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Bir organize sütçü işletmede Bovine Partainfluenza 3 Virus enfeksiyonunun prekolostral olarak serolojik değerlendirmesi.

Year 2020, Volume 31, Issue 1, 1 - 6, 07.06.2020
https://doi.org/10.35864/evmd.631045

Abstract

Danalar anneden yavruya immunoglobulin geçişini önleyen syndesmochorial plasenta yapısı nedeniyle agamaglobulinemik olarak doğarlar. Prekolostral antikor varlığı direkt olarak in-utero enfeksiyonu gösterir. Bu çalışmada prekolostral danalar ve annelerinde Bovine Parainfluenza 3 virus (BPI3V) enfeksiyonunu araştırmak amaçlanmıştır. Örnekler yaklaşık on yıl once kurulmuş büyük ölçekli bir çiftlikten elde edildi. Kan serum örnekleri yaklaşık 3 ay süresince, doğumdan hemen sonra prokolostral danalardan (n=123) ve annelerinden alındı. Kan serum örnekleri referens suş SF-4 kullanılarak yapılan Serum Nötralizasyon ile test edildi. BPI3V spesifik antikorlar 123 annenin 119’unda (%96.7) tespit edildi ve antikor titrelerinin düzenli çan eğrisi gösterdiği ve 1/20 ile 1/40 aralığında pik yaptığı belirlendi. Prekolostral danalrın ise 31’inde (%25.2) 1/5 ile 1/80 aralığında antikor titreleri belirlendi. Antikor pozitif danaların annelerinin ise beklendiği gibi yakın zamanda geçirilmiş enfeksiyona bağlı olarak daha yüksek olduğu görüldü. Elde edilen verilere göre nerdeyse tüm ineklerin BPI3V’a maruz kaldığı ve her dört gebe ineğin birinin transplasental enfeksiyon geçirdiği anlaşıldı. Geçerli Veteriner uygulamalarının temeli, özellikle sütçü intensif yetiştiricilik açısından önemli olan koruyucu hekimliğe dayanır. Prekolostral antikor kontrolleri yakın gelecekte karşılaşılabilecek postpartum enfeksiyonları tahmin ve elimine etmek için kullanılabilecek yararlı yöntem olarak kullanılabilir. 

