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Response of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to Planting Rate and Row Spacing in a High Altitude Enviroment

Year 2022, Volume 5, Issue 1, 1 - 10, 01.05.2022
https://doi.org/10.55257/ethabd.1090609

Abstract

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), has the potential to be an important oilseed crop in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. In this region with a semi-arid climate, there is no scientific study about row spacing and planting rate in safflower. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of row spacing and planting rate on yield and agronomic properties of safflower cultivars (Dinçer and Yenice) in dry conditions, in the years 2013 and 2014. Three different row spacings (20, 40 and 60 cm) and planting rates (20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1) were tested. In both study years, it was determined that seeding rate, row spacing and cultivars have significant effects on plant growth, yield and yield components. The cultivars responded similarly to both treatments that row spacing and planting norm in terms of seed yield in both research years. It was determined that the examined plant characters were significantly affected by the treatments, and the oil concentration, seed, and oil yield increased with increased row spacing and planting rate. The results obtained from this study emphasize the importance of the choice of suitable row spacing and planting rate in safflower production in semi-arid environments and the seed yield in safflower could be increased by narrow plantings (i.e.the 20 and 40 cm row spacings with 60 kg ha-1planting rate.

References

  • Abd El-Mohsen, A.A. & Mahmoud, G.O. 2013. Modeling the influence of nıtrogen rate and plant density on seed yield, yield components and seed quality of safflower. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture 3 (2): 336-360.
  • Ahadi K., Kenarsari, M.J. & Rokhzadi, A. 2011. Effects of sowing date and planting density on growth and yield of safflower cultivars as second crop. Advances in Environmental Biology. 5 (9): 2756-2760.
  • Amoghein, R.S., Tobeh, A. & Somarin, S.J. 2012a. Study on the effect of different plant density on some morphological traits and yield of safflower under irrigated and rain-fed planting conditions. International Journal Agronomy and Plant Production 3(8): 284-290.
  • Amoghein, R.S., Tobeh, A. & Somarin, S.J. 2012b. Effect of plant density on phenology and oil yield of safflower herb under irrigated and rainfed planting systems. J of Medicinal Plants Research. 6(12):2493-503. doi.org/10.5897/JMPR12.004&
  • Bella, L.S., Tuttolomondo, T., Lazzeri, L., Matteo, R., Leto, C. & Licata, M. 2019. An agronomic evaluation of new safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) germplasm for seed and oil yields under mediterranean climate conditions. Agronomy 2019, 9(8), 468. doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9080468
  • Berglund, D.R., Riveland, N. & Bergman, J. 1998. Safflower Production. North dakota State Universty NDSU Extension Service. http://www.ag.ndsu/pubs/plantsci/crops/a870.pdf
  • Beyyavas, V., Haliloglu, H., Copur, O. & Yilmaz, A. 2011. Determination of seed yield lines and populations under the semi-arid conditions. African Journal of Biotechnology 10 (4): 527-534. doi: 10.5897/AJB09.1395
  • Cosge, B. & Kaya, D. 2008. Performance of some safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) varieties sown in late-autumn and late-spring. Süleyman Demirel University Journal of the Instuitue of Science, 12 (1): 13-18
  • Calıskan, S. & Calıskan, M.E. 2018. Row and plant spacıng effects on the yıeld and yıeld components of safflower ın a medıterranean-type envıronment. Turk Journal Field Crops 2018, 23(2), 85-92. doi.org/10.17557/tjfc.467442
  • Elfadl, E., Reinbrecht, C., Frick, C. & Claupein, W. 2009. Optimization of nitrogen rate and seed density for safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) production under low input farming conditions in temperate climate. Field Crops Research 114 (1), 2-13. doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2009.06.012
  • Emami, T., Naseri, R., Falahi, H. & Kazemi, E. 2011. Response of yield, yield components and oil content of safflower (cv. Sina) to planting date and plant spacing on row in rainfed conditions of western Iran. American-Eurasian Journal Agriculture and Environmental Science. 10(6): 947- 953.
  • Emongor, V.E., Oagile, O. & Kedikanetswe, B. 2013. Effects of plant population on growth, development and oil yield of safflower. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology B. 3:321-333
  • Flagella, Z., Rotunno, T., Tarantino, E., Caterina, R.D & Caro, A.D. 2002. Changes in seed yield and oil fatty acid composition of high oleic sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids in relation to the sowing date and the water regime. European Journal of Agronomy, 17: 221-230. doi.org/10.1016/S1161-0301(02)00012-6
