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COMPARISON OF SOME PROPERTIES OF BUTTER OIL PRODUCED FROM CULTURED AND UNCULTURED BUTTER AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

Year 2021, Volume 46, Issue 3, 621 - 633, 15.05.2021
https://doi.org/10.15237/gida.GD20118

Abstract

This study objective was to determine the effect of the use of culture and temperature applications in butter production on some properties of butter oil produced from these butter. Cultured (Group 1) and uncultured (Group 2) butter were processed into butter oil at 60, 90, and 120C and were stored at +4C for 60 days. Analyses revealed that the acidity, water activity, thiobarbituric acid cholesterol, lipolysis values and the yeast-mold and lipolytic microorganism counts of butter oil samples were lower than in the corresponding butter samples. At the end of the storage period, for both groups, the peroxide values of the butter oils produced at 60 and 90C were lower than those of the counterpart butters, while the butter oils processed at 120C had higher peroxide values. Raw matter, production temperature and storage time generally had a significant effect on the analyzed properties of butter oil.

References

  • Al-Khalifah, A., Al-Kahtani, H. (1993). Composition of ghee (Samn Barri's) from cow's and sheep's milk. Food Chem., 46(4): 373-375, doi: 10.1016/0308-8146(93)90007-3.
  • Asha, A., Manjunatha, M., Rekha, R. M., Surendranath, B., Heartwin, P., Rao, J., Magdaline, E., Sinha, C. (2015). Antioxidant activities of orange peel extract in ghee (butter oil) stored at different storage temperatures. J. Food Sci. Technol., 52(12): 8220-8227, doi: 10.1007/s13197-015-1911-3.
  • Çakmakçı, S., Gündoğdu, E., Dağdemir, E., Erdoğan, Ü. (2014). Investigation of the possible use of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.) essential oil on butter stability. Kafkas Univ. Vet. Fak. Derg., 20(4): 533-539, doi: 10.9775/kvfd.2013.10550.
  • Dahle, L. K., Hill, E. G., Holman, R. T. (1962). The thiobarbituric acid reaction and the autoxidations of polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 98(2): 253-261, doi: 10.1016/0003-9861(62)90181-9.
  • De Jong, C., Badings, H. T., (1990). Determination of free fatty acids in milk and cheese. HRC, 13: 94-98, doi: 10.1002/jhrc.1240130204.
  • Dhurvey, Y. R., Kawtikwar, P. S., Sakarkar, D. M. (2012). Evaluation of physicochemical properties of cow ghee before and after hydrogenation. Int. J. ChemTech Res., 4(1): 185-189.
  • Dwivedi, C., Crosser, A. E., Mistry, V. V., Sharma, H. M. (2002). Effects of dietary ghee (clarified butter) on serum lipids in rats. J. Appl. Nutr., 52: 65-68.
  • Egan, H., Kirk, R. S., Sawyer, R., (1981). Oils and fats. In: Pearson’s Chemical Analysis of Foods, Egan, H. (Ed.), Churchill Livingstone, Edinburg, pp. 534-539.
  • Fındık, O., Andiç, S. (2017). Some chemical and microbiological properties of the butter and the butter oil produced from the same raw material. LWT, 86: 233-239, doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2017.08.002.
  • Gemechu, A. T., Tola, Y. B. (2017). Traditional butter and ghee production, processing and handling in Ethiopia: A review. Afr. J. Food Sci., 11(4): 95-105, doi: 10.5897/AJFS2016.1544.
  • Gosewade, S., Gandhi, K., Ranvir, S., Kumar, A., Lal, D. (2017). A study on the physico-chemical changes occurring in ghee (butter oil) during storage. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 70(1): 81-88.
  • Guardiola, F., Codony, R., Addis, P. B., Rafecas, M., Boatella, J. (1996) Biological effects of oxysterols: current status. Food Chem. Toxicol., 34(2): 193-211, doi: 10.1016/0278-6915(95)00094-1.
  • IDF (1997). Anhydrous milkfat, anhydrous butter oil or anhydrous butterfat, butter oil or butterfat, ghee: Standards of identity. FIL-IDF 68A. Brussels, Belgium: International Dairy Federation.
  • ISO (2003). Butter-Determination of moisture, non-fat solids and fat contents. ISO 3727-3:2003 (IDF 80-3:2003).3.
  • ISO (2012). Milk and milk products-Determination of the titratable acidity of milk fat. ISO/TS 22113:2012 (IDF/RM 204:2012).4.
  • Iyer, M., Richardson, T., Amundson, C. H., Boudreau, A. (1967). Improved Technique for Analysis of Free Fatty Acids in Butteroil and Provolone Cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 50(3): 285-291, doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(67)87411-3.
  • Janero, D. (1990). Malondialdehyde and thiobarbituric acid-reactivity as diagnostic indices of lipid peroxidation and peroxidative tissue injury. Free Radic. Biol. Med., 9(6): 515-540, doi: 10.1016/0891-5849(90)90131-2.
  • Jenness, R. (1988). Composition of milk. In: Fundamentals of dairy chemistry, N. P. Wang, N. P. (Ed.), New York, the USA, pp. 1-39.
