Research Article
PDF EndNote BibTex Cite

PRESENTATION, EPIDEMIOLOGY, and COGNITIVE ACCOUNTS of CHILDHOOD ANXIETY: THEORY and EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATIONS

Year 2022, Volume , Issue 15, 1 - 24, 31.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.29157/etusbed.1087802

Abstract

Anxiety disorders and trait anxiety are one of the most common and impairing psychological conditions in childhood and adolescence. They cause impairments in various developmental domains and create a heavy social and economic burden. To present an extensive overall perspective to current issues childhood anxiety, the first aim of this review is to outline the identifying hallmarks of diverse anxiety disorders, prevalence rates, manifestation, and prognosis in the light of recent research. With the growing interest on cognitive accounts of anxiety, the second aim is to present the trajectory of progress in our understanding of information processing and the related information processing biases en route to youth anxiety. Specifically, theories on distortions in children’s anxiogenic cognitions, the cognitive stages to process threat-related information, and the cognitive biases (i.e., attention, interpretation, and memory) pertaining to each stage were addressed. Finally, because attention bias is the first stage of information processing and there is a potential mediational association between these biases, the importance of eliminating attention bias for threat to further reduce the other biases as well as anxiety was highlighted.

References

  • Al-Biltagi, M., & Sarhan, A. A. (2016). Anxiety Disorder in Children: Review. Journal of Paediatric Care, 1(1), 18-28. https:// doi.org/10.24218/jpci.2016.05
  • Alfano, C. A., Beidel, D. C., & Turner, S. M. (2002). Cognition in childhood anxiety: conceptual, methodological, and developmental issues. Clinical Psychology Review, 22(8), 1209–1238. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0272-7358(02)00205-2
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th Ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th Ed.). Washington, DC: Author. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596
  • Arnold, P., Banerjee, S. P., Bhandari, R., Lorch, E., Ivey, J., Rose, M., & Rosenberg, D. R. (2003). Childhood anxiety disorders and developmental issues in anxiety. Current Psychiatry Reports, 5(4), 252–265. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-003-0054-9
  • Bandelow, B., & Michaelis, S. (2015). Epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the 21st century. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 17(3), 327-335.
  • Bar-Haim, Y., Lamy, D., Pergamin, L., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2007). Threat-related attentional bias in anxious and nonanxious individuals: a meta-analytic study. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.1
  • Beard C. (2011). Cognitive bias modification for anxiety: current evidence and future directions. Expert review of neurotherapeutics, 11(2), 299–311. https://doi.org/10.1586/ern.10.194
  • Beck, A. T., & Clark, D. A. (1997). An information processing model of anxiety: automatic and strategic processes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35(1), 49–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0005-7967(96)00069-1
  • Beck, A., & Clark, D. (1988). Anxiety and depression: An information processing perspective. Anxiety Research, 1(1), 23-36. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615808808248218
  • Beesdo, K., Knappe, S., & Pine, D. S. (2009). Anxiety and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: developmental issues and implications for DSM-V. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 32(3), 483–524. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2009.06.002
  • Beesdo-Baum, K., & Knappe, S. (2012). Developmental epidemiology of anxiety disorders. Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America, 21(3), 457–478. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2012.05.001
  • Bernstein, G. A., Borchardt, C. M., & Perwien, A. R. (1996). Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(9), 1110–1119. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199609000-00008
  • Bijttebier, P., Vasey, M. W., & Braet, C. (2003). The information-processing paradigm: a valuable framework for clinical child and adolescent psychology. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32(1), 2–9. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3201_01
  • Birney, D. P., & Sternberg, R. J. (2011). The development of cognitive abilities. In M. H. Bornstein & M. E. Lamb (Eds.), Developmental science: An Advanced Textbook (pp. 353–388). Psychology Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203846766
  • Bodden, D. H. M., Dirksen, C. D., & Bögels, S. M. (2008). Societal burden of clinically anxious youth referred for treatment: A cost-of-illness study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(4), 487–497. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-007-9194-4
  • Bögels, S. M., Snieder, N., & Kindt, M. (2003). Specificity of dysfunctional thinking in children with symptoms of social anxiety, separation anxiety and generalised anxiety. Behaviour Change, 20(3), 160–169. https://doi.org/10.1375/bech.20.3.160.24836
  • Brady, E. U., & Kendall, P. C. (1992). Comorbidity of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents. Psychological Bulletin, 111(2), 244–255. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.111.2.244
  • Castro- Fonseca, A. &, Perrin, S. (2014). The clinical phenomenology and classification of child and adolescent anxiety. In W.K. Silverman & A.P. Field (2nd Ed.), Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents (pp. 25-55). New York: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511994920.003
  • Center on the Developing Child (2007). The Science of Early Childhood Development (InBrief). Retrieved from https://developingchild.harvard.edu/resources/inbrief-science-of-ecd/
  • Clark, D. A., & Beck, A. T. (2010). Cognitive theory and therapy of anxiety and depression: convergence with neurobiological findings. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14(9), 418–424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2010.06.007
  • Copeland, W. E., Shanahan, L., Costello, E. J., & Angold, A. (2009). Childhood and adolescent psychiatric disorders as predictors of young adult disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(7), 764–772. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.85
  • Costello, E. J., Angold, A., Burns, B. J., Stangl, D. K., Tweed, D. L., Erkanli, A., & Worthman, C. M. (1996). The Great Smoky Mountains Study of Youth. Goals, design, methods, and the prevalence of DSM-III-R disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53(12), 1129–1136. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1996.01830120067012
  • Costello, E. J., Copeland, W., & Angold, A. (2011). Trends in psychopathology across the adolescent years: what changes when children become adolescents, and when adolescents become adults? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 52(10), 1015–1025. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02446.x
