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COVID-19 Pandemisinde Serebral Palsili Çocuklarda Depresyon ve Anksiyete Belirtileri ve İlişkili Faktörlerin İncelenmesi: Ebeveynlerin Algılanan Sosyal Destek, Depresyon ve Korona Kaygısı Düzeyleri

Year 2022, Volume 32, Issue 5, 512 - 519, 29.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.54005/geneltip.1137570

Abstract

Amaç: COVID-19 pandemisinin Serebral palsili (SP) çocukların ruh sağlığı üzerindeki etkisi hakkında çok az araştırma bulunmaktadır. COVID-19 pandemisinin SP’li çocukların ruh sağlığı üzerindeki etkisi hakkında çok az araştırma bulunmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın birincil amacı, COVID-19 pandemisinde SP'li çocuklarda anksiyete ve depresyon düzeyinin belirlenmesidir. Bu çalışmanın ikincil amacı ise SP’li çocukların ebeveynlerinin algılanan sosyal destek, depresyon ve COVID-19 anksiyetesi düzeyleriyle SP’li çocuklardaki anksiyete ve depresyon belirtileri arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesidir. Gereç ve Yöntem: Veriler kartopu örneklem yöntemiyle çevrimiçi anketler kullanılarak toplanmıştır. SP'li çocukların depresyon ve anksiyete düzeyleri Çocuklarda Anksiyete ve Depresyon Ölçeği-Yenilenmiş Ebeveyn formuyla (ÇADÖ-YE) değerlendirilmiştir. SP'li çocukların ebeveynlerinin depresyon, korona kaygısı ve algılanan sosyal destek düzeyleri sırasıyla Birinci Basamak İçin Beck Depresyon Ölçeği, Corona Anksiyete Ölçeği (KAÖ) ve Çok Boyutlu Algılanan Sosyal Destek Ölçeği ile değerlendirilmiştir. Sürekli değişkenler ve incelenen farklı bağımsız örnekler arasında bir bağlantı olup olmadığını değerlendirmek için Pearson korelasyon testi kullanılmıştır. Çoklu doğrusal regresyon analizinde, ÇADÖ-YE’nin Toplam Kaygı, Majör Depresif Bozukluk ve Toplam İçselleştirme Ölçeği alt boyut puanları gruplara göre bağımlı değişken olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Bulgular: Örneklemi SP'li 102 çocuk (61, %59.8 erkek) ve ebeveynleri (67, %65.8 anne) oluşturmuştur. SP'li çocukların anksiyete belirtilerinin yordayıcıları önem sırasına göre ebeveynlerin korona kaygısı toplam puanı (β=0.324, p=0.003) ve ebeveynlerin depresyon toplam puanı (β=0.266, p=0.025) olmuştur. CP’li çocuklardaki depresif belirtileri yalnızca ebeveynin KAÖ toplam puanı yordamıştır (β=0.365, p=0.001). Sonuç: Ebeveynlerin koronavirüs kaygısının, SP'li çocuklarda anksiyete ve depresyon belirtilerinin en güçlü yordayıcısı olduğu bulundu. Bu sonuçlar, COVID-19 pandemisinin hem SP'li çocukların hem de ebeveynlerinin ruh sağlığı ihtiyaçlarını artırdığını göstermektedir.