  • Kristensen, D., Hansen, E., Arndal, A., Trinderup, R. A., Skibsted, L. H. (2001). Influence of light and temperature on the colour and oxidative stability of processed cheese. Int. Dairy J., 11: 837-843, doi: 10.1016/S0958-6946(01)00105-4.
  • Mehta, B. M. (2006). Ragi (Eleusine coracana L.) – a natural antioxidant for ghee (butter oil). Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 41 (Supplement 1): 86–89, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.01348.x.
  • Nawar, W. W. (1996). Lipids. In: Food chemistry, Fennema, O. R. (chief ed.), New York, the USA, pp. 225-331.
  • Nourooz-Zadeh, J., Appelqvist, L. A. (1988). Cholesterol oxides in swedish foods and food ingredients: Butter and Cheese. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 65: 1635-1641, doi: 10.1007/BF02912568.
  • Osada, K., Kodama, T., Yamada, K., Sugano, M. (1993). Oxidation of cholesterol by heating. J. Agric. Food Chem., 41: 1198-1202, doi: 10.1021/jf00032a006.
  • Özkanlı, O., Kaya, A. (2007). Storage stability of butter oil produced from sheep’s non-pasteurized and pasteurized milk. Food Chem., 100: 1026-1031, doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.10.052.
  • Piggott, J. R., Sharman, K. (1986). Methods to aid interpretation of multidimensional data. In: Statistical Procedures in Food Research, Piggott, J. R. (ed.), Elsevier Applied Science, London, the UK, pp. 181-233.
  • Ray, B., A Bhunia, A. (2007). Fundamental food microbiology. New York, CRC Press, 663.
  • Sagdic, O., Donmez, M., Demirci, M. (2004). Comparison of characteristic and fatty acid profiles of Traditional Turkish Yayik butters produced from goats’, ewes’ or cows’ milk. Food Control, 15(6): 485-490, doi: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2003.07.003.
  • Sander, B. D., Smith, D. E., Addis, P. B. (1988). Effects of Processing Stage and Storage Conditions on Cholesterol Oxidation Products in Butter and Cheddar Cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 71: 3173-3178, doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(88)79921-X.
  • Searcy, R. L., Bergquist, L. M., (1960). A new color reaction for the quantitation of serum cholesterol. Clin. Chem., 5: 102, doi: 10.1016/0009-8981(60)90035-8.
  • Seçkin, A. K., Gursoy, O., Kinik, O., Akbulut, N. (2005). Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration, fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of some Turkish dairy products. LWT, 38(8): 909-915, doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2004.09.011.
  • Seçkin, A. K., Metin, M. (2005). The effect of process temperature and time on the occurrence of the products of cholesterol oxidation in butter. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol, 40: 903-906, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.01022.x.
  • Senel, E., Atamer, M., Öztekin, F. S. (2011). The oxidative and lipolytic stability of Yayık butter produced from different species of mammals milk (cow, sheep, goat) yoghurt. Food Chem., 127(1): 333-339, doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.01.012.
  • Sharma, H., Zhang, X., Dwivedi, C. (2010). The effect of ghee (clarified butter) on serum lipid levels and microsomal lipid peroxidation. AYU, 31(2): 134-140, doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.72361.
  • Sieber, R. (2005). Oxidised cholesterol in milk and dairy products. Int. Dairy J., 15(3): 191-206, doi: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2004.07.013.
  • Spreer, E. (1998). Milk and dairy product technology, Marcel Decker Inc., New York, the USA, pp. 483.
  • SPSS, (1999). SPSS Inc. Released 1999. SPSS for Windows, Version 10. Chicago: SPSS Inc.
  • Sserunjogi, M. L., Abrahamsen, R. K., Narvhu, J. (1998). A review paper: Current knowledge of ghee and related products. Int. Dairy J., 8: 677-688, doi: 10.1016/S0958-6946(98)00106-X.
  • Şimşek, B. (2011). Studies on the storage stability of yayik butter. J. Verbrauch. Lebens., 6: 175–181, doi: 10.1007/s00003-010-0622-y.
  • Tavlaşlar-Hocalar, B., (2011). Tereyağı Teknolojisi, Ege Univ. Publisher, İzmir, Türkiye, s. 120.
  • Turkish Food Codex. (2005). Notification No. 2005/19 on butter, milk butter based products and clarified butter, 12 April 2005 [LEX-FAOC108244].
  • Woo, A. H., Lindsay, R. C. (1980). Method for the Routine Quantitative Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Major Free Fatty Acids in Butter and Cream. J. Dairy Sci., 63: 1058-1064, doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(80)83047-5.
  • Yadav, J. S., Srinivasan, R. A. (1985). Effect of ripening cream with Streptococcus lactis subsp. diacetilactis on the flavour of ghee (clarified butterfat). J. Dairy Res., 52(4): 547-553, doi: 10.1017/S002202990002450X.

