Research Article
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İşyerlerinin Uyum Stratejilerinin Toplum Dirençliliğine Entegrasyonu: Türkiye’den Bir Saha Çalışması

Year 2018, Volume 1, Issue 2, 36 - 58, 14.07.2018
https://doi.org/10.37246/grid.356441

Abstract

Geleneksel afet yönetimi yaklaşımlarıyla sınırlanan gelişmekte olan ülkelerde afet sonrası politikalar toplum düzeyinde dirençlilik yaratamayabilir. 1999 Depremini deneyimlemiş olan Türkiye böyle bir durumu örneklemektedir. 1999 trajedisinin ardından güvenli bir yapılı çevre oluşturmak için uygulanan politikalar yeniden yerleştirme ve yeniden yapım çabalarını içermektedir, ancak iyileşme sürecinde işyerlerinin yerel ve merkezi yönetimlerce kapsamlı düzenlemelere dahil edilmemesi afetten sonra ayakta kalmak için kendi uyum stratejilerini geliştirmelerine neden olmuştur. Bu çalışma afete maruz kalan işyerlerinin uyum stratejilerini araştırmayı amaçlamıştır. İşyeri büyüklüğü ve mülkiyet sahipliliğini gösteren bağımsız değişkenlere göre işyerlerinin afet sonrası uyum stratejileri Adapazarı örneğinde bir saha araştırması ile ele alınmıştır. Bu çalışma işyerlerinin afet sonrasında kendilerini ayakta tutacak uyum kapasitelerini ortaya koyarak afet çalışmaları alanına katkı koymaktadır. Araştırmanın temel bulguları işyeri büyüklüğü ve mülkiyet sahipliliğine göre işyerlerinin bir doğal afetten sonra ayakta kalmaya uyumlandıklarını göstermektedir. Küçük ve kiracı olan firmalar her ne kadar organizasyonel ve finansal sorunlar yaşasalar da geliştirdikleri yer seçim stratejileri ile büyük ve mülk sahibi rakiplerine karşın hayatta kalma ve adapta olabilme şanslarını artırmaktadır.

