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Preventing Gasoline Thermal Decomposition

Year 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, 1 - 8, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.52702/fce.541042

Abstract

The trouble of reducing induction system deposition has afflicted the refining market periodically given that
the very early twenties when thermal breaking started to be utilized. Control of the deposit-forming properties
of types of gasoline by ingredients as well as via methods techniques ended up being a crucial component of
petroleum handling, and also it has played an essential function in enabling the development in fuels that have
been so required for today’s high-compression engines. During the period from the early twenties to the
present, the problem has varied considerably in severity and in the manner in which it has been manifested.
The initial surge of trouble associated with thermal cracking was eliminated first by chemical processing and
finally by the use of additives. This occurrence of the problem was almost entirely attributed to preformed
gums, which frequently exceeded 50 mg per 100 ml. With the advent of catalytic cracking, stability problems
were made more complex by the introduction of new types of hydrocarbons and larger quantities of
nonhydrocarbon constituents, particularly of the oxygenated type frequently referred to as acid oils. These
compounds gave false indications of stability in accelerated tests and for a time were considered to be
beneficial as oxidation inhibitors. For this reason, the caustic treating processes used for sulfur removal were
designed so that these compounds were allowed to remain in the finished gasoline. In the introduction part of
the review, the issues of determining the effect of the residue in gasoline on the channels through which
gasoline passes are discussed. In the second part, the effect of commercial antioxidants on the combustion
stability of gasoline is examined. Determination of new methods and features related to future methods by
examining the researches carried out today. The most important topic was the part where the effects of
gumming on engine accents and other parts of gasoline during combustion are explained.