  • Costello, E.J., Egger, H.L., Copeland, W., Erkanli, A., & Angold, A. (2011). The developmental epidemiology of anxiety disorders: Phenomenology, prevalence, and comorbidity. In W. Silverman & A. Field (Eds.), Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents (pp. 56 - 75). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi:10.1017/CBO9780511994920.004
  • Costello, E.J., Mustillo, S., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G., & Angold, A. (2003). Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60(8), 837–844. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.60.8.837
  • Craske, M. G., & Waters, A. M. (2005). Panic disorder, phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 197–225. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.143857
  • Creswell, C., & O'Connor, T. G. (2006). 'Anxious cognitions' in children: An exploration of associations and mediators. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 24(4), 761–766. https://doi.org/10.1348/026151005X70418
  • Creswell, C., Waite, P., & Cooper, P. J. (2014). Assessment and management of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 99(7), 674–678. https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2013-303768
  • Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115(1), 74–101. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.115.1.74
  • Cummings, C. M., Caporino, N. E., & Kendall, P. C. (2014). Comorbidity of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents: 20 years after. Psychological Bulletin, 140(3), 816–845. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034733
  • Daleiden, E. L., & Vasey, M. W. (1997). An information-processing perspective on childhood anxiety. Clinical Psychology Review, 17(4), 407–429. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0272-7358(97)00010-x
  • Dalgleish, T., Moradi, A. R., Taghavi, M. R., Neshat-Doost, H. T., & Yule, W. (2001). An experimental investigation of hypervigilance for threat in children and adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychological Medicine, 31(3), 541–547. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291701003567
  • Dalgleish, T., Taghavi, R., Neshat-Doost, H., Moradi, A., Canterbury, R., & Yule, W. (2003). Patterns of processing bias for emotional information across clinical disorders: a comparison of attention, memory, and prospective cognition in children and adolescents with depression, generalized anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32(1), 10–21. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3201_02
  • de Jong, P. (2014). Information Processing. In P. Emmelkamp & T. Ehring (Eds), The Wiley Handbook of Anxiety Disorders (pp.125 - 148). West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118775349.ch9
  • Diamond A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135–168. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750
  • Dodge, K. A. (1991). Emotion and social information processing. In J. Garber & K. A. Dodge (Eds.), Cambridge studies in social and emotional development: The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation (pp. 159–181). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511663963.009
  • Eccles, J. S., & Roeser, R. W. (2011). School and community influences on human development. In M. H. Bornstein & M. E. Lamb (Eds.), Developmental science: An advanced textbook (pp. 571–643). Psychology Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203846766
  • Ehrenreich, J. T., & Gross, A. M. (2002). Biased attentional behavior in childhood anxiety. A review of theory and current empirical investigation. Clinical Psychology Review, 22(7), 991–1008. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0272-7358(01)00123-4
  • Ercan, E. S., Polanczyk, G., Akyol Ardıc, U., Yuce, D., Karacetın, G., Tufan, A. E., Tural, U., Aksu, H., Aktepe, E., Rodopman Arman, A., Başgül, S., Bılac, O., Coşkun, M., Celık, G. G., Karakoc Demırkaya, S., Dursun, B. O., Durukan, İ., Fidan, T., Perdahlı Fiş, N., Gençoğlan, S., … Yıldız, N. (2019). The prevalence of childhood psychopathology in Turkey: a cross-sectional multicenter nationwide study (EPICPAT-T). Nordic journal of psychiatry, 73(2), 132–140. https://doi.org/10.1080/08039488.2019.1574892
  • Essau, C. A., Conradt, J., & Petermann, F. (2000). Frequency, comorbidity, and psychosocial impairment of anxiety disorders in German adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 14(3), 263–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0887-6185(99)00039-0
  • Ezpeleta, L., Keeler, G., Erkanli, A., Costello, E. J., & Angold, A. (2001). Epidemiology of psychiatric disability in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 42(7), 901–914. https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00786
  • Ferdinand, R. F., Dieleman, G., Ormel, J., & Verhulst, F. C. (2007). Homotypic versus heterotypic continuity of anxiety symptoms in young adolescents: evidence for distinctions between DSM-IV subtypes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(3), 325–333. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-006-9093-0
  • Field, A. P., & Lester, K. J. (2010). Is there room for 'development' in developmental models of information processing biases to threat in children and adolescents? Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 13(4), 315–332. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-010-0078-8
  • Foa, E. B., Gilboa-Schechtman, E., Amir, N., & Freshman, M. (2000). Memory bias in generalized social phobia: remembering negative emotional expressions. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 14(5), 501–519. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0887-6185(00)00036-0
  • Gregory, A. M., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Koenen, K., Eley, T. C., & Poulton, R. (2007). Juvenile mental health histories of adults with anxiety disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(2), 301–308. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.2007.164.2.301
  • Hadwin, J. A., Donnelly, N., French, C. C., Richards, A., Watts, A., & Daley, D. (2003). The influence of children's self-report trait anxiety and depression on visual search for emotional faces. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 44(3), 432–444. https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00133
  • Hadwin, J. A., Garner, M., & Perez-Olivas, G. (2006). The development of information processing biases in childhood anxiety: a review and exploration of its origins in parenting. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(7), 876–894. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2005.09.004
  • Hakamata, Y., Lissek, S., Bar-Haim, Y., Britton, J. C., Fox, N. A., Leibenluft, E., Ernst, M., & Pine, D. S. (2010). Attention bias modification treatment: a meta-analysis toward the establishment of novel treatment for anxiety. Biological Psychiatry, 68(11), 982–990. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.07.021