  • Jajarmi, V., Abazarian, R. & Khosroyar, K. 2014. The Effect of Density, Variety, and Planting Date on Yield and Yield Components of Safflower. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life sciences. 4(2): 628-632.
  • Masoume, M., Siadat, S.A., Norof, M.S. & Naseri, R. 2011. The effects of planting date and row spacing on yield, yield components and associated traits in winter safflower under rain fed condition. American Eurasin Journal of Agriculture and Environment 10 (2), 200-206,
  • Moatshe, O.G., Emongor, V.E., Balole, T.V & Tshwenyane, S.O. 2016. Yield and yield components of safflower as influenced by genotype and plant density grown in the semi-arid conditions of Botswana. Scientific Journal of Crop Science. 5(9): 125-136
  • Mohamadzadeh, M., Siadat, S.A., Norof, M.S & Naseri, R. 2011. The Effects of planting date and row spacing on yield, yield components and associated traits in winters safflower under rain fed conditions. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences. 10(2): 200-206.
  • Mohammadi, M, & Karimizadeh, R. 2013. Response of safflower to row spacing and intra-row plant distance in semi-warm dryland condition. Agriculture & Forestry. 59 (2): 147-155.
  • Naderi, R., Kazemeini, A.A. & Noroozi, M. 2015. Water stress and plant within roe spacing effects on safflower yield in competition with wild Oat. Journal of Bıological. Environmental. Sciences, 9(26),71-80
  • Naghavi, M.R. 2012. Effects of planting populations on yield and yield components of safflower in different weed competition treatments. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 10 (1), 481-483.
  • Oad, F.C., Samo, M.A., Qayyum, S.M. & Oad, N.L. 2002. Inter and intra row spacing effect on the growth, seed yield and oil content of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 1 (1), 18-19. doi:10.3923/ajps.2002.18.19
  • Omidi, A.H., Khazaei, H. & Hongbo, S. 2009. Variation for some important agronomic traits in 100 spring safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) genotypes. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences. 5 (6): 791-795.
  • Omidi, A.H., Khazei, H., Monneveux, P. & Stoddard, F. 2012. Effect of cultıvar and water regime on yıeld and yıeld components in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Turkish Journal of Field Crops 17(1): 10-15.
  • Reddy, G.K.M., Dangi, K.S., Kumar, S. S. & Reddy, A.V. 2003. Effect of moisture stress on seed yield and quality in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Journal of Oilseed Research, 20: 282-283.
  • Sezen, Y. 1995. Fertilizers and Fertilization Lecture Notes Atatürk Univ. Faculty of Agriculture. Soil Division, Erzurum, 39-41. Shahri, A., Ganjali, H.R. & Fanayi, H.R. 2013.
  • Effect of drought on quantitative and qualitative yield of safflower (Goldasht cultivar) in different planting densities. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Scinces 6 (19), 1342-1346.
  • Sharifmogdaddasi, M. & Omidi, A.H. 2016. Determination of optimum row-spacing and plant density in Goldasht safflower variety. Scientific Papers, Series A. Agronomy. LIX:301-306
  • Sharifmoghaddasi, M R. & Omidi, A.H. 2009. Determination of optimum row spacing and plant density in Goldasht safflower variety. Advanves in Environ. Biology, 3 (3): 233-238
  • Uke, P.C., Vilhekar, S.C. & Vaidya, E.R. 2017. Effect of plant population on yield and yield components of safflower cultivars in rainfed condition of Vidarbda region. Advance Research Journal of Crop Improvement. 8(1): 66-69. doi:10.15740/HAS/ARJCI/8.1/66-69.
  • Umrani, N.K. & Bhoi, P.G. 1984. Effect of plant density on growth and yield of safflower under two rainfall situations, Indian Journal of Agronomy, 29 (3): 282-286.
  • Uslu, N., Tutluer, I., Taner, Y., Kunter, B., Sagel, Z. & Peskircioglu, H. 2002. Effects of temperature and moısture stress durıng elongatıon and branchıng on development and yıeld of safflower. Sesame and Safflower Newsletter No: 17, 103-107.
  • Vagdar, M.S., Shamsi, K., Kobraee, S. & Behrooz, R. 2014. The effect of planting row interval and plant density on the phonological traits of safflower (Cartdamus tinctorius L.) dryland conditions. International Journal of Biosciences (IJB) 4 (12), 202-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/4.12.202-208
  • Weiss, E.A. 1983. Safflower: In: Oilseed Crops, Tropical AgricultureSeries, Longman Inc., Leonord Hill Books, New York, USA.
  • Weiss, E.A. 2000. Oilseed Crops. Safflower, Second Edition, Blackwell Publishing Limited, London, UK. Chapter 4:93- 129
  • Zarei, G., Shamsi, H. & Fazeli, F. 2011. Effecet of planting density on yield and yield components of safflower cultivars in spring planting. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology International Journal of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Vol:5, No:12. doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1055998

