The late 18th and the entire 19th century were the most controversial years of the Ottoman Empire. It was the time period that the Ottoman Empire as once one of the great powers in the world had to struggle with the western great powers. This struggle ended with disintegration of the Empire and several nation-states were conceived of in the Middle East immediately after the First Word War. According to common perception, the major successor of the Ottoman Empire was the Republic of Turkey and thus transformation from traditional social, political and philosophical structures to modernization had been severely felt by the last decade of the Empire. This paper seeks to depict this transformation in the case of Iraqi provinces. To crystalize, the eras of Abdulhamid II with pan-Islamist and of the CUP with secular modernist would be compared via tracing policy changes in the Iraqi provinces.
Iraqi Provinces, Modernization, Ottoman Empire, Abdulhamid II, CUP