References

  • Alesch, D.J, Holly, J.N, Mittler, E, and Nagy, R. (2001), “Organizations at Risk: what Happens when Small Businesses and Non-for-Profits Encounter Natural Disasters”, Small Organizations Natural Hazards Project, First Year Technical Report, University of Wisconsin-Green Bay: the Public Entity Risk Institute, Fairfax, Virginia, USA.
  • Bibbee, A, Gonenc, R, Jacobs, S, Konvitz, J, and Price, R. (2000), “Economic Effects of the 1999 Turkish Earthquakes: An Interim Report”. OECD Economics Department Working Paper no. 247, An Interim Report, OECD Publishing.
  • Boin, A, and Mc Connell, A. (2007), “Preparing for critical infrastructure breakdowns: the limits of crisis management and the need for resilience”, Journal of Contingencies and crisis management, vol.15, no.1, pp. 50-59.
  • Brooks, N, Adger, W.N, and Kelly, P.M. (2005), “The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation”, Global Environmental Change. vol. 15, pp. 151-163.
  • Chang, S.E, and Falit-Baiamonte, A, (2002), “Disaster Vulnerability of Businesses in the 2001 Nisqually Earthquake”. Environmental Hazards, vol. 4, pp. 59-71.
  • Cutter, S.L, Barnes, L, Berry, M, Burton, C, Evans, E, Tate, E, and Webb, J. (2008), “A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters”. Global environmental change, Vol 18, pp. 598-606.
  • Dahlhamer, J.M, and Tierney, K.J. (1998), “Rebounding from Disruptive Events: Business Recovery Following the Northridge Earthquake”, Sociological Spectrum, Vol.18, pp. 121-141.
  • Dahlhamer, J.M, and D’Souza, M.J. (1995), “Determinants of Business Disaster Preparedness in Two U.S. Metropolitan Areas”. University of Delaware, Disaster Research Centre, Newark, DE: Preliminary paper no. 224.
  • Corey, C.M, and Deitch, E.A. (2011), “Factors affecting business recovery immediately after Hurricane Katrina”, Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, vol. 19, No.3, pp. 169-181.
  • Folke, C. (2006), “Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social–ecological systems analyses”, Global Environmental Change, vol.16, pp. 253-267.
  • Godschalk, D.R. (2003), “Urban hazard mitigation: Creating resilient cities”, Natural Hazards Review, vol. 4, pp. 136-143.
  • Herbane, B, (2013), “Exploring Crisis Management in UK Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises”, Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, vol.21, no. 2, pp. 82-95
  • Herbane, B, Elliott, D, and Swartz, E.M. (2004), “Business continuity management: time for a strategic role?”, Long Range Planning, vol.37, pp. 435-457.
  • Holling, C.S. (1973), “Resilience and Stability of Ecological System”, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol. 4, pp. 1-23. Norris, F.H, Stevens, S.P, Pfefferbaum, B, Wyche, K.F, Pfefferbaum, R.L. (2008), “Community resilience as a metaphor, theory, set of capacities, and strategy for disaster readiness”, American Journal of Community Psychology, vol. 41, pp. 127-150.
  • Orhan, E. (2014), “The role of lifeline losses in business continuity in the case of Adapazari, Turkey”, Environmental Hazards, vol. 13, No.4, pp. 298–312.
  • Orhan, E. (2015), “The consequences of security cognition in post-disaster urban planning practices in the case of Turkey”, Natural Hazards, vol. 76, no.1, pp. 685–703.
  • Orhan, E. (2016a), “Building community resilience: business preparedness lessons in the case of Adapazarı, Turkey”, Disasters, vol. 40, no.1, pp. 45-64.
  • Orhan, E. (2016b), “Urban spatial structuring following disasters: empirical findings from location choices of businesses in Adapazari, Turkey”, Journal of Risk Research, vol. 19, no.7, pp. 964-982.
  • Orhan, E. (2016c), “Lessons learned from businesses to ensure community level recovery in a post-disaster period: Case from Adapazari, Turkey”, Natural Hazards Review, vol. 17, no.1 pp. 05015002-1-12.
  • Orhan, E.,(2016d) “Reading vulnerabilities through urban planning history: an earthquake-prone city, Adapazari case from Turkey, METU Journal of Faculty of Architecture, vol. 33, no.2, pp.139-159.
  • Orhan, E., (2017) “Factors affecting post-disaster location choices of businesses: an analysis of the 1999 earthquake”, Environmental Hazards, vol. 16, no.4, pp. 363-382.
  • Pitt, M, and Goyal, S. (2004), “Business continuity planning as a facilities management tool”, Facilities, vol. 22, no. 3-4, pp. 87-99. Powell, F, and Harding, A. (2009), “Business Recovery and the Rebuilding of Commercial Property. Proceedings of ‘Shaken Up’ a workshop on recovery following the Gisborne Earthquake”, held in Wellington on 7 December 2009.
  • Prime Ministry Crisis Centre, (2000), Earthquakes 1999. T.R. Prime Ministry Press, Ankara. Renschler, C.S, Fraizer, A.E, Arendt, L.A, Cimellaro, G, Reinhorn, A.M, and Bruneau, M. (2010), “A framework for defining and measuring resilience at the community scale: The PEOPLES resilience framework”, US Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology.
  • Runyan, R.C. (2006), “Small Business in the Face of Crisis: Identifying Barriers to Recovery from a Natural Disaster”, Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management. Vol.14, no.1, pp. 12-26.
  • Smit, B, and Wandel, J. (2006), “Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability”, Global Environmental Change, vol. 16, pp. 282-292. SPO (State Planning Organization). (1999), “Economic and social impacts of disasters, possible financial needs, measures taken in short- and medium-terms”. SPO Publications: Ankara, Turkey.
  • Tierney, K.J. (1997), “Business Impacts of the Northridge Earthquake”, Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, vol. 5, no.2, pp. 87-97.
  • Tierney, K.J, and Webb, G.R. (2001), “Business Vulnerability to Earthquakes and Other Disasters”, Newark, DE: University of Delaware, Disaster Research Centre, Preliminary paper no. 320.
  • Tierney, K.J, and Dahlhamer, J.M. (1997), “Business Disruption, Preparedness and Recovery: Lessons from the Northridge Earthquake”. Newark, DE: University of Delaware, Disaster Research Centre, Preliminary paper no. 257.
  • Tobin, G.A. (1999), “Sustainability and Community resilience: The holy grail of hazards planning?” Environmental Hazards. Vol.1, pp. 13-25. TurkStat, (2001), “The Report on the Survey Conducted between the Dates of 4-11 October 1999 to Determine the Impact of the Earthquake Zone that a Severe Earthquake Occurred on 17 August 1999”. Turkish Statistical Institute, Ankara.
  • Walker, B.C.S, Holling, S, Carpenter, R, and Kinzig. A. (2004), “Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social–ecological systems”, Ecology and Society. vol.9, no.2, pp. 5.
  • Wasileski, G., Rodrigues, H., and Walter, D. (2011), “Business closure and relocation: A comparative analysis of the Loma Prieta Earthquake and Hurricane Andrew”, Disasters, Vol. 35, no.1, pp. 102-129.
  • Webb, G.R., Tierney, K.J., and Dahlhamer, J.M. (1999), “Businesses and Disasters: Empirical Patterns of Unanswered Questions”, Newark, DE: University of Delaware, Disaster Research Centre, Preliminary paper no. 281.
  • Webb, G.R., Tierney, K.J., and Dahlhamer, J.M. (2002), “Predicting Long-term Business Recovery from Disaster: A comparison of the Loma Prieta Earthquake and Hurricane Andrew”, Environmental Hazards. Vol. 4, pp. 45-58.
  • Zhang, Y., Lindell, M.K., and Prater, C.S. (2009), “Vulnerability of Community Businesses to Environmental Disasters”, Disasters, vol.33 no.1, pp. 38-57.