Response of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to Planting Rate and Row Spacing in a High Altitude Enviroment

Year 2022, Volume 5, Issue 1, 1 - 10, 01.05.2022
https://doi.org/10.55257/ethabd.1090609

Abstract

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), has the potential to be an important oilseed crop in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. In this region with a semi-arid climate, there is no scientific study about row spacing and planting rate in safflower. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of row spacing and planting rate on yield and agronomic properties of safflower cultivars (Dinçer and Yenice) in dry conditions, in the years 2013 and 2014. Three different row spacings (20, 40 and 60 cm) and planting rates (20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1) were tested. In both study years, it was determined that seeding rate, row spacing and cultivars have significant effects on plant growth, yield and yield components. The cultivars responded similarly to both treatments that row spacing and planting norm in terms of seed yield in both research years. It was determined that the examined plant characters were significantly affected by the treatments, and the oil concentration, seed, and oil yield increased with increased row spacing and planting rate. The results obtained from this study emphasize the importance of the choice of suitable row spacing and planting rate in safflower production in semi-arid environments and the seed yield in safflower could be increased by narrow plantings (i.e.the 20 and 40 cm row spacings with 60 kg ha-1planting rate.

References

  • Abd El-Mohsen, A.A. & Mahmoud, G.O. 2013. Modeling the influence of nıtrogen rate and plant density on seed yield, yield components and seed quality of safflower. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture 3 (2): 336-360.
  • Ahadi K., Kenarsari, M.J. & Rokhzadi, A. 2011. Effects of sowing date and planting density on growth and yield of safflower cultivars as second crop. Advances in Environmental Biology. 5 (9): 2756-2760.
  • Amoghein, R.S., Tobeh, A. & Somarin, S.J. 2012a. Study on the effect of different plant density on some morphological traits and yield of safflower under irrigated and rain-fed planting conditions. International Journal Agronomy and Plant Production 3(8): 284-290.
  • Amoghein, R.S., Tobeh, A. & Somarin, S.J. 2012b. Effect of plant density on phenology and oil yield of safflower herb under irrigated and rainfed planting systems. J of Medicinal Plants Research. 6(12):2493-503. doi.org/10.5897/JMPR12.004&
  • Bella, L.S., Tuttolomondo, T., Lazzeri, L., Matteo, R., Leto, C. & Licata, M. 2019. An agronomic evaluation of new safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) germplasm for seed and oil yields under mediterranean climate conditions. Agronomy 2019, 9(8), 468. doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9080468
  • Berglund, D.R., Riveland, N. & Bergman, J. 1998. Safflower Production. North dakota State Universty NDSU Extension Service. http://www.ag.ndsu/pubs/plantsci/crops/a870.pdf
  • Beyyavas, V., Haliloglu, H., Copur, O. & Yilmaz, A. 2011. Determination of seed yield lines and populations under the semi-arid conditions. African Journal of Biotechnology 10 (4): 527-534. doi: 10.5897/AJB09.1395
  • Cosge, B. & Kaya, D. 2008. Performance of some safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) varieties sown in late-autumn and late-spring. Süleyman Demirel University Journal of the Instuitue of Science, 12 (1): 13-18
  • Calıskan, S. & Calıskan, M.E. 2018. Row and plant spacıng effects on the yıeld and yıeld components of safflower ın a medıterranean-type envıronment. Turk Journal Field Crops 2018, 23(2), 85-92. doi.org/10.17557/tjfc.467442
  • Elfadl, E., Reinbrecht, C., Frick, C. & Claupein, W. 2009. Optimization of nitrogen rate and seed density for safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) production under low input farming conditions in temperate climate. Field Crops Research 114 (1), 2-13. doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2009.06.012
  • Emami, T., Naseri, R., Falahi, H. & Kazemi, E. 2011. Response of yield, yield components and oil content of safflower (cv. Sina) to planting date and plant spacing on row in rainfed conditions of western Iran. American-Eurasian Journal Agriculture and Environmental Science. 10(6): 947- 953.
  • Emongor, V.E., Oagile, O. & Kedikanetswe, B. 2013. Effects of plant population on growth, development and oil yield of safflower. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology B. 3:321-333
  • Flagella, Z., Rotunno, T., Tarantino, E., Caterina, R.D & Caro, A.D. 2002. Changes in seed yield and oil fatty acid composition of high oleic sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hybrids in relation to the sowing date and the water regime. European Journal of Agronomy, 17: 221-230. doi.org/10.1016/S1161-0301(02)00012-6