References

  • Alkan F, Ozkul A, Karaoglu MT, Bilge S, Akca Y, Burgu I, Yesil- bag K, Oguzoğlu TC. (1997). Sigirlarda viral nedenli solunum sistemi enfeksiyonlarinin seroepidemiyolojisi. Ankara Univ Vet Fak Derg. 44, 73-80.
  • Arthur GH. (1996). The development of the conceptus. Arthur GH, Nokes DE, Pearson H, Parkinson TJ. eds. Pregnancy and parturition in Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics. Sev- enth edition. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, USA. p.51-109.
  • Bosch JC, Van Lieshout JA, De Wit JJ, Graat EA, Somers MJ. (2000). The serological BHV1 status of dams determines the precolostral status of their calves. Vet Q. 22, 99-102.
  • Brown TT, Ananaba G. (1988). Effect of respiratory infections caused by bovine herpesvirus-1 or parainfluenza-3 virus on bovine alveolar macrophage functions. Am J Vet Res. 49, 1447-1451.
  • Bryson DG, Adair BM, McNulty MS, McAliskey M, Bradford HE, Allan GM, Evans RT, Forster F. (1999). Studies on the efficacy of intranasal vaccination for prevention of experimentally in- duced parainfluenza type 3 virus pneumonia in calves. Vet Rec. 145, 33-39.
  • Bryson DG, McNulty MS, Evans RT, Allan GM. (1989). Studies on the effect of recombinant human alpha-1 interferon on experimental parainfluenza type-3 infections of the bovine respiratory tract. Vet Rec. 125, 615-617.
  • Cabalar M, Can-Sahna K. (2000). Dogu ve Guneydogu Anadolu Bolgesinde sut sigirlarinda Parainfluenza virus-3, Bovine Her- pes Virus-1 ve Respiratory Syncitial Virus enfeksiyonlarinin seroepidemiyolojisi. Van Vet J. 11, 101-105.
  • Erhan M, Onar B, Csontos L, Hopkins IG. (1971). Koyun, sığır ve atların bazı virusi ve Bedzonya hastaliklari uzerinde serolojik çalismalar. Pendik Vet Kont Aras Enst Derg. 2, 51-58.
  • Erol N, Gur S, Yildirim Y, Tan MT. (2007). A serological investiga- tion on Parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) and Bovine Adenovirus (BAV) infections in Dairy Cow Enterprises in Aydın province. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg. 13, 43-47.
  • Figueroa-Chavez D, Segura-Correa JC, Garcia-Marquez LJ, Pescador-Rubio A, Valdivia-Flores AG. (2012). Detection of antibodies and risk factors for infection with bovine respira- tory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus 3 in dual-purpose farms in Colima, Mexico. Trop Anim Health Prod. 44, 1417- 1421.
  • Frank GH. (1992). Parainfluenza-3. Reinhardt RW. eds. Veteri- nary Diagnostic Virology. Mosby-Year Book Inc, USA. p.114- 116.
  • Frey HR, Liess B. (1971): Vermehrungskinetik und Verwend- barkeit eines stark zytopathogenen VD-MD-Virusstammes für diagnostische Untersuchungen mit der Mikrotiter-Meth- ode. Zentralbl Vet Med. 18, 61-71.
  • Fulton RW. (2009)a. Bovine Respiratory disease research (1983-2009). Anim Health Res Rev. 10, 131-139.
  • Fulton RW, Blood KS, Panciera RJ, Payton ME, Ridpath JF, Confer AW, Saliki JT, Burge LT, Welsh RD, Johnson BJ, Reck A. (2009)b. Lung pathology and infectious agents in fatal feedlot pneumonias and relationship with mortality, disease onset, and treatments. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 21, 464-477.
  • Fulton RW, Purdy CW, Confer AW, Saliki JT, Loan RW, Briggs RE, Burge LJ. (2000). Bovine viral diarrhea viral infections in feeder calves with respiratory disease: interactions with Pas- teurella spp., parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Can J Vet Res. 64, 151-159.
  • Ghram A, Reddy PG, Morrill JL, Blecha F, Minocha HC. (1989). Bovine herpesvirus-1 and parinfluenza-3 interactions: clini- cal and immunological response in calves. Can J Vet Res. 53, 62-67.
  • Graham DA, Mawhinney KA, German A, Foster JC, Adair BM, Merza M. (1999). Isotype- and subclass-specific responses to infection and reinfection with parainfluenza-3 virus: com- parison of the diagnostic potential of ELISAs detecting sero- conversion and specific IgM and IgA. J Vet Diagn Invest. 11, 127-133.
  • Griffin D, Chengappa MM, Kuszak J, McVey DS. (2010). Bacte- rial pathogens of the bovine respiratory disease complex. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 26, 381-394.
  • Gur S. (2018). An Investigation of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) and Bovine Parainfluenza Type 3 Virus (BPI3V) Infec- tions in Small-Scale Cattle Herds in Afyonkarahisar Province. Etlik Vet Mikrobiyol Derg. 29, 51-56.