References

  • 1. Bax M, Goldstein M, Rosenbaum P, et al. Proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy, April 2005. Developmental medicine and child neurology. 2005;47:571-6.
  • 2. Bjorgaas H, Hysing M, Elgen I. Psychiatric disorders among children with cerebral palsy at school starting age. Research in developmental disabilities. 2012;33:1287-93.
  • 3. Lindsay S. Child and youth experiences and perspectives of cerebral palsy: a qualitative systematic review. Child: care, health and development. 2016;42:153-75.
  • 4. Scherer N, Verhey I, Kuper H. Depression and anxiety in parents of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS ONE. 2019;14:e0219888.
  • 5. Farajzadeh A, Maroufizadeh S, Amini M. Factors associated with quality of life among mothers of children with cerebral palsy. International journal of nursing practice. 2020;26:e12811.
  • 6. Aishworiya R, Kang YQ. Including children with developmental disabilities in the equation during this COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 2021;51:2155-8.
  • 7. Pecor KW, Barbyannis G, Yang M, et al. Quality of Life Changes during the COVID-19 Pandemic for Caregivers of Children with ADHD and/or ASD. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2021;18:3667.
  • 8. Eshraghi AA, Li C, Alessandri M, et al. COVID-19: overcoming the challenges faced by individuals with autism and their families. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020;7:481-3.
  • 9. Manning J, Billian J, Matson J, Allen C, Soares N. Perceptions of Families of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder during the COVID-19 Crisis. J Autism Dev Disord. 2021;51:2920-8.
  • 10. Mutluer T, Doenyas C, Genc HA. Behavioral implications of the Covid-19 process for Autism Spectrum Disorder, and individuals' comprehension of and reactions to the pandemic conditions. Frontiers in psychiatry. 2020;11.
  • 11. Cankurtaran D, Tezel N, Yildiz SY, Celik G, Akyuz EU. Evaluation of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on children with cerebral palsy, caregivers’ quality of life, and caregivers' fear of COVID-19 with telemedicine. Irish Journal of Medical Science (1971-). 2021:1-8.
  • 12. Gassman-Pines A, Ananat EO, Fitz-Henley J. COVID-19 and parent-child psychological well-being. Pediatrics. 2020;146.
  • 13. Patrick SW, Henkhaus LE, Zickafoose JS, et al. Well-being of parents and children during the COVID-19 pandemic: a national survey. Pediatrics. 2020;146.
  • 14. Asbury K, Fox L, Deniz E, Code A, Toseeb U. How is COVID-19 affecting the mental health of children with special educational needs and disabilities and their families? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2021;51:1772-80.
  • 15. Sipal RF, Sayin U. Impact of perceived social support and depression on the parental attitudes of mothers of children who are deaf. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2013;22:1103-11.
  • 16. Fontanesi L, Marchetti D, Mazza C, et al. The effect of the COVID-19 lockdown on parents: A call to adopt urgent measures. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy. 2020;12:S79.
  • 17. Lai B, Wen H, Sinha T, et al. The impact of COVID-19 on the lifestyles of adolescents with cerebral palsy in the Southeast United States. Disability and Health Journal. 2021:101263.
  • 18. Gormez V, Kılınçaslan A, Orengul AC, et al. Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale–Child Version in a clinical sample. Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2017;27:84-92.
  • 19. Aktürk Z, Dağdeviren N, Türe M, Tuğlu C. Birinci Basamak İçin Beck Depresyon Tarama Ölçeği’nin Türkçe Çeviriminin Geçerlik ve Güvenirliği. Türkiye Aile Hekimliği Dergisi. 2005;9:117-22.
  • 20. Lee SA. Coronavirus anxiety scale: A brief mental health screener for COVID-19 related anxiety. Death Studies. 2020:1-9.
  • 21. BİÇER İ, ÇAKMAK C, DEMİR H, KURT ME. Koronavirüs anksiyete ölçeği kısa formu: Türkçe geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences. 2020;25:216-25.
  • 22. Zimet GD, Dahlem NW, Zimet SG, Farley GK. The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of personality assessment. 1988;52:30-41.
  • 23. Eker D, Arkar H. Çok boyutlu algılanan sosyal destek ölçeğinin faktör yapısı, geçerlik ve güvenirliği. Türk Psikoloji Dergisi. 1995;10:45-55.
  • 24. McMahon J, Harvey A, Reid SM, May T, Antolovich G. Anxiety in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Journal of paediatrics and child health. 2020;56:1194-200.
  • 25. Lee SJ, Ward KP, Chang OD, Downing KM. Parenting activities and the transition to home-based education during the COVID-19 pandemic. Children and Youth Services Review. 2021;122:105585.
  • 26. Neece C, McIntyre LL, Fenning R. Examining the impact of COVID‐19 in ethnically diverse families with young children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 2020;64:739-49.
  • 27. Ren J, Li X, Chen S, Chen S, Nie Y. The influence of factors such as parenting stress and social support on the state anxiety in parents of special needs children during the COVID-19 epidemic. Frontiers in Psychology. 2020;11.
  • 28. Li X, Zhou S. Parental worry, family-based disaster education and children’s internalizing and externalizing problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychological trauma: theory, research, practice, and policy. 2021.
  • 29. Ben-Pazi H, Beni-Adani L, Lamdan R. Accelerating Telemedicine for Cerebral Palsy During the COVID-19 Pandemic and Beyond. Frontiers in Neurology. 2020;11.
  • 30. Farajzadeh A, Dehghanizadeh M, Maroufizadeh S, Amini M, Shamili A. Predictors of mental health among parents of children with cerebral palsy during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran: A web-based cross-sectional study. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2021;112:103890. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00746