  • Huberty, T. J. (2012a). Foundations of Developmental Psychopathology. In T.J. Huberty (Ed.), Anxiety and depression in children and adolescents: Assessment, intervention, and prevention (pp. 3-28). Springer Science + Business Media. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3110-7
  • Huberty, T. J. (2012b). The Developmental Psychopathology of Anxiety. In T.J. Huberty (Ed.), Anxiety and depression in children and adolescents: Assessment, intervention, and prevention, (pp. 29-53). Springer Science + Business Media. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3110-7
  • Hunt, C., Keogh, E., & French, C. C. (2007). Anxiety sensitivity, conscious awareness and selective attentional biases in children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(3), 497–509. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2006.04.001
  • Ingram, R., & Kendall, E. (1987). The cognitive side of anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 11(5), 523-536. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01183856
  • Kendall P. C. (1985). Toward a cognitive-behavioral model of child psychopathology and a critique of related interventions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13(3), 357–372. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00912722
  • Kendall, P. C., Compton, S. N., Walkup, J. T., Birmaher, B., Albano, A. M., Sherrill, J., Ginsburg, G., Rynn, M., McCracken, J., Gosch, E., Keeton, C., Bergman, L., Sakolsky, D., Suveg, C., Iyengar, S., March, J., & Piacentini, J. (2010). Clinical characteristics of anxiety disordered youth. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24(3), 360–365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.01.009
  • Kendall, P., & Chansky, T. (1991). Considering cognition in anxiety-disordered children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 5(2), 167-185. https://doi.org/10.1016/0887-6185(91)90027-Q
  • Kessler, R. C., Petukhova, M., Sampson, N. A., Zaslavsky, A. M., & Wittchen, H. (2012). Twelve-month and lifetime prevalence and lifetime morbid risk of anxiety and mood disorders in the United States. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 21(3), 169–184. https://doi.org/10.1002/mpr.1359
  • Kuckertz, J. M., & Amir, N. (2017). Cognitive bias modification. In S. G. Hofmann & G. J. G. Asmundson (Eds.), The science of cognitive behavioral therapy (pp. 463–491). Elsevier Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-803457-6.00019-2
  • Kupfer D. J. (2015). Anxiety and DSM-5. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 17(3), 245–246.
  • Lansford, J. E., Malone, P. S., Stevens, K. I., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (2006). Developmental trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors: factors underlying resilience in physically abused children. Development and Psychopathology, 18(1), 35–55. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579406060032
  • Last, C. G., Perrin, S., Hersen, M., & Kazdin, A. E. (1996). A prospective study of childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(11), 1502–1510. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199611000-00019
  • Leitenberg, H., Yost, L. W., & Carroll-Wilson, M. (1986). Negative cognitive errors in children: questionnaire development, normative data, and comparisons between children with and without self-reported symptoms of depression, low self-esteem, and evaluation anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54(4), 528–536. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-006x.54.4.528
  • Lewinsohn, P. M., Gotlib, I. H., Lewinsohn, M., Seeley, J. R., & Allen, N. B. (1998). Gender differences in anxiety disorders and anxiety symptoms in adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107(1), 109–117. https://doi.org/10.1037//0021-843x.107.1.109
  • Linetzky, M., Pergamin-Hight, L., Pine, D. S., & Bar-Haim, Y. (2015). Quantitative evaluation of the clinical efficacy of attention bias modification treatment for anxiety disorders. Depression and Anxiety, 32(6), 383–391. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22344
  • Luebbe, A. M., Bell, D. J., Allwood, M. A., Swenson, L. P., & Early, M. C. (2010). Social information processing in children: specific relations to anxiety, depression, and affect. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 39(3), 386–399. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374411003691685
  • MacLeod, C., & Mathews, A. (2012). Cognitive bias modification approaches to anxiety. Annual review of clinical psychology, 8, 189–217. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032511-143052
  • Manassis, K. (2013). Cognitive findings in childhood anxiety: Translations for clinical practice. Translational Neuroscience, 4(1), 88-95. https://doi.org/10.2478/s13380-013-0110-9
  • Maric, M., Heyne, D. A., van Widenfelt, B. M., & Westenberg, P. M. (2011). Distorted Cognitive Processing in Youth: The Structure of Negative Cognitive Errors and Their Associations with Anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35(1), 11–20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-009-9285-3
  • Mathews A. (1990). Why worry? The cognitive function of anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28(6), 455–468. https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(90)90132-3
  • Mazza, M., Mariano, M., Peretti, S., Masedu, F., Pino, M. C., & Valenti, M. (2017). The Role of Theory of Mind on Social Information Processing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Mediation Analysis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(5), 1369–1379. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3069-5
  • McLean, C. P., Asnaani, A., Litz, B. T., & Hofmann, S. G. (2011). Gender differences in anxiety disorders: prevalence, course of illness, comorbidity and burden of illness. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45(8), 1027–1035. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2011.03.006
  • Meltzer, H., Gatward, R., Goodman, R., & Ford, T. (2003). Mental health of children and adolescents in Great Britain. International Review of Psychiatry, 15(1-2), 185–187. https://doi.org/10.1080/0954026021000046155
  • Merikangas, K. R., Nakamura, E. F., & Kessler, R. C. (2009). Epidemiology of mental disorders in children and adolescents. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 11(1), 7–20.
  • Moradi, A. R., Taghavi, R., Neshat-Doost, H. T., Yule, W., & Dalgleish, T. (2000). Memory bias for emotional information in children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder: a preliminary study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 14(5), 521–534. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0887-6185(00)00037-2
  • Muris, P., & Field, A. P. (2008). Distorted cognition and pathological anxiety in children and adolescents. Cognition and Emotion, 22(3), 395–421. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930701843450`