References

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  • [2] Certainties and challenges in modeling unwashed and washed gums formation in brazilian gasoline–ethanol blends,. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 122:77–96, 2017.
  • [3] Semi-free-jet simulated experimental investigation on a valveless pulse detonation engine,. Applied Thermal Engineering, 62(2):407–414, 2014.
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  • [5] Automotive spark-ignited direct-injection gasoline engines,, volume 25. 1999.
  • [6] Bennett. 7 - Advanced fuel additives for modern internal combustion engines A2 - Folkson, Richard,.
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  • [8] Application of hydrogen enriched natural gas in spark ignition ic engines: from fundamental fuel properties to engine performances and emissions,.
  • [9] A. K. Agarwal, A. P. Singh, and R. K. Maurya. Evolution, challenges and path forward for low temperature combustion engines,, volume 61. 2017.
  • [10] R. N Brady. Internal Combustion (Gasoline and Diesel) EnginesA,. Elsevier, 2013.
  • [11] W. J. D Annand. Chapter Two - Gasoline Engines A2 - ARCOUMANIS, CONSTANTINE,.
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  • [13] Intake valve deposits in gasoline direct injection engines.
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  • [15] S. Verhelst and T Wallner. Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines,, volume 35. 2009.
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  • [23] Gasoline production from phytol,. Fuel, 89(11):3493–3497, 2010.
  • [24] Deposit formation in liquid fuels. 1. effect of coal-derived lewis bases on storage stability of jet a turbine fuel,. Fuel, 60(6):477–480, 1981.
  • [25] J. H. Worstell and S. R Daniel. Deposit formation in liquid fuels. 2. the effect of selected compounds on the storage stability of jet a turbine fuel,. Fuel, 60(6):481–484, 1981.
  • [26] Stability of cracked naphthas from thermal and catalytic processes and their additive response. part i. evaluation of stability and additive response,. Fuel, 74(5):714–719, 1995.
  • [27] Stability of cracked naphthas from thermal and catalytic processes and their additive response. part ii. Composition and effect of olefinic structures,. Fuel, 74(5):720–724, 1995.
  • [28] R. C. C. Pereira and V. M. D Pasa. Effect of mono-olefins and diolefins on the stability of automotive gasoline,. Fuel, 85(12):1860–1865, 2006.
  • [29] Several factors affecting the stability of biodiesel in standard accelerated tests,, volume 88. 2007.
  • [30] Nitrogen compound distribution in middle distillate fuels derived from petroleum, oil shale, and tar sand sources,, volume 61. 1999.
  • [31] Chapter 16 - Fuel Effects on Emissions A2 - Sher, Eran,. Academic Press, San, 1998.
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  • [33] Thermal stability enhancement of biodiesel induced by a synergistic effect between conventional antioxidants and an alternative additive,. Energy, 109:260–265, 2016.
  • [34] J. Pullen and K Saeed. An overview of biodiesel oxidation stability,. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(8):5924–5950, 2012.
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  • [44] B. D. Solomon and K Krishna. The coming sustainable energy transition: History, strategies, and outlook,. Energy Policy, 39(11):7422–7431, 2011.
  • [45] L. D 45] Claxton. The history, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of carbon-based fuels and their emissions. Part 3: Diesel and gasoline,, volume 763. 2015.
  • [46] J Worstell. Chapter 1 - Introduction,.
  • [47] Design of a valuable fuel couple and engine compression ratio for an octane-on-demand si engine concept: A simulation approach using experimental data,. Fuel, 189:107–119, 2017.
  • [48] Effect of octane on performance, energy consumption and emissions of two euro 4 passenger cars,. Transportation Research Procedia, 14:3159–3168, 2016.
  • [49] D. E Stikkers. Octane and the environment,. Science of The Total Environment, 299(1):37–56, 2002.
  • [50] W. Gilbert. Effect of fcc variables on the formation of gasoline gum precursors,. Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, 149:247–256, 2004.
  • [51] Fluid catalytic cracking: Processing opportunities for fischer–tropsch waxes and vegetable oils to produce transportation fuels and light olefins,. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 164:148–163, 2012.
  • [52] The influence of ester additives on the properties of gasoline,. Fuel, 104:216–223, 2013.
  • [53] Novel antioxidants from cashew nut shell liquid applied to gasoline stabilization A,. Fuel, 82(12):1465–1469, 2003.
  • [54] F. S. Forbes and P. A Van Splinter. Liquid rocket propellants a2 - meyers, robert a,. Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, pages 741–777, 2003.
  • [55] 1992,.
  • [56] Development of an analytical method for determining hindered phenolic antioxidants in exhaust emissions from light-duty vehicles,. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 7(2):326–332, 2016.
  • [57] Fuel economy and emissions of light-duty vehicles fueled with ethanol–gasoline blends in a mexican city,. Renewable Energy, 72:236–242, 2014.
  • [58] Development of an analytical method for determining hindered phenolic antioxidants in exhaust emissions from light-duty vehicles,. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 7(2):326–332, 2016.
  • [59] Biodiesel oxidative stability from rancimat data,. Thermochimica Acta, 633:116–121, 2016.
  • [60]Hindered phenolic antioxidants,. Additives for Polymers, 1994(4):5, 1994.

Preventing Gasoline Thermal Decomposition

Year 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, 1 - 8, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.52702/fce.541042