KÜLTÜRLÜ VE KÜLTÜRSÜZ TEREYAĞLARINDAN FARKLI SICAKLIKLARDA ÜRETİLEN SADEYAĞLARIN BAZI ÖZELLİKLERİNİN KARŞILAŞTIRILMASI

Year 2021, Volume 46, Issue 3, 621 - 633, 15.05.2021
https://doi.org/10.15237/gida.GD20118

Abstract

Bu çalışmada, tereyağı üretiminde kültür kullanımının ve farklı sıcaklık uygulamalarının bu tereyağlarından üretilen sadeyağların bazı özellikleri üzerine etkisinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Kültür eklenen (kültürlü - Grup 1) ve kültür eklenmeyen (kültürsüz - Grup 2) kremalardan üretilen tereyağları, 60, 90 ve 120°C'de sadeyağa işlenmiş ve +4°C'de 60 gün depolanmıştır. Analiz sonuçları, her iki grup tereyağı örneğinde de asitlik, su aktivitesi, tiyobarbitürik asit (TBA), kolesterol, lipoliz değerleri ile maya ve küf ve lipolitik mikroorganizma sayılarının hammadde tereyağlarına göre daha düşük olduğunu göstermiştir. Depolama sonunda her iki grupta da 60 ve 90ºC'de üretilen sadeyağların peroksit değerleri aynı hammaddeden üretilen tereyağlarının peroksit değerlerinden daha düşükken, 120ºC'de işlenen sadeyağların peroksit değerleri üretildiği tereyağlarının peroksit değerlerine göre daha yüksek bulunmuştur. Hammadde, üretim sıcaklığı ve depolama süresi sadeyağın incelenen özellikleri üzerinde genellikle önemli bir etki yapmıştır.