Investigation of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms and Associated Factors in Children with Cerebral Palsy in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Parents' Perceived Social Support, Depression and Corona Anxiety

Year 2022, Volume 32, Issue 5, 512 - 519, 29.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.54005/geneltip.1137570

Abstract

Objective: There is little research on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The primary aim of this study is to determine the level of anxiety and depression in children with CP during the COVID-19 pandemic. The secondary aim is to examine the relationship between perceived social support, depression and COVID-19 anxiety levels of parents of children with CP and anxiety and depression symptoms in children with CP. Material and Methods: Data were gathered by snowball sampling method using an online survey. Depression and anxiety levels of children with CP were evaluated via Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Parent (RCADS-P). Depression, corona anxiety, and perceived social support levels of parents of children with CP were evaluated with Beck Depression Scale for Primary Care, Corona Anxiety Scale (CAS), and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, respectively. The Pearson correlation test was employed to assess whether or not there was an interconnection amongst continuous variables and different independent samples under consideration. Total Anxiety Scale, Major Depressive Disorder and Total Internalizing Scale sub-dimension scores of the RCADS-P were evaluated as dependent variables according to the groups in the multiple linear regression analysis. Results: The sample covered 102 children (61, %59.8 boys) with CP and their parents (67, %65.8 mothers). Predictors of the anxiety symptoms of children with CP, in order of importance, were the parents’ corona anxiety total score (β=0.324, p=0.003) and the parents’ depression total score (β=0.266, p=0.025). Only the parent’ CAS total score predicted the depressive symptoms of children with CP (β=0.365, p=0.001). Conclusion: Coronavirus anxiety of the parents was found to be the strongest predictor of anxiety and depression symptoms in children with CP. These results suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has increased the mental health needs of both children with CP and their parents.