Abstract

İndüksiyon sistemindeki birikmeyi azaltma zorluğu, termal kırılmanın kullanılmaya başlandığı 20. yy'ın başında olduğu için periyodik olarak rafine pazarını etkilemiştir. Petrol türlerinin tortu oluşturucu özelliklerinin, bileşenlerin yanı sıra petrol işleme için çok önemli bir bileşen haline gelen yöntem teknikleriyle kontrol edilmesi ve ayrıca günümüzün ihtiyaç duyduğu yakıtlarda gelişmenin sağlanmasında önemli bir işlev görmüştür. Yüksek sıkıştırma motorları, 20 yy’ın başından günümüze kadar olan süre boyunca, termal ayrışma sorununun ciddiyeti ve tezahür ettiği şekilde önem kazanmıştır. Termal bozlulma ile ilgili problemin başlangıçtaki artışı ilk önce kimyasal işlemle ve en sonunda katkı maddelerinin kullanılmasıyla elimine edilmiştir. Sorunun ortaya çıkması neredeyse tamamen 100 ml başına 50 mg'ı aşan önceden oluşturulmuş sakızlanma değerine bağlanmıştır. Katalitik parçalamanın ortaya çıkmasıyla, yeni tip hidrokarbonların ve daha büyük miktarlarda hidrokarbon olmayan bileşenlerin, özellikle de sık sık asit yağları olarak adlandırılan oksijenli türlerin eklenmesiyle kararlılık sorunları ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu bileşikler hızlandırılmış testlerde yanlış kararlılık göstergeleri verdiler ve bir süre için aslında oksidasyon engelleyici olarak faydalı oldukları düşünülüyordu. Bu nedenle, kükürt gidermede kullanılan yakıcı muamele işlemleri, bu bileşiklerin bitmiş benzinde kalmasına izin verecek şekilde tasarlanmıştır. 