  • Hodgins DC, Conlon JA, Shewen PE. (2002). Respiratory Vi- ruses and Bacteria in Cattle. Brogden KA, Guthmiller JM, eds. Polymicrobial Diseases. Washington DC, ASM Press. p. 213- 230.
  • Jericho KWF, Darcel C. le Q, Langford EV. (1982). Respiratory Disease in Calves Produced with Aerosols of Parainfluenza-3 Virus and Pasteurella haemolytica. Can J Comp Med. 46, 293- 301.
  • Kendrick JW. (1971). Bovine Viral Diarrhea - Mucosal Disease virus infection in pregnant cows. Am J Vet Res. 35, 589-591.
  • Kirkpatrick J, Fulton RW, Burge LJ, Dubois WR, Payton M. (2001). Passively transferred immunity in newborn calves, rate of antibody decay, and effect on subsequent vaccination with modified live virus vaccine. Bov Practitioner. 35, 47-54.
  • Liggitt D, Huston L, Silflow R, Evermann J, Trigo E. (1985). Impaired function of bovine alveolar macrophages infected with parainfluenza-3 virus. Am J Vet Res. 46, 1740-1744.
  • Maillard R, Assie S, Douart A. (2006). Respiratory disease in adult cattle. Proceedings of the 24th World Buiatrics Con- gress, October 15-19, Nice-France.
  • Murray GM, More SJ, Sammin D, Casey MJ, McElroy MC, O’Neill RG, Byrne WJ, Earley B, Clegg TA, Ball H, Bell CJ, Cas- sidy JP. (2018). Pathogens, patterns of pneumonia, and epi- demiologic risk factors associated with respiratory disease in recently weaned cattle in Ireland. J Vet Diagn Invest. 29, 20-34.
  • Osterkorn K. (1982). Biometrische Methoden. Virologische Arbeitsmethoden. Band IV. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart. 28. Ozel M, Gur S. (2015). Serological investigation for Bovine Viral Diarrhea and Bovine Herpesvirus Type-1 Viruses in Pre- colostral calves and Their Dams. Harran Üniv Vet Fak Derg. 4, 57-63.
  • Ozturk F, Yavru S. (1988). Konya bolgesi sigirlarinda parain- fluenza virus-3 (PIV-3) enfeksiyonu uzerinde serolojik arastir- malar. Selcuk Üniv Vet Fak Derg. 4, 135-141.
  • Panciera RJ, Confer AW. (2010). Pathogenesis and pathology of bovine pneumonia. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 26, 191-214.
  • Reisinger RC, Heddleston KL, Manthei CA. (1959). A myxovirus (SF-4) associated with Shipping fever of cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 135, 147-152.
  • Rima B, Balkema-Buschmann A, Dundon WG, Duprex P, Easton A, Fouchier R, Kurath G, Lamb R, Lee B, Rota P, Wang L. ICTV Report Consortium (December 2019). ICTV Virus Tax- onomy Profile: Paramyxoviridae. J Gen Virol. 100, 1593-1594.
  • Schefers J, Munoz-Zanki C, Collins JE, Goyal SM, Ames TR. (2008). Serological evaluation of precolostral serum samples to detect Bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in large com- mertial dairy herds. J Vet Diagn Invest. 20, 625-628.
  • Slauson DO, Lay JC, Castleman WL, Neilsen NR. (1987). Al- veolar macrophage phagocytic kinetics following pulmonary parainfluenza-3 virus infection. J Leukoc Biol. 41, 412-420.
  • Snowder G, Van Vleck L, Cundiff L, Benett G. (2006). Bovine respiratory disease in feedlots cattle: Environmental, genetic, and economic factors. J Anim Sci. 84, 1999-2008.
  • Staubli D, Sager H, Haerdi C, Haessig M, Gottstein B. (2006). Precolostral serology in calves born from Neospora-seropos- itive mothers. Parasitol Res. 99, 398-404.
  • Stott EJ, Thomas LH, Collins AP, Crouch S, Jebbett J, Smith GS, Luther PD, Coswell R. (1980). A survey of virus infections of the respiratory tract of cattle and their association with disease. J Hyg. 85, 257-270.
  • Taylor JD, Fulton RW, Lehenbauer TW, Step DL, Confer AW. (2010). The epidemiology of bovine respiratory disease: What is the evidence for predisposing factors? Can Vet J. 51, 1095-1102.
  • Thomas LH, Wood PDP, Langland JM. (1978). The influence of disease on the performance of beef cattle. Br Vet J. 134, 152-161.
  • Tsai KS, Thomson RG. (1975). Bovine Parainfluenza Type 3 Vi- rus Infection: Ultrastructural Aspects of Viral Pathogenesis in the Bovine Respiratory Tract. Infect Immun. 11, 783-803.
  • Yesilbag K, Gungor B. (2008). Seroprevalence of bovine re- spiratory viruses in North-Western Turkey. Trop Anim Health Prod. 40, 55-60.
  • Zhang L, Bukreyev A, Thompson CI, Watson B, Peeples ME, Collins PL, Pickles RJ. (2005). Infection of ciliated cells by hu- man parainfluenza virus type 3 in an in vitro model of human airway epithelium. J Virol. 79, 1113-1124.

