, C. (1983). Manuel for the state-trait anxiety inventory. California: Consulting Psychologists Press.
  • Sutarsyah, C. (2017). An Analysis of Student’s Speaking Anxiety and its Effect on Speaking Performance. Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, 143-152.
  • Tavakoli, M., Ghadiri, M., & Zabihi, R. (2014). Direct versus Translated Writing: The Effect of Translation on Learners’ Second Language Writing Ability. Journal of Language Studies, 61-74.
  • Tekşan, K., Mutlu, H. H., & Çinpolat, E. (2019). The examination of the relationship between the speech anxiety and speaking skill attitudes of middle school students and the opinions of teachers on speech anxiety. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 1395-1412.
  • Woodrow, L. (2006). Anxiety and speaking English as a second language. RELC Journal, 308-328.
  • Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2006). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.
  • Young, D. J. (1991). Creating a low- anxiety classroom environment: What does language anxiety research suggest? Modern Language Journal, 420-439.

How Is Anxiety Perceived? Reflections from Native and Non-native Instructors in Higher Education

Year 2021, Volume 10, Issue 1, 43 - 60, 30.06.2021

Abstract

It is a well-known fact that language anxiety is one of the biggest challenges in the language learning process. It is frequently observed when teaching speaking and writing skills. Although there is a growing interest in examining the potential reasons and possible solutions to this concept, there are not many studies that have investigated the beliefs of native and non-native EFL instructors at the tertiary level. To fill this gap and contribute to the related literature, this study investigated and explored native and non-native teachers’ beliefs associated with factors affecting language anxiety and giving suggested solutions to this complicated notion. The study was carried out with 21 EFL instructors at a prep school of a foundation university in Turkey. Semi-structured interviews and open-ended questions were employed to collect the data. The qualitative data were analyzed with the content analysis method to obtain the results. The findings of the study indicated that there is not a significant difference between native and non-native teachers’ beliefs in terms of language anxiety in productive skills. On the other hand, native teachers believe that learners have more trouble with writing than speaking skills whereas non-native teachers believe vice versa. It is suggested that giving constructive feedback and building up a rapport between teachers and learners will help overcome language anxiety in productive skills.