References

  • [1] Controlled leakage in engine valve stem sealing,. Sealing Technology, 1998(52):11–12, 1998.
  • [2] Certainties and challenges in modeling unwashed and washed gums formation in brazilian gasoline–ethanol blends,. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 122:77–96, 2017.
  • [3] Semi-free-jet simulated experimental investigation on a valveless pulse detonation engine,. Applied Thermal Engineering, 62(2):407–414, 2014.
  • [4] Chapter 13 - Induction manifold design,. Oxford, 2000.
  • [5] Automotive spark-ignited direct-injection gasoline engines,, volume 25. 1999.
  • [6] Bennett. 7 - Advanced fuel additives for modern internal combustion engines A2 - Folkson, Richard,.
  • [7] Outwardly opening solenoid injector for homogenous Gasoline engines with direct injection,.
  • [8] Application of hydrogen enriched natural gas in spark ignition ic engines: from fundamental fuel properties to engine performances and emissions,.
  • [9] A. K. Agarwal, A. P. Singh, and R. K. Maurya. Evolution, challenges and path forward for low temperature combustion engines,, volume 61. 2017.
  • [10] R. N Brady. Internal Combustion (Gasoline and Diesel) EnginesA,. Elsevier, 2013.
  • [11] W. J. D Annand. Chapter Two - Gasoline Engines A2 - ARCOUMANIS, CONSTANTINE,.
  • [12] K. Gradon and S. C Miller. Combustion development on the rolls-rolyce sprey engine A2-Smith I.E. 1968.
  • [13] Intake valve deposits in gasoline direct injection engines.
  • [14] A. Alagumalai. Internal combustion engines: Progress and prospects,. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 38:561–571, 2014.
  • [15] S. Verhelst and T Wallner. Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines,, volume 35. 2009.
  • [16] F. K Sully. Chapter 7 - engine components,.
  • [17] Fuels a2 - meyers, robert a,.
  • [18] C Cole. Is carbon buildup a problem with direct-injection engines?,, 2015.
  • [19] Star tron enzyme fuel treatment - concentrated gas formula,, 0.
  • [20] The teardown, cleanup, and ultimately the reassembly of the cirrus engine,, 0.
  • [21] J. J McKetta. Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design: Volume 2 - Additives to Alpha. Taylor & Francis, 1977.
  • [22] Superbutol TM – a novel high-octane gasoline blending component,. Fuel, 195:165–173, 2017.
  • [23] Gasoline production from phytol,. Fuel, 89(11):3493–3497, 2010.
  • [24] Deposit formation in liquid fuels. 1. effect of coal-derived lewis bases on storage stability of jet a turbine fuel,. Fuel, 60(6):477–480, 1981.
  • [25] J. H. Worstell and S. R Daniel. Deposit formation in liquid fuels. 2. the effect of selected compounds on the storage stability of jet a turbine fuel,. Fuel, 60(6):481–484, 1981.
  • [26] Stability of cracked naphthas from thermal and catalytic processes and their additive response. part i. evaluation of stability and additive response,. Fuel, 74(5):714–719, 1995.
  • [27] Stability of cracked naphthas from thermal and catalytic processes and their additive response. part ii. Composition and effect of olefinic structures,. Fuel, 74(5):720–724, 1995.
  • [28] R. C. C. Pereira and V. M. D Pasa. Effect of mono-olefins and diolefins on the stability of automotive gasoline,. Fuel, 85(12):1860–1865, 2006.
  • [29] Several factors affecting the stability of biodiesel in standard accelerated tests,, volume 88. 2007.
  • [30] Nitrogen compound distribution in middle distillate fuels derived from petroleum, oil shale, and tar sand sources,, volume 61. 1999.
  • [31] Chapter 16 - Fuel Effects on Emissions A2 - Sher, Eran,. Academic Press, San, 1998.
  • [32] Determination of the oxidation stability of biodiesel and oils by spectrofluorimetry and multivariate calibration,. Talanta, 85(1):430–434, 2011.
  • [33] Thermal stability enhancement of biodiesel induced by a synergistic effect between conventional antioxidants and an alternative additive,. Energy, 109:260–265, 2016.
  • [34] J. Pullen and K Saeed. An overview of biodiesel oxidation stability,. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(8):5924–5950, 2012.
  • [35] J. Van Gerpen and G Knothe. 16 - Bioenergy and Biofuels from Soybeans,. AOCS Press, Soybeans, 2008.
  • [36] D. L Klass. - Synthetic Oxygenated Liquid Fuels,.
  • [37] A. Carrero and A´ Pe´rez. 5 - Advances in biodiesel quality control, characterisation and standards development,. Woodhead Publishing, 2012.
  • [38] 6 - Fuel Properties,. 2010.
  • [39] J. G Speight. Chapter 3 - Refining Chemistry,.
  • [40] 14 - sustainability and use of biodiesel,. Biodiesel Science and, pages 625–712, 2010.
  • [41] S. C Bhatia. 21 - Ethanol,.
  • [42] 12 - analytical methods and standards for quality assurance in biodiesel production,. Biodiesel Science and, pages 514–570, 2010.
  • [43] Exhaust particles of modern gasoline vehicles: A laboratory and an on-road study,. Atmospheric Environment, 97:262–270, 2014.
  • [44] B. D. Solomon and K Krishna. The coming sustainable energy transition: History, strategies, and outlook,. Energy Policy, 39(11):7422–7431, 2011.
  • [45] L. D 45] Claxton. The history, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of carbon-based fuels and their emissions. Part 3: Diesel and gasoline,, volume 763. 2015.
  • [46] J Worstell. Chapter 1 - Introduction,.
  • [47] Design of a valuable fuel couple and engine compression ratio for an octane-on-demand si engine concept: A simulation approach using experimental data,. Fuel, 189:107–119, 2017.
  • [48] Effect of octane on performance, energy consumption and emissions of two euro 4 passenger cars,. Transportation Research Procedia, 14:3159–3168, 2016.
  • [49] D. E Stikkers. Octane and the environment,. Science of The Total Environment, 299(1):37–56, 2002.
  • [50] W. Gilbert. Effect of fcc variables on the formation of gasoline gum precursors,. Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, 149:247–256, 2004.
  • [51] Fluid catalytic cracking: Processing opportunities for fischer–tropsch waxes and vegetable oils to produce transportation fuels and light olefins,. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 164:148–163, 2012.
  • [52] The influence of ester additives on the properties of gasoline,. Fuel, 104:216–223, 2013.
  • [53] Novel antioxidants from cashew nut shell liquid applied to gasoline stabilization A,. Fuel, 82(12):1465–1469, 2003.
  • [54] F. S. Forbes and P. A Van Splinter. Liquid rocket propellants a2 - meyers, robert a,. Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, pages 741–777, 2003.
  • [55] 1992,.
  • [56] Development of an analytical method for determining hindered phenolic antioxidants in exhaust emissions from light-duty vehicles,. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 7(2):326–332, 2016.
  • [57] Fuel economy and emissions of light-duty vehicles fueled with ethanol–gasoline blends in a mexican city,. Renewable Energy, 72:236–242, 2014.
  • [58] Development of an analytical method for determining hindered phenolic antioxidants in exhaust emissions from light-duty vehicles,. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 7(2):326–332, 2016.
  • [59] Biodiesel oxidative stability from rancimat data,. Thermochimica Acta, 633:116–121, 2016.
  • [60]Hindered phenolic antioxidants,. Additives for Polymers, 1994(4):5, 1994.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Engineering, Multidisciplinary
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Cemil KOYUNOĞLU> (Primary Author)
ISTANBUL TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, ENERGY INSTITUTE
Türkiye