References

  • Al-Khalifah, A., Al-Kahtani, H. (1993). Composition of ghee (Samn Barri's) from cow's and sheep's milk. Food Chem., 46(4): 373-375, doi: 10.1016/0308-8146(93)90007-3.
  • Asha, A., Manjunatha, M., Rekha, R. M., Surendranath, B., Heartwin, P., Rao, J., Magdaline, E., Sinha, C. (2015). Antioxidant activities of orange peel extract in ghee (butter oil) stored at different storage temperatures. J. Food Sci. Technol., 52(12): 8220-8227, doi: 10.1007/s13197-015-1911-3.
  • Çakmakçı, S., Gündoğdu, E., Dağdemir, E., Erdoğan, Ü. (2014). Investigation of the possible use of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.) essential oil on butter stability. Kafkas Univ. Vet. Fak. Derg., 20(4): 533-539, doi: 10.9775/kvfd.2013.10550.
  • Dahle, L. K., Hill, E. G., Holman, R. T. (1962). The thiobarbituric acid reaction and the autoxidations of polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 98(2): 253-261, doi: 10.1016/0003-9861(62)90181-9.
  • De Jong, C., Badings, H. T., (1990). Determination of free fatty acids in milk and cheese. HRC, 13: 94-98, doi: 10.1002/jhrc.1240130204.
  • Dhurvey, Y. R., Kawtikwar, P. S., Sakarkar, D. M. (2012). Evaluation of physicochemical properties of cow ghee before and after hydrogenation. Int. J. ChemTech Res., 4(1): 185-189.
  • Dwivedi, C., Crosser, A. E., Mistry, V. V., Sharma, H. M. (2002). Effects of dietary ghee (clarified butter) on serum lipids in rats. J. Appl. Nutr., 52: 65-68.
  • Egan, H., Kirk, R. S., Sawyer, R., (1981). Oils and fats. In: Pearson’s Chemical Analysis of Foods, Egan, H. (Ed.), Churchill Livingstone, Edinburg, pp. 534-539.
  • Fındık, O., Andiç, S. (2017). Some chemical and microbiological properties of the butter and the butter oil produced from the same raw material. LWT, 86: 233-239, doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2017.08.002.
  • Gemechu, A. T., Tola, Y. B. (2017). Traditional butter and ghee production, processing and handling in Ethiopia: A review. Afr. J. Food Sci., 11(4): 95-105, doi: 10.5897/AJFS2016.1544.
  • Gosewade, S., Gandhi, K., Ranvir, S., Kumar, A., Lal, D. (2017). A study on the physico-chemical changes occurring in ghee (butter oil) during storage. Indian J. Dairy Sci., 70(1): 81-88.
  • Guardiola, F., Codony, R., Addis, P. B., Rafecas, M., Boatella, J. (1996) Biological effects of oxysterols: current status. Food Chem. Toxicol., 34(2): 193-211, doi: 10.1016/0278-6915(95)00094-1.
  • IDF (1997). Anhydrous milkfat, anhydrous butter oil or anhydrous butterfat, butter oil or butterfat, ghee: Standards of identity. FIL-IDF 68A. Brussels, Belgium: International Dairy Federation.
  • ISO (2003). Butter-Determination of moisture, non-fat solids and fat contents. ISO 3727-3:2003 (IDF 80-3:2003).3.
  • ISO (2012). Milk and milk products-Determination of the titratable acidity of milk fat. ISO/TS 22113:2012 (IDF/RM 204:2012).4.
  • Iyer, M., Richardson, T., Amundson, C. H., Boudreau, A. (1967). Improved Technique for Analysis of Free Fatty Acids in Butteroil and Provolone Cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 50(3): 285-291, doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(67)87411-3.
  • Janero, D. (1990). Malondialdehyde and thiobarbituric acid-reactivity as diagnostic indices of lipid peroxidation and peroxidative tissue injury. Free Radic. Biol. Med., 9(6): 515-540, doi: 10.1016/0891-5849(90)90131-2.
  • Jenness, R. (1988). Composition of milk. In: Fundamentals of dairy chemistry, N. P. Wang, N. P. (Ed.), New York, the USA, pp. 1-39.
  • Kristensen, D., Hansen, E., Arndal, A., Trinderup, R. A., Skibsted, L. H. (2001). Influence of light and temperature on the colour and oxidative stability of processed cheese. Int. Dairy J., 11: 837-843, doi: 10.1016/S0958-6946(01)00105-4.
  • Mehta, B. M. (2006). Ragi (Eleusine coracana L.) – a natural antioxidant for ghee (butter oil). Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 41 (Supplement 1): 86–89, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.01348.x.
  • Nawar, W. W. (1996). Lipids. In: Food chemistry, Fennema, O. R. (chief ed.), New York, the USA, pp. 225-331.