  • Jajarmi, V., Abazarian, R. & Khosroyar, K. 2014. The Effect of Density, Variety, and Planting Date on Yield and Yield Components of Safflower. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life sciences. 4(2): 628-632.
  • Masoume, M., Siadat, S.A., Norof, M.S. & Naseri, R. 2011. The effects of planting date and row spacing on yield, yield components and associated traits in winter safflower under rain fed condition. American Eurasin Journal of Agriculture and Environment 10 (2), 200-206,
  • Moatshe, O.G., Emongor, V.E., Balole, T.V & Tshwenyane, S.O. 2016. Yield and yield components of safflower as influenced by genotype and plant density grown in the semi-arid conditions of Botswana. Scientific Journal of Crop Science. 5(9): 125-136
  • Mohamadzadeh, M., Siadat, S.A., Norof, M.S & Naseri, R. 2011. The Effects of planting date and row spacing on yield, yield components and associated traits in winters safflower under rain fed conditions. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences. 10(2): 200-206.
  • Mohammadi, M, & Karimizadeh, R. 2013. Response of safflower to row spacing and intra-row plant distance in semi-warm dryland condition. Agriculture & Forestry. 59 (2): 147-155.
  • Naderi, R., Kazemeini, A.A. & Noroozi, M. 2015. Water stress and plant within roe spacing effects on safflower yield in competition with wild Oat. Journal of Bıological. Environmental. Sciences, 9(26),71-80
  • Naghavi, M.R. 2012. Effects of planting populations on yield and yield components of safflower in different weed competition treatments. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 10 (1), 481-483.
  • Oad, F.C., Samo, M.A., Qayyum, S.M. & Oad, N.L. 2002. Inter and intra row spacing effect on the growth, seed yield and oil content of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 1 (1), 18-19. doi:10.3923/ajps.2002.18.19
  • Omidi, A.H., Khazaei, H. & Hongbo, S. 2009. Variation for some important agronomic traits in 100 spring safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) genotypes. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences. 5 (6): 791-795.
  • Omidi, A.H., Khazei, H., Monneveux, P. & Stoddard, F. 2012. Effect of cultıvar and water regime on yıeld and yıeld components in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Turkish Journal of Field Crops 17(1): 10-15.
  • Reddy, G.K.M., Dangi, K.S., Kumar, S. S. & Reddy, A.V. 2003. Effect of moisture stress on seed yield and quality in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Journal of Oilseed Research, 20: 282-283.
  • Sezen, Y. 1995. Fertilizers and Fertilization Lecture Notes Atatürk Univ. Faculty of Agriculture. Soil Division, Erzurum, 39-41. Shahri, A., Ganjali, H.R. & Fanayi, H.R. 2013.
  • Effect of drought on quantitative and qualitative yield of safflower (Goldasht cultivar) in different planting densities. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Scinces 6 (19), 1342-1346.
  • Sharifmogdaddasi, M. & Omidi, A.H. 2016. Determination of optimum row-spacing and plant density in Goldasht safflower variety. Scientific Papers, Series A. Agronomy. LIX:301-306
  • Sharifmoghaddasi, M R. & Omidi, A.H. 2009. Determination of optimum row spacing and plant density in Goldasht safflower variety. Advanves in Environ. Biology, 3 (3): 233-238
  • Uke, P.C., Vilhekar, S.C. & Vaidya, E.R. 2017. Effect of plant population on yield and yield components of safflower cultivars in rainfed condition of Vidarbda region. Advance Research Journal of Crop Improvement. 8(1): 66-69. doi:10.15740/HAS/ARJCI/8.1/66-69.
  • Umrani, N.K. & Bhoi, P.G. 1984. Effect of plant density on growth and yield of safflower under two rainfall situations, Indian Journal of Agronomy, 29 (3): 282-286.
  • Uslu, N., Tutluer, I., Taner, Y., Kunter, B., Sagel, Z. & Peskircioglu, H. 2002. Effects of temperature and moısture stress durıng elongatıon and branchıng on development and yıeld of safflower. Sesame and Safflower Newsletter No: 17, 103-107.
  • Vagdar, M.S., Shamsi, K., Kobraee, S. & Behrooz, R. 2014. The effect of planting row interval and plant density on the phonological traits of safflower (Cartdamus tinctorius L.) dryland conditions. International Journal of Biosciences (IJB) 4 (12), 202-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/4.12.202-208
  • Weiss, E.A. 1983. Safflower: In: Oilseed Crops, Tropical AgricultureSeries, Longman Inc., Leonord Hill Books, New York, USA.
  • Weiss, E.A. 2000. Oilseed Crops. Safflower, Second Edition, Blackwell Publishing Limited, London, UK. Chapter 4:93- 129
  • Zarei, G., Shamsi, H. & Fazeli, F. 2011. Effecet of planting density on yield and yield components of safflower cultivars in spring planting. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology International Journal of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Vol:5, No:12. doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1055998

