Year 2021, Volume 3 , Issue 1, Pages 45 - 62 2021-01-31

WATER ISSUE IN CENTRAL ASIA: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

Erdal DUZDABAN [1]


With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan, gained their independence and faced the water issue, which was regulated by the Moscow administration before their independence. Water allocation and regulation are mainly based on the study of Barthold and the USSR Central Asian Department. During the Soviet Union, Central Asian water resources were used without considering the future of water sources and determined only to increase to cotton production of the central apparatus. In this context, the drying up of the Aral Sea is seen as one of the results of the implemented policies. The relations of the states, within the scope of the construction of Rogun Dam and Kambarata HPP 1 Dam, were analyzed through legal means under the water security. Since the research is qualitative, the case analysis method is selected for the evaluation of the collected data.
USSR, Central Asia, Water Issue, Rogun Dam, Kambarata HPP 1
  • Akhmetkaliyeva, Saule (2016). Rogun Dam Project: Challenges and Prospects. Almaty, Kazakhstan: Eurasian Research Institute of Akhmet Yassawi International Kazakh-Turkish University. Retrieved from https://eurasian-research.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Weekly-e-bulletin-05-1-2015-11-01-2016-No-49.pdf. Accessed: 10.11.2020.
  • Aliyeva, Kamila (2018). General Contractor of Rogun HPP Receives Advance of $134 million. Retrieved from https://www.azernews.az/region/127445.html. Accessed: 10.11.2020.
  • Becks, Carleton W. (2011). The Security Situation for Central Asia: Afghanistan, Water, and Uzbek Stability. Unpublished Master Thesis, Faculty of Josef Korbel School of International Studies of University of Denver, pp. 1-90.
  • Bellier, Coyne (2013). Rogun Hydropower Project Seismic Hazard Assessment. Almaty: World Bank.
  • Dobner, Petra and Hans-Georg Frede (2015). Water Governance: A Systemic Approach. In Reinhard F. Huttl, Oliver Bens, Christine B. Bismuth and Sebastian Hoechstetter. Society - Water -Technology: A Critical Appraisal of Major Water Engineering Projects. Berlin: Springer International Publishing.
  • Green, Andrew B. (2000). Is there a Central Asian Security Complex? An Application of Security Complex Theory and Securitization to Problems Relating to Identify in Central Asia. Unpublished Master Thesis, Department of Political Studies of Queen’s University, pp. 1-130.
  • Havenith, Hans-Balder, Isakbek Torgoev, Almaz Torgoev, Alexander Strom, Yuan Xu and Tomas F. Steeger (2015). “The Kambarata 2 Blast-Fill Dam, Kyrgyz Republic: Blast Event, Geophysical Monitoring and Dam Structure Modelling”. Geo-Environmental Disasters 11(2): 2-15.
  • Horsman, Stuart (2004). Water in Central Asia: Regional Cooperation of Conflict? In R. Allison, and L. Jonson, Central Asian Security: The New International Context. Washington: Brookings Institution Press.
  • International Hydropower Association (2020). Hydropower Status Report Sector Trends and Insights. London: International Hydropower Association.
  • Interstate Commission for Water Coordination of Central Asia (2018). Central Asia: Background Information. Retrieved from http://www.icwc-aral.uz/. Accessed: 10.11.2020.
  • Izvestia News (2016). Kyrgyzstan Terminated the Agreement with Russia on the Construction of Kambaratinskaya HPP. Retrieved from https://iz.ru/news/602267. Accessed: 10.11.2020.
  • Karabulut, Ferhat (2019). “Cengiz Dagci’nin ve Cengiz Aytmatov’un Romanlarinda Kolhozlar ve Kolhoz Sisteminin Ruslastirmadaki Rolu” (The Role of Kolkhoz and Kolkhoz System in Russification in Cengiz Dagci’s and Cengiz Aitmatov’s Novels). TURUK Uluslararasi Dil, Edebiyat ve Halkbilimi Arastirmalari Dergisi 7(16): 56-77.
  • Khasanov, Ulugbeck A. (2013). Intricate Specifics of Regional Water Security in Central Asia. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/ 5408139/intricate_specifics_of_regional_water_security_in_central_asia. Accessed: 10.11.2020.
  • Kucera, Joshua (2013). Security Assistance and Water Conflict in Central Asia. Retrieved from http://securityassistancemonitor.wordpress.com/2013/08/29/ security-assistance-and-water-conflict-in-central-asia/. Accessed: 19.11.2014.
  • Kushkumbayev, Sanat and Azina Kushkumbayeva (2013). “Water and Energy Issues in the Context of International and Political Disputes in Central Asia”. Chinese Journal of International 12(2): 211-218.
  • Laruelle, Marlene, Ariana Rabindranath and Julia Collins (2013). “Women and Water in Central Asia and South Asia”. Voices from Central Asia No.13: 1-6.