Serological evaluation of precolostral Bovine Parainfluenza 3 Virus infection in an organised dairy herd

Year 2020, Volume 31, Issue 1, 1 - 6, 07.06.2020
https://doi.org/10.35864/evmd.631045

Abstract

Calves are born agamaglobulinemic due to syndesmochorial placenta features that prevent immunoglobulin transfer to the foetus from the dam. The presence of precolostral antibody (ab) directly induces in-utero infection. The purpose of this study was to investigate Bovine Parainfluenza 3 virus (BPI3V) infection in precolostral calves and their dams. Samples were obtained from large-scale dairy cattle farm, which was established nearly 10 years ago. Blood serum samples were collected immediately after birth from precolostral calves (n=123) and their dams for about three-month period. Blood serum samples tested with Serum Neutralisation test using reference strain SF-4. BPI3V specific ab was found in 119 of 123 dams (96.7%), and ab titres showed a regular bell curve distribution’s and peak points were at 1/20 and 1/40 interval. Out of all precolostral calves, 31 (25.2%) were ab positive between 1/5 and 1/80 titer values. Average ab titre level was higher in the dams of ab positive calves as expected a result of recent infection history. The obtained data revealed that almost all the adults were exposed to BPI3V and one of the four pregnant had transplacental infections. Current veterinary practices are based on the prevention of diseases, which is an important point for intensive dairy breeding enterprises. Precolostral ab controls can be used as a convenient tool for estimating and eliminating the risks of upcoming postpartum infections.