  • Nourooz-Zadeh, J., Appelqvist, L. A. (1988). Cholesterol oxides in swedish foods and food ingredients: Butter and Cheese. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 65: 1635-1641, doi: 10.1007/BF02912568.
  • Osada, K., Kodama, T., Yamada, K., Sugano, M. (1993). Oxidation of cholesterol by heating. J. Agric. Food Chem., 41: 1198-1202, doi: 10.1021/jf00032a006.
  • Özkanlı, O., Kaya, A. (2007). Storage stability of butter oil produced from sheep’s non-pasteurized and pasteurized milk. Food Chem., 100: 1026-1031, doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.10.052.
  • Piggott, J. R., Sharman, K. (1986). Methods to aid interpretation of multidimensional data. In: Statistical Procedures in Food Research, Piggott, J. R. (ed.), Elsevier Applied Science, London, the UK, pp. 181-233.
  • Ray, B., A Bhunia, A. (2007). Fundamental food microbiology. New York, CRC Press, 663.
  • Sagdic, O., Donmez, M., Demirci, M. (2004). Comparison of characteristic and fatty acid profiles of Traditional Turkish Yayik butters produced from goats’, ewes’ or cows’ milk. Food Control, 15(6): 485-490, doi: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2003.07.003.
  • Sander, B. D., Smith, D. E., Addis, P. B. (1988). Effects of Processing Stage and Storage Conditions on Cholesterol Oxidation Products in Butter and Cheddar Cheese. J. Dairy Sci., 71: 3173-3178, doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(88)79921-X.
  • Searcy, R. L., Bergquist, L. M., (1960). A new color reaction for the quantitation of serum cholesterol. Clin. Chem., 5: 102, doi: 10.1016/0009-8981(60)90035-8.
  • Seçkin, A. K., Gursoy, O., Kinik, O., Akbulut, N. (2005). Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration, fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of some Turkish dairy products. LWT, 38(8): 909-915, doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2004.09.011.
  • Seçkin, A. K., Metin, M. (2005). The effect of process temperature and time on the occurrence of the products of cholesterol oxidation in butter. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol, 40: 903-906, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2005.01022.x.
  • Senel, E., Atamer, M., Öztekin, F. S. (2011). The oxidative and lipolytic stability of Yayık butter produced from different species of mammals milk (cow, sheep, goat) yoghurt. Food Chem., 127(1): 333-339, doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.01.012.
  • Sharma, H., Zhang, X., Dwivedi, C. (2010). The effect of ghee (clarified butter) on serum lipid levels and microsomal lipid peroxidation. AYU, 31(2): 134-140, doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.72361.
  • Sieber, R. (2005). Oxidised cholesterol in milk and dairy products. Int. Dairy J., 15(3): 191-206, doi: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2004.07.013.
  • Spreer, E. (1998). Milk and dairy product technology, Marcel Decker Inc., New York, the USA, pp. 483.
  • SPSS, (1999). SPSS Inc. Released 1999. SPSS for Windows, Version 10. Chicago: SPSS Inc.
  • Sserunjogi, M. L., Abrahamsen, R. K., Narvhu, J. (1998). A review paper: Current knowledge of ghee and related products. Int. Dairy J., 8: 677-688, doi: 10.1016/S0958-6946(98)00106-X.
  • Şimşek, B. (2011). Studies on the storage stability of yayik butter. J. Verbrauch. Lebens., 6: 175–181, doi: 10.1007/s00003-010-0622-y.
  • Tavlaşlar-Hocalar, B., (2011). Tereyağı Teknolojisi, Ege Univ. Publisher, İzmir, Türkiye, s. 120.
  • Turkish Food Codex. (2005). Notification No. 2005/19 on butter, milk butter based products and clarified butter, 12 April 2005 [LEX-FAOC108244].
  • Woo, A. H., Lindsay, R. C. (1980). Method for the Routine Quantitative Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Major Free Fatty Acids in Butter and Cream. J. Dairy Sci., 63: 1058-1064, doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(80)83047-5.
  • Yadav, J. S., Srinivasan, R. A. (1985). Effect of ripening cream with Streptococcus lactis subsp. diacetilactis on the flavour of ghee (clarified butterfat). J. Dairy Res., 52(4): 547-553, doi: 10.1017/S002202990002450X.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Food Science and Technology
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Tekin DEMİR This is me
T.C. Ziraat Bankası
0000-0002-3813-1693
Türkiye