References

  • 1. Bax M, Goldstein M, Rosenbaum P, et al. Proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy, April 2005. Developmental medicine and child neurology. 2005;47:571-6.
  • 2. Bjorgaas H, Hysing M, Elgen I. Psychiatric disorders among children with cerebral palsy at school starting age. Research in developmental disabilities. 2012;33:1287-93.
  • 3. Lindsay S. Child and youth experiences and perspectives of cerebral palsy: a qualitative systematic review. Child: care, health and development. 2016;42:153-75.
  • 4. Scherer N, Verhey I, Kuper H. Depression and anxiety in parents of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS ONE. 2019;14:e0219888.
  • 5. Farajzadeh A, Maroufizadeh S, Amini M. Factors associated with quality of life among mothers of children with cerebral palsy. International journal of nursing practice. 2020;26:e12811.
  • 6. Aishworiya R, Kang YQ. Including children with developmental disabilities in the equation during this COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. 2021;51:2155-8.
  • 7. Pecor KW, Barbyannis G, Yang M, et al. Quality of Life Changes during the COVID-19 Pandemic for Caregivers of Children with ADHD and/or ASD. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2021;18:3667.
  • 8. Eshraghi AA, Li C, Alessandri M, et al. COVID-19: overcoming the challenges faced by individuals with autism and their families. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020;7:481-3.
  • 9. Manning J, Billian J, Matson J, Allen C, Soares N. Perceptions of Families of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder during the COVID-19 Crisis. J Autism Dev Disord. 2021;51:2920-8.
  • 10. Mutluer T, Doenyas C, Genc HA. Behavioral implications of the Covid-19 process for Autism Spectrum Disorder, and individuals' comprehension of and reactions to the pandemic conditions. Frontiers in psychiatry. 2020;11.
  • 11. Cankurtaran D, Tezel N, Yildiz SY, Celik G, Akyuz EU. Evaluation of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on children with cerebral palsy, caregivers’ quality of life, and caregivers' fear of COVID-19 with telemedicine. Irish Journal of Medical Science (1971-). 2021:1-8.
  • 12. Gassman-Pines A, Ananat EO, Fitz-Henley J. COVID-19 and parent-child psychological well-being. Pediatrics. 2020;146.
  • 13. Patrick SW, Henkhaus LE, Zickafoose JS, et al. Well-being of parents and children during the COVID-19 pandemic: a national survey. Pediatrics. 2020;146.
  • 14. Asbury K, Fox L, Deniz E, Code A, Toseeb U. How is COVID-19 affecting the mental health of children with special educational needs and disabilities and their families? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2021;51:1772-80.
  • 15. Sipal RF, Sayin U. Impact of perceived social support and depression on the parental attitudes of mothers of children who are deaf. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2013;22:1103-11.
  • 16. Fontanesi L, Marchetti D, Mazza C, et al. The effect of the COVID-19 lockdown on parents: A call to adopt urgent measures. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy. 2020;12:S79.
  • 17. Lai B, Wen H, Sinha T, et al. The impact of COVID-19 on the lifestyles of adolescents with cerebral palsy in the Southeast United States. Disability and Health Journal. 2021:101263.
  • 18. Gormez V, Kılınçaslan A, Orengul AC, et al. Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale–Child Version in a clinical sample. Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2017;27:84-92.
  • 19. Aktürk Z, Dağdeviren N, Türe M, Tuğlu C. Birinci Basamak İçin Beck Depresyon Tarama Ölçeği’nin Türkçe Çeviriminin Geçerlik ve Güvenirliği. Türkiye Aile Hekimliği Dergisi. 2005;9:117-22.
  • 20. Lee SA. Coronavirus anxiety scale: A brief mental health screener for COVID-19 related anxiety. Death Studies. 2020:1-9.
  • 21. BİÇER İ, ÇAKMAK C, DEMİR H, KURT ME. Koronavirüs anksiyete ölçeği kısa formu: Türkçe geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Anatolian Clinic the Journal of Medical Sciences. 2020;25:216-25.
  • 22. Zimet GD, Dahlem NW, Zimet SG, Farley GK. The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of personality assessment. 1988;52:30-41.
  • 23. Eker D, Arkar H. Çok boyutlu algılanan sosyal destek ölçeğinin faktör yapısı, geçerlik ve güvenirliği. Türk Psikoloji Dergisi. 1995;10:45-55.
  • 24. McMahon J, Harvey A, Reid SM, May T, Antolovich G. Anxiety in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Journal of paediatrics and child health. 2020;56:1194-200.
  • 25. Lee SJ, Ward KP, Chang OD, Downing KM. Parenting activities and the transition to home-based education during the COVID-19 pandemic. Children and Youth Services Review. 2021;122:105585.
  • 26. Neece C, McIntyre LL, Fenning R. Examining the impact of COVID‐19 in ethnically diverse families with young children with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 2020;64:739-49.
  • 27. Ren J, Li X, Chen S, Chen S, Nie Y. The influence of factors such as parenting stress and social support on the state anxiety in parents of special needs children during the COVID-19 epidemic. Frontiers in Psychology. 2020;11.
  • 28. Li X, Zhou S. Parental worry, family-based disaster education and children’s internalizing and externalizing problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychological trauma: theory, research, practice, and policy. 2021.
  • 29. Ben-Pazi H, Beni-Adani L, Lamdan R. Accelerating Telemedicine for Cerebral Palsy During the COVID-19 Pandemic and Beyond. Frontiers in Neurology. 2020;11.
  • 30. Farajzadeh A, Dehghanizadeh M, Maroufizadeh S, Amini M, Shamili A. Predictors of mental health among parents of children with cerebral palsy during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran: A web-based cross-sectional study. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2021;112:103890. https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00746

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Medicine
Journal Section Original Article
Authors

Ahmet ÖZASLAN> (Primary Author)
GAZİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-7741-201X
Türkiye


Pınar ÖZBUDAK>
SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, SAMSUN SAĞLIK UYGULAMA VE ARAŞTIRMA MERKEZİ, DAHİLİ TIP BİLİMLERİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0003-3215-1738
Türkiye


Şefika Nurhüda KARACA CENGİZ>
GAZİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ
0000-0001-7759-3631
Türkiye


Bahadır GENİŞ>
KOCAELİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ, TIP PR.
0000-0001-8541-7670
Türkiye


Elvan İŞERİ>
GAZİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TIP FAKÜLTESİ, TIP PR.
0000-0001-6833-6262
Türkiye

Early Pub Date October 24, 2022
Publication Date October 29, 2022
Submission Date June 29, 2022
Acceptance Date September 5, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 32, Issue 5

Cite

Vancouver Özaslan A. , Özbudak P. , Karaca Cengiz Ş. N. , Geniş B. , İşeri E. Investigation of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms and Associated Factors in Children with Cerebral Palsy in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Parents' Perceived Social Support, Depression and Corona Anxiety. Genel Tıp Dergisi. 2022; 32(5): 512-519.

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