References

  • Alkan F, Ozkul A, Karaoglu MT, Bilge S, Akca Y, Burgu I, Yesil- bag K, Oguzoğlu TC. (1997). Sigirlarda viral nedenli solunum sistemi enfeksiyonlarinin seroepidemiyolojisi. Ankara Univ Vet Fak Derg. 44, 73-80.
  • Arthur GH. (1996). The development of the conceptus. Arthur GH, Nokes DE, Pearson H, Parkinson TJ. eds. Pregnancy and parturition in Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics. Sev- enth edition. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, USA. p.51-109.
  • Bosch JC, Van Lieshout JA, De Wit JJ, Graat EA, Somers MJ. (2000). The serological BHV1 status of dams determines the precolostral status of their calves. Vet Q. 22, 99-102.
  • Brown TT, Ananaba G. (1988). Effect of respiratory infections caused by bovine herpesvirus-1 or parainfluenza-3 virus on bovine alveolar macrophage functions. Am J Vet Res. 49, 1447-1451.
  • Bryson DG, Adair BM, McNulty MS, McAliskey M, Bradford HE, Allan GM, Evans RT, Forster F. (1999). Studies on the efficacy of intranasal vaccination for prevention of experimentally in- duced parainfluenza type 3 virus pneumonia in calves. Vet Rec. 145, 33-39.
  • Bryson DG, McNulty MS, Evans RT, Allan GM. (1989). Studies on the effect of recombinant human alpha-1 interferon on experimental parainfluenza type-3 infections of the bovine respiratory tract. Vet Rec. 125, 615-617.
  • Cabalar M, Can-Sahna K. (2000). Dogu ve Guneydogu Anadolu Bolgesinde sut sigirlarinda Parainfluenza virus-3, Bovine Her- pes Virus-1 ve Respiratory Syncitial Virus enfeksiyonlarinin seroepidemiyolojisi. Van Vet J. 11, 101-105.
  • Erhan M, Onar B, Csontos L, Hopkins IG. (1971). Koyun, sığır ve atların bazı virusi ve Bedzonya hastaliklari uzerinde serolojik çalismalar. Pendik Vet Kont Aras Enst Derg. 2, 51-58.
  • Erol N, Gur S, Yildirim Y, Tan MT. (2007). A serological investiga- tion on Parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) and Bovine Adenovirus (BAV) infections in Dairy Cow Enterprises in Aydın province. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg. 13, 43-47.
  • Figueroa-Chavez D, Segura-Correa JC, Garcia-Marquez LJ, Pescador-Rubio A, Valdivia-Flores AG. (2012). Detection of antibodies and risk factors for infection with bovine respira- tory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus 3 in dual-purpose farms in Colima, Mexico. Trop Anim Health Prod. 44, 1417- 1421.
  • Frank GH. (1992). Parainfluenza-3. Reinhardt RW. eds. Veteri- nary Diagnostic Virology. Mosby-Year Book Inc, USA. p.114- 116.
  • Frey HR, Liess B. (1971): Vermehrungskinetik und Verwend- barkeit eines stark zytopathogenen VD-MD-Virusstammes für diagnostische Untersuchungen mit der Mikrotiter-Meth- ode. Zentralbl Vet Med. 18, 61-71.
  • Fulton RW. (2009)a. Bovine Respiratory disease research (1983-2009). Anim Health Res Rev. 10, 131-139.
  • Fulton RW, Blood KS, Panciera RJ, Payton ME, Ridpath JF, Confer AW, Saliki JT, Burge LT, Welsh RD, Johnson BJ, Reck A. (2009)b. Lung pathology and infectious agents in fatal feedlot pneumonias and relationship with mortality, disease onset, and treatments. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 21, 464-477.
  • Fulton RW, Purdy CW, Confer AW, Saliki JT, Loan RW, Briggs RE, Burge LJ. (2000). Bovine viral diarrhea viral infections in feeder calves with respiratory disease: interactions with Pas- teurella spp., parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Can J Vet Res. 64, 151-159.
  • Ghram A, Reddy PG, Morrill JL, Blecha F, Minocha HC. (1989). Bovine herpesvirus-1 and parinfluenza-3 interactions: clini- cal and immunological response in calves. Can J Vet Res. 53, 62-67.
  • Graham DA, Mawhinney KA, German A, Foster JC, Adair BM, Merza M. (1999). Isotype- and subclass-specific responses to infection and reinfection with parainfluenza-3 virus: com- parison of the diagnostic potential of ELISAs detecting sero- conversion and specific IgM and IgA. J Vet Diagn Invest. 11, 127-133.
  • Griffin D, Chengappa MM, Kuszak J, McVey DS. (2010). Bacte- rial pathogens of the bovine respiratory disease complex. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 26, 381-394.
  • Gur S. (2018). An Investigation of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) and Bovine Parainfluenza Type 3 Virus (BPI3V) Infec- tions in Small-Scale Cattle Herds in Afyonkarahisar Province. Etlik Vet Mikrobiyol Derg. 29, 51-56.
  • Hodgins DC, Conlon JA, Shewen PE. (2002). Respiratory Vi- ruses and Bacteria in Cattle. Brogden KA, Guthmiller JM, eds. Polymicrobial Diseases. Washington DC, ASM Press. p. 213- 230.
  • Jericho KWF, Darcel C. le Q, Langford EV. (1982). Respiratory Disease in Calves Produced with Aerosols of Parainfluenza-3 Virus and Pasteurella haemolytica. Can J Comp Med. 46, 293- 301.