  • Lemenkova, Polina (2013). Current Problems of Water Supply and Usage in Central Asia, Tian Shan Basin. Riga Technical University, Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga, Latvia. pp. 11-16.
  • Menga, Filippo (2018). Power and Water in Central Asia. New York: Routledge.
  • Micklin, Philip P. (1991). The Water Management Crisis in Soviet Central Asia. Pittsburg: The Carl Beck Papers, Center for Russian and East European Studies. Retrieved from https://carlbeckpapers.pitt.edu/ojs/index.php/cbp/article/view/105/106. Accessed: 10.11.2020.
  • Najibullah, Farangis (2018). Tajikistan’s Roghun Dam, which for Years Generated Only Controversy, Begins Producing Electricity. Retrieved from https://www.rferl.org: https://www.rferl.org/a/tajikistan-s-roghun-dam-whichfor-years-generated-only-controversy-begins-producing-electricity/29604412. html. Accessed: 13.11.2020.
  • National Energy Holding Company. (2019). Promising Investment Projects in the Field of Energy. Retrieved from www.deik.org.tr/contents-fileaction-18522. Accessed 13.11.2020.
  • News Central Asia (2018). Rogun Dam of Tajikistan – the Need to Reassess the Entire Project. Retrieved from http://www.newscentralasia.net/2018/11/03/ rogun-dam-of-tajikistan-the-need-to-reassess-the-entire-project/. Accessed: 13.11.2020.
  • Postel, Sandra L. (2000). “Entering an Era of Water Scarcity: The Challenges Ahead”. Ecological Applications 10(4): 941-948.
  • Rakhmanova, Upagul (2015). Water Security of Central Asian Countries and Different Approaches to Hydro-Political Issues: Kyrgyzstan. Unpublished Master Thesis, p. 93.
  • Rozanov, Daniel (2015). The problem of the construction of the largest hydroelectric power plant in Central Asia. Retrieved from https://eurodialogue. eu: https://eurodialogue.eu/problem-construction-largest-hydroelectric-powerplant-central-asia. Accessed: 13.11.2020.
  • Schultz, Bart and Stefan Uhlenbrook (2008). Water Security: What does it mean, what may it imply? Delft: International Water Management Institute.
  • Sokolov, Vadim (2007). Experiences with Water Management for Food Production in Central Asia. Retrieved from http://www.waterforum.jp/eng/NoWNET/files/2007/4_Vadim.pdf. Accessed: 12.11.2020.
  • Sokolov, Vadim (2009). IWRM as an Instrument for Improving Water Security in Central Asia. Tashkent: Scientific-Information Center of Interstate Commission for Water Coordination/ GWP CACENA. Retrieved from https://www.gwp.org/globalassets/global/toolbox/case-studies/asia-and-caucasus/transboundary.- iwrm-information-base-for-central-asia-377.pdf. Accessed: 13.11.2020.
  • Stratfor, Charles (2018). Launched 42 Years after Start, Can Rogun Dam Fulfil Tajik Dreams? Retrieved from https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/12/launched-42-years-start-rogun-dam-fulfil-tajik-dreams-181217061911658.html. Accessed: 13.11.2020.
  • Topolski, Jerzy (1980). “Methodological Problems of Applications of the Marxist Theory to Historical Research”. Social Research, Theory and Social History 47(3): 458-478.
  • USAID (2020). What is Water Security? Retrieved from https://www.swpwater.org: https://www.swpwater.org/what-is-water-security/. Accessed: 13.11.2020.
  • Woldemariam, Yohannes (2007). A Critical Assessment of International Theories for Managing Transboundary Water Resources: The Case of the Nile Basin, Unpublished PhD Thesis, Graduate School of the University of Massachusetts Amherst, pp. 1-203.
  • Wouters, Patricia, Sergei Vinogradov and Bjorn-Oliver Magsig (2009). “Water Security, Hydrosolidarity, and International Law: A River Runs Through It...” Yearbook of International Environmental Law 19(1): 97-134.
  • Zakhirova, Leila (2013). “The International Politics of Water Security in Central Asia”. Europe-Asia Studies 65(10): 1994-2013.
  • Ziganshina, Dinara (2014). UN Watercourses Convention in Central Asia-The Current State and Future Look. Retrieved from https://www.internationalwaterlaw.org/blog/2014/07/01/un-watercourses-convention-incentral-asia-the-current-state-and-future-outlook/. Accessed: 13.11.2020.
Primary Language en
Subjects Social
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0001-6859-8625
Author: Erdal DUZDABAN (Primary Author)
Institution: Kocaeli University
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : January 31, 2021

APA Duzdaban, E . (2021). WATER ISSUE IN CENTRAL ASIA: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES . Eurasian Research Journal , 3 (1) , 45-62 . Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/erj/issue/60127/871192