  • Muris, P., Kindt, M., Bögels, S., Merckelbach, H., Gadet, B., & Moulaert, V. (2000). Anxiety and threat perception abnormalities in normal children. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 22(2), 183–199. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007588524525
  • Muris, P., Mayer, B., Freher, N. K., Duncan, S., & van den Hout, A. (2010). Children's internal attributions of anxiety-related physical symptoms: age-related patterns and the role of cognitive development and anxiety sensitivity. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 41(5), 535–548. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-010-0186-1
  • Muris, P., Merckelbach, H., & Damsma, E. (2000). Threat perception bias in nonreferred, socially anxious children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29(3), 348–359. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP2903_6
  • Nauta, M. H. (2005). Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: Assessment, cognitive behavioural therapy, and predictors of treatment outcome. [S.l.]: [S.n.].
  • O'Neil, K. A., Podell, J. L., Benjamin, C. L., & Kendall, P. C. (2010). Comorbid depressive disorders in anxiety-disordered youth: demographic, clinical, and family characteristics. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 41(3), 330–341. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-009-0170-9
  • Pérez-Edgar, K., Taber-Thomas, B., Auday, E., & Morales, S. (2014). Temperament and attention as core mechanisms in the early emergence of anxiety. In K.H. Lagattuta, C.A. Davis (Eds.) Children and Emotion (pp. 42-56). Karger Publishers. https://doi.org/10.1159/isbn.978-3-318-02489-0
  • Pine, D. S. (1997). Childhood anxiety disorders. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 9(4), 329-338. https://doi.org/10.1097/00008480-199708000-00006
  • Pine, D. S., Cohen, P., & Brook, J. (2001). Adolescent fears as predictors of depression. Biological Psychiatry, 50(9), 721–724. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3223(01)01238-0
  • Pine, D. S., Helfinstein, S. M., Bar-Haim, Y., Nelson, E., & Fox, N. A. (2009). Challenges in developing novel treatments for childhood disorders: lessons from research on anxiety. Neuropsychopharmacology, 34(1), 213–228. https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2008.113
  • Polanczyk, G. V., Salum, G. A., Sugaya, L. S., Caye, A., & Rohde, L. A. (2015). Annual research review: A meta‐analysis of the worldwide prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(3), 345–365. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12381
  • Reid, S. C., Salmon, K., & Lovibond, P. F. (2006). Cognitive Biases in Childhood Anxiety, Depression, and Aggression: Are they Pervasive or Specific? Cognitive Therapy and Research, 30(5), 531–549. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-006-9077-y
  • Roy, A. K., Vasa, R. A., Bruck, M., Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P., Sweeney, M., Bergman, R. L., McClure-Tone, E. B., Pine, D. S., & CAMS Team (2008). Attention bias toward threat in pediatric anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(10), 1189–1196. https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181825ace
  • Schwartz, J. S., & Maric, M. (2015). Negative Cognitive Errors in Youth: Specificity to Anxious and Depressive Symptoms and Age Differences. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 43(5), 526–537. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465814000228
  • Taghavi, M. R., Moradi, A. R., Neshat-Doost, H. T., Yule, W., & Dalgleish, T. (2000). Interpretation of ambiguous emotional information in clinically anxious children and adolescents. Cognition and Emotion, 14(6), 809–822. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930050156645
  • Thompson, R. (1991). Emotional regulation and emotional development. Educational Psychology Review, 3(4), 269-307. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01319934
  • Tran, T. B., Hertel, P. T., & Joormann, J. (2011). Cognitive bias modification: Induced interpretive biases affect memory. Emotion, 11(1), 145–152. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021754
  • Vassilopoulos, S. P. (2012). Social anxiety and memory biases in middle childhood: A preliminary study. Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 9, 114-131.
  • Waters, A. M., & Lipp, O. V. (2008a). The influence of animal fear on attentional capture by fear-relevant animal stimuli in children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(1), 114–121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2007.11.002
  • Waters, A. M., & Lipp, O. V. (2008b). Visual search for emotional faces in children. Cognition and Emotion, 22(7), 1306–1326. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930701755530
  • Waters, A. M., Wharton, T. A., Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., & Craske, M. G. (2008). Threat-based cognitive biases in anxious children: comparison with non-anxious children before and after cognitive behavioural treatment. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(3), 358–374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2008.01.002
  • Watts, S. E., & Weems, C. F. (2006). Associations among selective attention, memory bias, cognitive errors and symptoms of anxiety in youth. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34(6), 841–852. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-006-9066-3
  • Weems, C. F., Berman, S. L., Silverman, W. K., & Saavedra, L. M. (2001). Cognitive errors in youth with anxiety disorders: The linkages between negative cognitive errors and anxious symptoms. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25(5), 559–575. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005505531527
  • Weems, C. F., Costa, N. M., Watts, S. E., Taylor, L. K., & Cannon, M. F. (2007). Cognitive errors, anxiety sensitivity, and anxiety control beliefs: their unique and specific associations with childhood anxiety symptoms. Behavior Modification, 31(2), 174–201. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445506297016
  • Weems, C. F., & Watts, S. E. (2005). Cognitive Models of Childhood Anxiety. In C. M. Velotis (Ed.), Anxiety Disorder Research (p. 205–232). Nova Science Publishers.
  • Wehry, A. M., Beesdo-Baum, K., Hennelly, M. M., Connolly, S. D., & Strawn, J. R. (2015). Assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Current Psychiatry Reports, 17(7), 52. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-015-0591-z
  • Woodward, L. J., & Fergusson, D. M. (2001). Life course outcomes of young people with anxiety disorders in adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(9), 1086–1093. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200109000-00018
  • World Health Organization. (2018). International classification of diseases for mortality and morbidity statistics (11th Revision). Retrieved from https://icd.who.int/browse11/l-m/en
  • Ziv Y. (2013). Social information processing patterns, social skills, and school readiness in preschool children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 114(2), 306–320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2012.08.009