  • Kendrick JW. (1971). Bovine Viral Diarrhea - Mucosal Disease virus infection in pregnant cows. Am J Vet Res. 35, 589-591.
  • Kirkpatrick J, Fulton RW, Burge LJ, Dubois WR, Payton M. (2001). Passively transferred immunity in newborn calves, rate of antibody decay, and effect on subsequent vaccination with modified live virus vaccine. Bov Practitioner. 35, 47-54.
  • Liggitt D, Huston L, Silflow R, Evermann J, Trigo E. (1985). Impaired function of bovine alveolar macrophages infected with parainfluenza-3 virus. Am J Vet Res. 46, 1740-1744.
  • Maillard R, Assie S, Douart A. (2006). Respiratory disease in adult cattle. Proceedings of the 24th World Buiatrics Con- gress, October 15-19, Nice-France.
  • Murray GM, More SJ, Sammin D, Casey MJ, McElroy MC, O’Neill RG, Byrne WJ, Earley B, Clegg TA, Ball H, Bell CJ, Cas- sidy JP. (2018). Pathogens, patterns of pneumonia, and epi- demiologic risk factors associated with respiratory disease in recently weaned cattle in Ireland. J Vet Diagn Invest. 29, 20-34.
  • Osterkorn K. (1982). Biometrische Methoden. Virologische Arbeitsmethoden. Band IV. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart. 28. Ozel M, Gur S. (2015). Serological investigation for Bovine Viral Diarrhea and Bovine Herpesvirus Type-1 Viruses in Pre- colostral calves and Their Dams. Harran Üniv Vet Fak Derg. 4, 57-63.
  • Ozturk F, Yavru S. (1988). Konya bolgesi sigirlarinda parain- fluenza virus-3 (PIV-3) enfeksiyonu uzerinde serolojik arastir- malar. Selcuk Üniv Vet Fak Derg. 4, 135-141.
  • Panciera RJ, Confer AW. (2010). Pathogenesis and pathology of bovine pneumonia. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 26, 191-214.
  • Reisinger RC, Heddleston KL, Manthei CA. (1959). A myxovirus (SF-4) associated with Shipping fever of cattle. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 135, 147-152.
  • Rima B, Balkema-Buschmann A, Dundon WG, Duprex P, Easton A, Fouchier R, Kurath G, Lamb R, Lee B, Rota P, Wang L. ICTV Report Consortium (December 2019). ICTV Virus Tax- onomy Profile: Paramyxoviridae. J Gen Virol. 100, 1593-1594.
  • Schefers J, Munoz-Zanki C, Collins JE, Goyal SM, Ames TR. (2008). Serological evaluation of precolostral serum samples to detect Bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in large com- mertial dairy herds. J Vet Diagn Invest. 20, 625-628.
  • Slauson DO, Lay JC, Castleman WL, Neilsen NR. (1987). Al- veolar macrophage phagocytic kinetics following pulmonary parainfluenza-3 virus infection. J Leukoc Biol. 41, 412-420.
  • Snowder G, Van Vleck L, Cundiff L, Benett G. (2006). Bovine respiratory disease in feedlots cattle: Environmental, genetic, and economic factors. J Anim Sci. 84, 1999-2008.
  • Staubli D, Sager H, Haerdi C, Haessig M, Gottstein B. (2006). Precolostral serology in calves born from Neospora-seropos- itive mothers. Parasitol Res. 99, 398-404.
  • Stott EJ, Thomas LH, Collins AP, Crouch S, Jebbett J, Smith GS, Luther PD, Coswell R. (1980). A survey of virus infections of the respiratory tract of cattle and their association with disease. J Hyg. 85, 257-270.
  • Taylor JD, Fulton RW, Lehenbauer TW, Step DL, Confer AW. (2010). The epidemiology of bovine respiratory disease: What is the evidence for predisposing factors? Can Vet J. 51, 1095-1102.
  • Thomas LH, Wood PDP, Langland JM. (1978). The influence of disease on the performance of beef cattle. Br Vet J. 134, 152-161.
  • Tsai KS, Thomson RG. (1975). Bovine Parainfluenza Type 3 Vi- rus Infection: Ultrastructural Aspects of Viral Pathogenesis in the Bovine Respiratory Tract. Infect Immun. 11, 783-803.
  • Yesilbag K, Gungor B. (2008). Seroprevalence of bovine re- spiratory viruses in North-Western Turkey. Trop Anim Health Prod. 40, 55-60.
  • Zhang L, Bukreyev A, Thompson CI, Watson B, Peeples ME, Collins PL, Pickles RJ. (2005). Infection of ciliated cells by hu- man parainfluenza virus type 3 in an in vitro model of human airway epithelium. J Virol. 79, 1113-1124.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Virology
Journal Section Original Article
Authors

Sibel GÜR (Primary Author)
AFYON KOCATEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-8915-5409
Türkiye


Ayşe GENCAY GÖKSU This is me
ERCİYES ÜNİVERSİTESİ, VETERİNER FAKÜLTESİ
Türkiye


Fatih Mehmet BİRDANE
AFYON KOCATEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-0026-800X

Publication Date June 7, 2020
Application Date October 8, 2019
Acceptance Date May 8, 2020
Published in Issue Year 2020, Volume 31, Issue 1

Cite

APA Gür, S. , Gencay Göksu, A. & Birdane, F. M. (2020). Serological evaluation of precolostral Bovine Parainfluenza 3 Virus infection in an organised dairy herd . Etlik Veteriner Mikrobiyoloji Dergisi , 31 (1) , 1-6 . DOI: 10.35864/evmd.631045

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