Publication Date December 31, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @review { fce541042, journal = {Uluslararası Yakıtlar Yanma Ve Yangın Dergisi}, issn = {2564-6435}, address = {Sakarya Üniversitesi, m7 binası, Esentepe Kampüsü, Sakarya}, publisher = {Hakan Serhad SOYHAN}, year = {2021}, volume = {9}, number = {1}, pages = {1 - 8}, doi = {10.52702/fce.541042}, title = {Preventing Gasoline Thermal Decomposition}, key = {cite}, author = {Koyunoğlu, Cemil} }
APA Koyunoğlu, C. (2021). Preventing Gasoline Thermal Decomposition . Uluslararası Yakıtlar Yanma Ve Yangın Dergisi , 9 (1) , 1-8 . DOI: 10.52702/fce.541042
MLA Koyunoğlu, C. "Preventing Gasoline Thermal Decomposition" . Uluslararası Yakıtlar Yanma Ve Yangın Dergisi 9 (2021 ): 1-8 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/fce/issue/60446/541042>
Chicago Koyunoğlu, C. "Preventing Gasoline Thermal Decomposition". Uluslararası Yakıtlar Yanma Ve Yangın Dergisi 9 (2021 ): 1-8
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Preventing Gasoline Thermal Decomposition AU - CemilKoyunoğlu Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.52702/fce.541042 DO - 10.52702/fce.541042 T2 - Uluslararası Yakıtlar Yanma Ve Yangın Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 1 EP - 8 VL - 9 IS - 1 SN - 2564-6435- M3 - doi: 10.52702/fce.541042 UR - https://doi.org/10.52702/fce.541042 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Fuels, Fire and Combustion in Engineering Journal Preventing Gasoline Thermal Decomposition %A Cemil Koyunoğlu %T Preventing Gasoline Thermal Decomposition %D 2021 %J Uluslararası Yakıtlar Yanma Ve Yangın Dergisi %P 2564-6435- %V 9 %N 1 %R doi: 10.52702/fce.541042 %U 10.52702/fce.541042
ISNAD Koyunoğlu, Cemil . "Preventing Gasoline Thermal Decomposition". Uluslararası Yakıtlar Yanma Ve Yangın Dergisi 9 / 1 (December 2021): 1-8 . https://doi.org/10.52702/fce.541042
AMA Koyunoğlu C. Preventing Gasoline Thermal Decomposition. FCE Journal. 2021; 9(1): 1-8.
Vancouver Koyunoğlu C. Preventing Gasoline Thermal Decomposition. Uluslararası Yakıtlar Yanma Ve Yangın Dergisi. 2021; 9(1): 1-8.
IEEE C. Koyunoğlu , "Preventing Gasoline Thermal Decomposition", Uluslararası Yakıtlar Yanma Ve Yangın Dergisi, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1-8, Dec. 2021, doi:10.52702/fce.541042