ÇOCUKLUK ANKSİYETESİNİN BELİRTİLERİ, YAYGINLIĞI ve BİLİŞSEL AÇIKLAMALARI: TEORİ ve GÖRGÜL ÇALIŞMALAR

Year 2022, Volume , Issue 15, 1 - 24, 31.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.29157/etusbed.1087802

Abstract

Sürekli anksiyete ve anksiyete bozuklukları çocukluk ve ergenlikte görülen en yaygın ve yıpratıcı bozukluklardan biridir. Çeşitli gelişimsel alanlarda bozukluğa yol açtıklarından ötürü ağır bir sosyal ve ekonomik yüktür. Dolayısıyla, çocukluk anksiyetesine genel bir kapsamlı bakış açısı sunmak için, bu incelemenin ilk amacı çeşitli anksiyete bozukluklarının ayırt edici özelliklerini, yaygınlık oranlarını, ortaya konuş biçimini ve gidişatını güncel veriler ışığında özetlemektir. Çocukluk anksiyetesinin bilişsel açıklamalarına giderek artan ilgi ile birlikte, bu derlemenin ikinci amacı bilgi işleme anlayışımızdaki ilerlemeyi ve gençlerde anksiyete bozukluklarına yol açan ilgili bilgi işlem yanlılıklarını sunmaktır. Özellikle, kaygılı çocukların tehdide ilişkin bilişlerindeki çarpıklıklara, tehdit edici bilginin işlendiği bilişsel aşamalara ve bu aşamalarda ortaya çıkan bilişsel yanlılıklara (dikkat, yorumlama ve bellek) ilişkin teoriler ele alınmıştır. Son olarak, dikkat yanlılığı bilginin sisteme girdiği ilk aşama olduğu ve yanlılıklar arasında potansiyel bir aracılık ilişkisi olduğu için, anksiyeteyi olduğu gibi diğer yanlılıkları da azaltmak adına tehdide ilişkin dikkat yanlılığını ortadan kaldırmanın önemi vurgulanmıştır.