References

  • Atay, D., & Kurt, G. (2006). Prospective Teachers and L2 Writing Anxiety. The Asian EFL Journal, 100-118.
  • Ay, S. (2010). Young adolescent students’ foreign language anxiety in relation to language skills at different levels. The Journal of International Social Research, 89-92.
  • Aydın, S. (2008). An Investigation on the Language Anxiety and Fear of Negative Evaluation among Turkish EFL Learners . Asian EFL Journal, 421-444.
  • Aydın, S. (2018). Technology and foreign language anxiety: Implications for practice and future. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 193-211.
  • Blau, A. (1955). A Unitary Hypothesis of Emotion: I. Anxiety, Emotions of Displeasure, and Affective Disorders. The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 75-103.
  • Campbell, C. M., & Ortiz, J. (1991). Helping students overcome foreign language anxiety: A foreign language anxiety workshop. E. K. Horwitz, & D. J. Young içinde, Language anxiety: From theory to research to classroom implications (s. 153-168). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  • Cheng, Y.-s., Horwitz, E. K., & Schallert, D. L. (1999). Language Anxiety: Differentiating Writing and Speaking Components. Language Learning, 417-446.
  • Daly, J. A. (1985). Writing apprehension. R. Mike içinde, When a Writer Can't Write: Studies in Writer's Block and Other Composing-Process Problems. Perspectives in Writing Research Series. (s. 43-82). New York: The Guildford Pres s. Daly, J. A., & Miller, M. D. (1975). The empirical development of an instrument of writing apprehension. Research in the Teaching of English, 242-249.
  • Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (2008). The lanscape of qualitative research. U.S.A: Sage Publications.
  • Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Ellis, R. (2012). Language teaching research and language pedagogy. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning. London: Edward Arnold.
  • Gardner, R. C., & MacIntyre, P. D. (1993). On the Measurement of Affective Variables in Second Language Learning. Language Learning, 157-194.
  • Hassan, B. (2001). The relationship of writing apprehension and self-esteem to the writing quality and quantity of EFL university students. Mansoura Faculty of Education Journal, 1-36.
  • Hennink, M., Hutter, I., & Bailey, A. (2020). Qualitative Research Methods. Sage Publications.
  • Horwitz, E. (2001). Language anxiety and achievement. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 112-126.
  • Horwitz, E. K., & Young, D. J. (1991). Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom implications. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  • Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 125-132.
  • Huang, Q. (2012). Study on Correlation of Foreign Language Anxiety and English Reading Anxiety. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 1520-1525.
  • Kara, E., Ayaz, A. D., & Dündar, T. (2017). Challenges in EFL Speaking Classes in Turkish Context. European Journal of Language and Literature Studies, 66-74.
  • Kayaoğlu, M. N., & Sağlamel, H. (2013). Students’ Perceptions of Language Anxiety in Speaking Classes . Journal of History, Culture and Art Research, 142-160.
  • Koch, A. S., & Terrell, T. D. (1991). Affective reactions of foreign language students to natural approach activities and teaching procedures. E. K. Horwitz, & D. J. Young içinde, Language anxiety (s. 109-125). London: Princeton Hall International.
  • Kurt, G., & Atay, D. (2007). The effects of peer feedback on the writing anxiety of prospective Turkish teachers of EFL. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 12-23.
  • Leki, I. (1999). Techniques for reducing second language writing anxiety. J. Young içinde, Affect in foreign language and second language learning: A practical guide to creating a low-anxiety classroom atmosphere (s. 64-88). Boston: McGraw-Hill.
  • Liu, M., & Jackson, J. (2008). An Exploration of Chinese EFL Learners' Unwillingness to Communicate and Foreign Language Anxiety. Modern Language Journal, 71-86.
  • Okay, A., & Balçıkanlı, C. (2017). Belief Patterns and Anxiety Levels of Turkish EFL Students in Relation to Level of Instruction. Journal on Educational Psychology, 18-28.
  • Philips, E. M. (1992). The effects of language anxiety on students’ oral test performance and attitudes. Modern Language Journal, 14-26.
  • Price, M. L. (1991). The subjective experience of foreign language anxiety: Interviews with high anxiety students. E. K. Horwitz, & D. J. Young içinde, Language anxiety: From theory and research to classroom applications (s. 101-108). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
  • Scovel, T. (1978). The effects of affect on foreign language learning: A review of the anxiety research. Language Learning, 123-142.
  • Sparks, R. L., & Ganschow, L. (1991). Foreign language learning differences: Affective or native language aptitude differences? The Modern Language Journal, 3-16.
  • Sparks, R. L., & Ganschow, L. (1995). A strong inference approach to causal factors in foreign language learning: A response to MacIntyre. The Modern Language Journal, 235-244.
  • Spileberger, C. (1983). Manuel for the state-trait anxiety inventory. California: Consulting Psychologists Press.
  • Sutarsyah, C. (2017). An Analysis of Student’s Speaking Anxiety and its Effect on Speaking Performance. Indonesian Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, 143-152.
  • Tavakoli, M., Ghadiri, M., & Zabihi, R. (2014). Direct versus Translated Writing: The Effect of Translation on Learners’ Second Language Writing Ability. Journal of Language Studies, 61-74.
  • Tekşan, K., Mutlu, H. H., & Çinpolat, E. (2019). The examination of the relationship between the speech anxiety and speaking skill attitudes of middle school students and the opinions of teachers on speech anxiety. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 1395-1412.
  • Woodrow, L. (2006). Anxiety and speaking English as a second language. RELC Journal, 308-328.
  • Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2006). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.
  • Young, D. J. (1991). Creating a low- anxiety classroom environment: What does language anxiety research suggest? Modern Language Journal, 420-439.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Education and Educational Research
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Esma ŞENEL (Primary Author)
BEYKENT UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-5301-0830
Türkiye

Publication Date June 30, 2021
Application Date March 16, 2021
Acceptance Date June 22, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 10, Issue 1

Cite

APA Şenel, E. (2021). How Is Anxiety Perceived? Reflections from Native and Non-native Instructors in Higher Education . ELT Research Journal , 10 (1) , 43-60 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/eltrj/issue/63041/897695