Seval ANDİÇ (Primary Author)
VAN YÜZÜNCÜ YIL ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ, GIDA MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0002-8306-0222
Türkiye

Supporting Institution Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit of Van Yuzuncu Yil University
Project Number FDK-2017-6331
Publication Date May 15, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 46, Issue 3

Cite

Bibtex @research article { gida804288, journal = {Gıda}, issn = {1300-3070}, eissn = {1309-6273}, address = {}, publisher = {Gıda Teknolojisi Derneği}, year = {2021}, volume = {46}, pages = {621 - 633}, doi = {10.15237/gida.GD20118}, title = {COMPARISON OF SOME PROPERTIES OF BUTTER OIL PRODUCED FROM CULTURED AND UNCULTURED BUTTER AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES}, key = {cite}, author = {Demir, Tekin and Andiç, Seval} }
APA Demir, T. & Andiç, S. (2021). COMPARISON OF SOME PROPERTIES OF BUTTER OIL PRODUCED FROM CULTURED AND UNCULTURED BUTTER AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES . Gıda , 46 (3) , 621-633 . DOI: 10.15237/gida.GD20118
MLA Demir, T. , Andiç, S. "COMPARISON OF SOME PROPERTIES OF BUTTER OIL PRODUCED FROM CULTURED AND UNCULTURED BUTTER AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES" . Gıda 46 (2021 ): 621-633 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/gida/issue/61205/804288>
Chicago Demir, T. , Andiç, S. "COMPARISON OF SOME PROPERTIES OF BUTTER OIL PRODUCED FROM CULTURED AND UNCULTURED BUTTER AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES". Gıda 46 (2021 ): 621-633
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - COMPARISON OF SOME PROPERTIES OF BUTTER OIL PRODUCED FROM CULTURED AND UNCULTURED BUTTER AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES AU - Tekin Demir , Seval Andiç Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.15237/gida.GD20118 DO - 10.15237/gida.GD20118 T2 - Gıda JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 621 EP - 633 VL - 46 IS - 3 SN - 1300-3070-1309-6273 M3 - doi: 10.15237/gida.GD20118 UR - https://doi.org/10.15237/gida.GD20118 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 The Journal of Food COMPARISON OF SOME PROPERTIES OF BUTTER OIL PRODUCED FROM CULTURED AND UNCULTURED BUTTER AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES %A Tekin Demir , Seval Andiç %T COMPARISON OF SOME PROPERTIES OF BUTTER OIL PRODUCED FROM CULTURED AND UNCULTURED BUTTER AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES %D 2021 %J Gıda %P 1300-3070-1309-6273 %V 46 %N 3 %R doi: 10.15237/gida.GD20118 %U 10.15237/gida.GD20118
ISNAD Demir, Tekin , Andiç, Seval . "COMPARISON OF SOME PROPERTIES OF BUTTER OIL PRODUCED FROM CULTURED AND UNCULTURED BUTTER AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES". Gıda 46 / 3 (May 2021): 621-633 . https://doi.org/10.15237/gida.GD20118
AMA Demir T. , Andiç S. COMPARISON OF SOME PROPERTIES OF BUTTER OIL PRODUCED FROM CULTURED AND UNCULTURED BUTTER AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES. GIDA. 2021; 46(3): 621-633.
Vancouver Demir T. , Andiç S. COMPARISON OF SOME PROPERTIES OF BUTTER OIL PRODUCED FROM CULTURED AND UNCULTURED BUTTER AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES. Gıda. 2021; 46(3): 621-633.
IEEE T. Demir and S. Andiç , "COMPARISON OF SOME PROPERTIES OF BUTTER OIL PRODUCED FROM CULTURED AND UNCULTURED BUTTER AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES", Gıda, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 621-633, May. 2021, doi:10.15237/gida.GD20118