References

  • Al-Biltagi, M., & Sarhan, A. A. (2016). Anxiety Disorder in Children: Review. Journal of Paediatric Care, 1(1), 18-28. https:// doi.org/10.24218/jpci.2016.05
  • Alfano, C. A., Beidel, D. C., & Turner, S. M. (2002). Cognition in childhood anxiety: conceptual, methodological, and developmental issues. Clinical Psychology Review, 22(8), 1209–1238. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0272-7358(02)00205-2
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th Ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th Ed.). Washington, DC: Author. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596
  • Arnold, P., Banerjee, S. P., Bhandari, R., Lorch, E., Ivey, J., Rose, M., & Rosenberg, D. R. (2003). Childhood anxiety disorders and developmental issues in anxiety. Current Psychiatry Reports, 5(4), 252–265. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-003-0054-9
  • Bandelow, B., & Michaelis, S. (2015). Epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the 21st century. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 17(3), 327-335.
  • Bar-Haim, Y., Lamy, D., Pergamin, L., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2007). Threat-related attentional bias in anxious and nonanxious individuals: a meta-analytic study. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.1
  • Beard C. (2011). Cognitive bias modification for anxiety: current evidence and future directions. Expert review of neurotherapeutics, 11(2), 299–311. https://doi.org/10.1586/ern.10.194
  • Beck, A. T., & Clark, D. A. (1997). An information processing model of anxiety: automatic and strategic processes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35(1), 49–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0005-7967(96)00069-1
  • Beck, A., & Clark, D. (1988). Anxiety and depression: An information processing perspective. Anxiety Research, 1(1), 23-36. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615808808248218
  • Beesdo, K., Knappe, S., & Pine, D. S. (2009). Anxiety and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: developmental issues and implications for DSM-V. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 32(3), 483–524. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2009.06.002
  • Beesdo-Baum, K., & Knappe, S. (2012). Developmental epidemiology of anxiety disorders. Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America, 21(3), 457–478. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2012.05.001
  • Bernstein, G. A., Borchardt, C. M., & Perwien, A. R. (1996). Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(9), 1110–1119. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199609000-00008
  • Bijttebier, P., Vasey, M. W., & Braet, C. (2003). The information-processing paradigm: a valuable framework for clinical child and adolescent psychology. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32(1), 2–9. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3201_01
  • Birney, D. P., & Sternberg, R. J. (2011). The development of cognitive abilities. In M. H. Bornstein & M. E. Lamb (Eds.), Developmental science: An Advanced Textbook (pp. 353–388). Psychology Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203846766
  • Bodden, D. H. M., Dirksen, C. D., & Bögels, S. M. (2008). Societal burden of clinically anxious youth referred for treatment: A cost-of-illness study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(4), 487–497. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-007-9194-4
  • Bögels, S. M., Snieder, N., & Kindt, M. (2003). Specificity of dysfunctional thinking in children with symptoms of social anxiety, separation anxiety and generalised anxiety. Behaviour Change, 20(3), 160–169. https://doi.org/10.1375/bech.20.3.160.24836
  • Brady, E. U., & Kendall, P. C. (1992). Comorbidity of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents. Psychological Bulletin, 111(2), 244–255. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.111.2.244
  • Castro- Fonseca, A. &, Perrin, S. (2014). The clinical phenomenology and classification of child and adolescent anxiety. In W.K. Silverman & A.P. Field (2nd Ed.), Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents (pp. 25-55). New York: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511994920.003
  • Center on the Developing Child (2007). The Science of Early Childhood Development (InBrief). Retrieved from https://developingchild.harvard.edu/resources/inbrief-science-of-ecd/
  • Clark, D. A., & Beck, A. T. (2010). Cognitive theory and therapy of anxiety and depression: convergence with neurobiological findings. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14(9), 418–424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2010.06.007
  • Copeland, W. E., Shanahan, L., Costello, E. J., & Angold, A. (2009). Childhood and adolescent psychiatric disorders as predictors of young adult disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(7), 764–772. https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.85
  • Costello, E. J., Angold, A., Burns, B. J., Stangl, D. K., Tweed, D. L., Erkanli, A., & Worthman, C. M. (1996). The Great Smoky Mountains Study of Youth. Goals, design, methods, and the prevalence of DSM-III-R disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53(12), 1129–1136. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1996.01830120067012
  • Costello, E. J., Copeland, W., & Angold, A. (2011). Trends in psychopathology across the adolescent years: what changes when children become adolescents, and when adolescents become adults? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 52(10), 1015–1025. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02446.x
  • Costello, E.J., Egger, H.L., Copeland, W., Erkanli, A., & Angold, A. (2011). The developmental epidemiology of anxiety disorders: Phenomenology, prevalence, and comorbidity. In W. Silverman & A. Field (Eds.), Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents (pp. 56 - 75). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi:10.1017/CBO9780511994920.004
  • Costello, E.J., Mustillo, S., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G., & Angold, A. (2003). Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60(8), 837–844. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.60.8.837
  • Craske, M. G., & Waters, A. M. (2005). Panic disorder, phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 197–225. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.143857
  • Creswell, C., & O'Connor, T. G. (2006). 'Anxious cognitions' in children: An exploration of associations and mediators. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 24(4), 761–766. https://doi.org/10.1348/026151005X70418
  • Creswell, C., Waite, P., & Cooper, P. J. (2014). Assessment and management of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 99(7), 674–678. https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2013-303768
  • Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115(1), 74–101. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.115.1.74
  • Cummings, C. M., Caporino, N. E., & Kendall, P. C. (2014). Comorbidity of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents: 20 years after. Psychological Bulletin, 140(3), 816–845. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034733
  • Daleiden, E. L., & Vasey, M. W. (1997). An information-processing perspective on childhood anxiety. Clinical Psychology Review, 17(4), 407–429. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0272-7358(97)00010-x
  • Dalgleish, T., Moradi, A. R., Taghavi, M. R., Neshat-Doost, H. T., & Yule, W. (2001). An experimental investigation of hypervigilance for threat in children and adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychological Medicine, 31(3), 541–547. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0033291701003567
  • Dalgleish, T., Taghavi, R., Neshat-Doost, H., Moradi, A., Canterbury, R., & Yule, W. (2003). Patterns of processing bias for emotional information across clinical disorders: a comparison of attention, memory, and prospective cognition in children and adolescents with depression, generalized anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32(1), 10–21. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP3201_02
  • de Jong, P. (2014). Information Processing. In P. Emmelkamp & T. Ehring (Eds), The Wiley Handbook of Anxiety Disorders (pp.125 - 148). West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118775349.ch9
  • Diamond A. (2013). Executive functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135–168. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143750
  • Dodge, K. A. (1991). Emotion and social information processing. In J. Garber & K. A. Dodge (Eds.), Cambridge studies in social and emotional development: The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation (pp. 159–181). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511663963.009
  • Eccles, J. S., & Roeser, R. W. (2011). School and community influences on human development. In M. H. Bornstein & M. E. Lamb (Eds.), Developmental science: An advanced textbook (pp. 571–643). Psychology Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203846766