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Agricultural, Engineering
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Fırat SEFAOĞLU> (Primary Author)
Kastamonu Üniversitesi Genetik ve Biyomühendislik Bölümü
0000-0002-8485-6564
Türkiye


Hakan ÖZER>
ATATÜRK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-8788-1597
Türkiye

Supporting Institution ATtaürk Üniversitesi
Project Number Project BAP No. 2013/381
Thanks This study was supported by Ataturk University [Project BAP No. 2013/381]
Early Pub Date March 17, 2022
Publication Date May 1, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 5, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { ethabd1090609, journal = {Erciyes Tarım ve Hayvan Bilimleri Dergisi}, eissn = {2651-5334}, address = {Erciyes Üniversitesi Seyrani Ziraat Fakültesi - Mimarlık Fakültesi Arkası Melikgazi/KAYSERİ}, publisher = {Erciyes University}, year = {2022}, volume = {5}, number = {1}, pages = {1 - 10}, doi = {10.55257/ethabd.1090609}, title = {Response of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to Planting Rate and Row Spacing in a High Altitude Enviroment}, key = {cite}, author = {Sefaoğlu, Fırat and Özer, Hakan} }
APA Sefaoğlu, F. & Özer, H. (2022). Response of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to Planting Rate and Row Spacing in a High Altitude Enviroment . Erciyes Tarım ve Hayvan Bilimleri Dergisi , 5 (1) , 1-10 . DOI: 10.55257/ethabd.1090609
MLA Sefaoğlu, F. , Özer, H. "Response of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to Planting Rate and Row Spacing in a High Altitude Enviroment" . Erciyes Tarım ve Hayvan Bilimleri Dergisi 5 (2022 ): 1-10 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/ethabd/issue/68926/1090609>
Chicago Sefaoğlu, F. , Özer, H. "Response of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to Planting Rate and Row Spacing in a High Altitude Enviroment". Erciyes Tarım ve Hayvan Bilimleri Dergisi 5 (2022 ): 1-10
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Response of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to Planting Rate and Row Spacing in a High Altitude Enviroment AU - FıratSefaoğlu, HakanÖzer Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.55257/ethabd.1090609 DO - 10.55257/ethabd.1090609 T2 - Erciyes Tarım ve Hayvan Bilimleri Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 10 VL - 5 IS - 1 SN - -2651-5334 M3 - doi: 10.55257/ethabd.1090609 UR - https://doi.org/10.55257/ethabd.1090609 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Erciyes Tarım ve Hayvan Bilimleri Dergisi Response of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to Planting Rate and Row Spacing in a High Altitude Enviroment %A Fırat Sefaoğlu , Hakan Özer %T Response of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to Planting Rate and Row Spacing in a High Altitude Enviroment %D 2022 %J Erciyes Tarım ve Hayvan Bilimleri Dergisi %P -2651-5334 %V 5 %N 1 %R doi: 10.55257/ethabd.1090609 %U 10.55257/ethabd.1090609
ISNAD Sefaoğlu, Fırat , Özer, Hakan . "Response of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to Planting Rate and Row Spacing in a High Altitude Enviroment". Erciyes Tarım ve Hayvan Bilimleri Dergisi 5 / 1 (May 2022): 1-10 . https://doi.org/10.55257/ethabd.1090609
AMA Sefaoğlu F. , Özer H. Response of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to Planting Rate and Row Spacing in a High Altitude Enviroment. ethabd. 2022; 5(1): 1-10.
Vancouver Sefaoğlu F. , Özer H. Response of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to Planting Rate and Row Spacing in a High Altitude Enviroment. Erciyes Tarım ve Hayvan Bilimleri Dergisi. 2022; 5(1): 1-10.
IEEE F. Sefaoğlu and H. Özer , "Response of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) to Planting Rate and Row Spacing in a High Altitude Enviroment", Erciyes Tarım ve Hayvan Bilimleri Dergisi, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-10, May. 2022, doi:10.55257/ethabd.1090609