  • Ehrenreich, J. T., & Gross, A. M. (2002). Biased attentional behavior in childhood anxiety. A review of theory and current empirical investigation. Clinical Psychology Review, 22(7), 991–1008. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0272-7358(01)00123-4
  • Ercan, E. S., Polanczyk, G., Akyol Ardıc, U., Yuce, D., Karacetın, G., Tufan, A. E., Tural, U., Aksu, H., Aktepe, E., Rodopman Arman, A., Başgül, S., Bılac, O., Coşkun, M., Celık, G. G., Karakoc Demırkaya, S., Dursun, B. O., Durukan, İ., Fidan, T., Perdahlı Fiş, N., Gençoğlan, S., … Yıldız, N. (2019). The prevalence of childhood psychopathology in Turkey: a cross-sectional multicenter nationwide study (EPICPAT-T). Nordic journal of psychiatry, 73(2), 132–140. https://doi.org/10.1080/08039488.2019.1574892
  • Essau, C. A., Conradt, J., & Petermann, F. (2000). Frequency, comorbidity, and psychosocial impairment of anxiety disorders in German adolescents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 14(3), 263–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0887-6185(99)00039-0
  • Ezpeleta, L., Keeler, G., Erkanli, A., Costello, E. J., & Angold, A. (2001). Epidemiology of psychiatric disability in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 42(7), 901–914. https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00786
  • Ferdinand, R. F., Dieleman, G., Ormel, J., & Verhulst, F. C. (2007). Homotypic versus heterotypic continuity of anxiety symptoms in young adolescents: evidence for distinctions between DSM-IV subtypes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(3), 325–333. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-006-9093-0
  • Field, A. P., & Lester, K. J. (2010). Is there room for 'development' in developmental models of information processing biases to threat in children and adolescents? Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 13(4), 315–332. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-010-0078-8
  • Foa, E. B., Gilboa-Schechtman, E., Amir, N., & Freshman, M. (2000). Memory bias in generalized social phobia: remembering negative emotional expressions. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 14(5), 501–519. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0887-6185(00)00036-0
  • Gregory, A. M., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Koenen, K., Eley, T. C., & Poulton, R. (2007). Juvenile mental health histories of adults with anxiety disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(2), 301–308. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.2007.164.2.301
  • Hadwin, J. A., Donnelly, N., French, C. C., Richards, A., Watts, A., & Daley, D. (2003). The influence of children's self-report trait anxiety and depression on visual search for emotional faces. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 44(3), 432–444. https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00133
  • Hadwin, J. A., Garner, M., & Perez-Olivas, G. (2006). The development of information processing biases in childhood anxiety: a review and exploration of its origins in parenting. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(7), 876–894. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2005.09.004
  • Hakamata, Y., Lissek, S., Bar-Haim, Y., Britton, J. C., Fox, N. A., Leibenluft, E., Ernst, M., & Pine, D. S. (2010). Attention bias modification treatment: a meta-analysis toward the establishment of novel treatment for anxiety. Biological Psychiatry, 68(11), 982–990. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.07.021
  • Huberty, T. J. (2012a). Foundations of Developmental Psychopathology. In T.J. Huberty (Ed.), Anxiety and depression in children and adolescents: Assessment, intervention, and prevention (pp. 3-28). Springer Science + Business Media. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3110-7
  • Huberty, T. J. (2012b). The Developmental Psychopathology of Anxiety. In T.J. Huberty (Ed.), Anxiety and depression in children and adolescents: Assessment, intervention, and prevention, (pp. 29-53). Springer Science + Business Media. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3110-7
  • Hunt, C., Keogh, E., & French, C. C. (2007). Anxiety sensitivity, conscious awareness and selective attentional biases in children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(3), 497–509. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2006.04.001
  • Ingram, R., & Kendall, E. (1987). The cognitive side of anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 11(5), 523-536. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01183856
  • Kendall P. C. (1985). Toward a cognitive-behavioral model of child psychopathology and a critique of related interventions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13(3), 357–372. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00912722
  • Kendall, P. C., Compton, S. N., Walkup, J. T., Birmaher, B., Albano, A. M., Sherrill, J., Ginsburg, G., Rynn, M., McCracken, J., Gosch, E., Keeton, C., Bergman, L., Sakolsky, D., Suveg, C., Iyengar, S., March, J., & Piacentini, J. (2010). Clinical characteristics of anxiety disordered youth. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24(3), 360–365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.01.009
  • Kendall, P., & Chansky, T. (1991). Considering cognition in anxiety-disordered children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 5(2), 167-185. https://doi.org/10.1016/0887-6185(91)90027-Q
  • Kessler, R. C., Petukhova, M., Sampson, N. A., Zaslavsky, A. M., & Wittchen, H. (2012). Twelve-month and lifetime prevalence and lifetime morbid risk of anxiety and mood disorders in the United States. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 21(3), 169–184. https://doi.org/10.1002/mpr.1359
  • Kuckertz, J. M., & Amir, N. (2017). Cognitive bias modification. In S. G. Hofmann & G. J. G. Asmundson (Eds.), The science of cognitive behavioral therapy (pp. 463–491). Elsevier Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-803457-6.00019-2
  • Kupfer D. J. (2015). Anxiety and DSM-5. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 17(3), 245–246.
  • Lansford, J. E., Malone, P. S., Stevens, K. I., Dodge, K. A., Bates, J. E., & Pettit, G. S. (2006). Developmental trajectories of externalizing and internalizing behaviors: factors underlying resilience in physically abused children. Development and Psychopathology, 18(1), 35–55. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579406060032
  • Last, C. G., Perrin, S., Hersen, M., & Kazdin, A. E. (1996). A prospective study of childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(11), 1502–1510. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199611000-00019
  • Leitenberg, H., Yost, L. W., & Carroll-Wilson, M. (1986). Negative cognitive errors in children: questionnaire development, normative data, and comparisons between children with and without self-reported symptoms of depression, low self-esteem, and evaluation anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54(4), 528–536. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-006x.54.4.528
  • Lewinsohn, P. M., Gotlib, I. H., Lewinsohn, M., Seeley, J. R., & Allen, N. B. (1998). Gender differences in anxiety disorders and anxiety symptoms in adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107(1), 109–117. https://doi.org/10.1037//0021-843x.107.1.109
  • Linetzky, M., Pergamin-Hight, L., Pine, D. S., & Bar-Haim, Y. (2015). Quantitative evaluation of the clinical efficacy of attention bias modification treatment for anxiety disorders. Depression and Anxiety, 32(6), 383–391. https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22344
  • Luebbe, A. M., Bell, D. J., Allwood, M. A., Swenson, L. P., & Early, M. C. (2010). Social information processing in children: specific relations to anxiety, depression, and affect. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 39(3), 386–399. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374411003691685
  • MacLeod, C., & Mathews, A. (2012). Cognitive bias modification approaches to anxiety. Annual review of clinical psychology, 8, 189–217. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032511-143052
  • Manassis, K. (2013). Cognitive findings in childhood anxiety: Translations for clinical practice. Translational Neuroscience, 4(1), 88-95. https://doi.org/10.2478/s13380-013-0110-9
  • Maric, M., Heyne, D. A., van Widenfelt, B. M., & Westenberg, P. M. (2011). Distorted Cognitive Processing in Youth: The Structure of Negative Cognitive Errors and Their Associations with Anxiety. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35(1), 11–20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-009-9285-3
  • Mathews A. (1990). Why worry? The cognitive function of anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28(6), 455–468. https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(90)90132-3
  • Mazza, M., Mariano, M., Peretti, S., Masedu, F., Pino, M. C., & Valenti, M. (2017). The Role of Theory of Mind on Social Information Processing in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Mediation Analysis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47(5), 1369–1379. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3069-5
  • McLean, C. P., Asnaani, A., Litz, B. T., & Hofmann, S. G. (2011). Gender differences in anxiety disorders: prevalence, course of illness, comorbidity and burden of illness. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45(8), 1027–1035. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2011.03.006
  • Meltzer, H., Gatward, R., Goodman, R., & Ford, T. (2003). Mental health of children and adolescents in Great Britain. International Review of Psychiatry, 15(1-2), 185–187. https://doi.org/10.1080/0954026021000046155
  • Merikangas, K. R., Nakamura, E. F., & Kessler, R. C. (2009). Epidemiology of mental disorders in children and adolescents. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 11(1), 7–20.
  • Moradi, A. R., Taghavi, R., Neshat-Doost, H. T., Yule, W., & Dalgleish, T. (2000). Memory bias for emotional information in children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder: a preliminary study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 14(5), 521–534. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0887-6185(00)00037-2
  • Muris, P., & Field, A. P. (2008). Distorted cognition and pathological anxiety in children and adolescents. Cognition and Emotion, 22(3), 395–421. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930701843450`
  • Muris, P., Kindt, M., Bögels, S., Merckelbach, H., Gadet, B., & Moulaert, V. (2000). Anxiety and threat perception abnormalities in normal children. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 22(2), 183–199. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007588524525
  • Muris, P., Mayer, B., Freher, N. K., Duncan, S., & van den Hout, A. (2010). Children's internal attributions of anxiety-related physical symptoms: age-related patterns and the role of cognitive development and anxiety sensitivity. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 41(5), 535–548. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-010-0186-1
  • Muris, P., Merckelbach, H., & Damsma, E. (2000). Threat perception bias in nonreferred, socially anxious children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29(3), 348–359. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15374424JCCP2903_6
  • Nauta, M. H. (2005). Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: Assessment, cognitive behavioural therapy, and predictors of treatment outcome. [S.l.]: [S.n.].
  • O'Neil, K. A., Podell, J. L., Benjamin, C. L., & Kendall, P. C. (2010). Comorbid depressive disorders in anxiety-disordered youth: demographic, clinical, and family characteristics. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 41(3), 330–341. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-009-0170-9
  • Pérez-Edgar, K., Taber-Thomas, B., Auday, E., & Morales, S. (2014). Temperament and attention as core mechanisms in the early emergence of anxiety. In K.H. Lagattuta, C.A. Davis (Eds.) Children and Emotion (pp. 42-56). Karger Publishers. https://doi.org/10.1159/isbn.978-3-318-02489-0
  • Pine, D. S. (1997). Childhood anxiety disorders. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 9(4), 329-338. https://doi.org/10.1097/00008480-199708000-00006
  • Pine, D. S., Cohen, P., & Brook, J. (2001). Adolescent fears as predictors of depression. Biological Psychiatry, 50(9), 721–724. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0006-3223(01)01238-0
  • Pine, D. S., Helfinstein, S. M., Bar-Haim, Y., Nelson, E., & Fox, N. A. (2009). Challenges in developing novel treatments for childhood disorders: lessons from research on anxiety. Neuropsychopharmacology, 34(1), 213–228. https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2008.113
  • Polanczyk, G. V., Salum, G. A., Sugaya, L. S., Caye, A., & Rohde, L. A. (2015). Annual research review: A meta‐analysis of the worldwide prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(3), 345–365. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12381
  • Reid, S. C., Salmon, K., & Lovibond, P. F. (2006). Cognitive Biases in Childhood Anxiety, Depression, and Aggression: Are they Pervasive or Specific? Cognitive Therapy and Research, 30(5), 531–549. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-006-9077-y
  • Roy, A. K., Vasa, R. A., Bruck, M., Mogg, K., Bradley, B. P., Sweeney, M., Bergman, R. L., McClure-Tone, E. B., Pine, D. S., & CAMS Team (2008). Attention bias toward threat in pediatric anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(10), 1189–1196. https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181825ace
  • Schwartz, J. S., & Maric, M. (2015). Negative Cognitive Errors in Youth: Specificity to Anxious and Depressive Symptoms and Age Differences. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 43(5), 526–537. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465814000228
  • Taghavi, M. R., Moradi, A. R., Neshat-Doost, H. T., Yule, W., & Dalgleish, T. (2000). Interpretation of ambiguous emotional information in clinically anxious children and adolescents. Cognition and Emotion, 14(6), 809–822. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930050156645
  • Thompson, R. (1991). Emotional regulation and emotional development. Educational Psychology Review, 3(4), 269-307. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01319934
  • Tran, T. B., Hertel, P. T., & Joormann, J. (2011). Cognitive bias modification: Induced interpretive biases affect memory. Emotion, 11(1), 145–152. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021754
  • Vassilopoulos, S. P. (2012). Social anxiety and memory biases in middle childhood: A preliminary study. Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 9, 114-131.
  • Waters, A. M., & Lipp, O. V. (2008a). The influence of animal fear on attentional capture by fear-relevant animal stimuli in children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(1), 114–121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2007.11.002
  • Waters, A. M., & Lipp, O. V. (2008b). Visual search for emotional faces in children. Cognition and Emotion, 22(7), 1306–1326. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930701755530
  • Waters, A. M., Wharton, T. A., Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., & Craske, M. G. (2008). Threat-based cognitive biases in anxious children: comparison with non-anxious children before and after cognitive behavioural treatment. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(3), 358–374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2008.01.002
  • Watts, S. E., & Weems, C. F. (2006). Associations among selective attention, memory bias, cognitive errors and symptoms of anxiety in youth. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34(6), 841–852. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-006-9066-3
  • Weems, C. F., Berman, S. L., Silverman, W. K., & Saavedra, L. M. (2001). Cognitive errors in youth with anxiety disorders: The linkages between negative cognitive errors and anxious symptoms. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25(5), 559–575. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005505531527
  • Weems, C. F., Costa, N. M., Watts, S. E., Taylor, L. K., & Cannon, M. F. (2007). Cognitive errors, anxiety sensitivity, and anxiety control beliefs: their unique and specific associations with childhood anxiety symptoms. Behavior Modification, 31(2), 174–201. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445506297016
  • Weems, C. F., & Watts, S. E. (2005). Cognitive Models of Childhood Anxiety. In C. M. Velotis (Ed.), Anxiety Disorder Research (p. 205–232). Nova Science Publishers.
  • Wehry, A. M., Beesdo-Baum, K., Hennelly, M. M., Connolly, S. D., & Strawn, J. R. (2015). Assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Current Psychiatry Reports, 17(7), 52. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-015-0591-z
  • Woodward, L. J., & Fergusson, D. M. (2001). Life course outcomes of young people with anxiety disorders in adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(9), 1086–1093. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200109000-00018
  • World Health Organization. (2018). International classification of diseases for mortality and morbidity statistics (11th Revision). Retrieved from https://icd.who.int/browse11/l-m/en
  • Ziv Y. (2013). Social information processing patterns, social skills, and school readiness in preschool children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 114(2), 306–320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2012.08.009

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Psychology
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

İlayda TÜRK HÖL> (Primary Author)
ERZURUM TEKNİK ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-9276-167X
Türkiye

Publication Date October 31, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume , Issue 15

Cite

APA Türk Höl, İ. (2022). PRESENTATION, EPIDEMIOLOGY, and COGNITIVE ACCOUNTS of CHILDHOOD ANXIETY: THEORY and EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATIONS . Erzurum Teknik Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi , (15) , 1-24 . DOI: 10.29157/etusbed.1087802