Integrating Adaptation Strategies of Businesses with Community Resilience: A Case from Turkey

Year 2018, Volume 1, Issue 2, 36 - 58, 14.07.2018
https://doi.org/10.37246/grid.356441

Abstract

In developing countries bounded by traditional approaches of disaster management, post-disaster policies may not lead to resilience at aggregate level. Turkey exemplifies the case with its experience in the 1999 Izmit earthquake. The policies applied following the 1999 trajectory to create a safer built environment incorporated resettlement and reconstruction efforts, yet businesses were largely unregulated by local and national governments during the recovery process which leads to development of their own adaptive strategies to survive after the disaster. This paper aims to analyse the adaptation strategies of private enterprises in the face of disasters. In this respect, a case study research was undertaken in Adapazari, Turkey to inquire their adaptive strategies after the disaster with respect to the independent variables of business size and occupancy status. This paper contributes to the field of disaster studies by showing businesses’ adaptive capacities that enable them to survive following a disaster. The key findings of this study present that businesses adapt for survival after a natural disaster in accordance with their business size and occupancy status. Although small firms and lease-holder firms challenge with organizational and financial problems, they are able to develop locational strategies which increase their survival change and adaptability against their larger and owner occupied counterparts.

References

  • Alesch, D.J, Holly, J.N, Mittler, E, and Nagy, R. (2001), “Organizations at Risk: what Happens when Small Businesses and Non-for-Profits Encounter Natural Disasters”, Small Organizations Natural Hazards Project, First Year Technical Report, University of Wisconsin-Green Bay: the Public Entity Risk Institute, Fairfax, Virginia, USA.
  • Bibbee, A, Gonenc, R, Jacobs, S, Konvitz, J, and Price, R. (2000), “Economic Effects of the 1999 Turkish Earthquakes: An Interim Report”. OECD Economics Department Working Paper no. 247, An Interim Report, OECD Publishing.
  • Boin, A, and Mc Connell, A. (2007), “Preparing for critical infrastructure breakdowns: the limits of crisis management and the need for resilience”, Journal of Contingencies and crisis management, vol.15, no.1, pp. 50-59.
  • Brooks, N, Adger, W.N, and Kelly, P.M. (2005), “The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation”, Global Environmental Change. vol. 15, pp. 151-163.
  • Chang, S.E, and Falit-Baiamonte, A, (2002), “Disaster Vulnerability of Businesses in the 2001 Nisqually Earthquake”. Environmental Hazards, vol. 4, pp. 59-71.
  • Cutter, S.L, Barnes, L, Berry, M, Burton, C, Evans, E, Tate, E, and Webb, J. (2008), “A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters”. Global environmental change, Vol 18, pp. 598-606.
  • Dahlhamer, J.M, and Tierney, K.J. (1998), “Rebounding from Disruptive Events: Business Recovery Following the Northridge Earthquake”, Sociological Spectrum, Vol.18, pp. 121-141.
  • Dahlhamer, J.M, and D’Souza, M.J. (1995), “Determinants of Business Disaster Preparedness in Two U.S. Metropolitan Areas”. University of Delaware, Disaster Research Centre, Newark, DE: Preliminary paper no. 224.
  • Corey, C.M, and Deitch, E.A. (2011), “Factors affecting business recovery immediately after Hurricane Katrina”, Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, vol. 19, No.3, pp. 169-181.
  • Folke, C. (2006), “Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social–ecological systems analyses”, Global Environmental Change, vol.16, pp. 253-267.
  • Godschalk, D.R. (2003), “Urban hazard mitigation: Creating resilient cities”, Natural Hazards Review, vol. 4, pp. 136-143.
  • Herbane, B, (2013), “Exploring Crisis Management in UK Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises”, Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, vol.21, no. 2, pp. 82-95
  • Herbane, B, Elliott, D, and Swartz, E.M. (2004), “Business continuity management: time for a strategic role?”, Long Range Planning, vol.37, pp. 435-457.
  • Holling, C.S. (1973), “Resilience and Stability of Ecological System”, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol. 4, pp. 1-23. Norris, F.H, Stevens, S.P, Pfefferbaum, B, Wyche, K.F, Pfefferbaum, R.L. (2008), “Community resilience as a metaphor, theory, set of capacities, and strategy for disaster readiness”, American Journal of Community Psychology, vol. 41, pp. 127-150.
  • Orhan, E. (2014), “The role of lifeline losses in business continuity in the case of Adapazari, Turkey”, Environmental Hazards, vol. 13, No.4, pp. 298–312.
  • Orhan, E. (2015), “The consequences of security cognition in post-disaster urban planning practices in the case of Turkey”, Natural Hazards, vol. 76, no.1, pp. 685–703.
  • Orhan, E. (2016a), “Building community resilience: business preparedness lessons in the case of Adapazarı, Turkey”, Disasters, vol. 40, no.1, pp. 45-64.
  • Orhan, E. (2016b), “Urban spatial structuring following disasters: empirical findings from location choices of businesses in Adapazari, Turkey”, Journal of Risk Research, vol. 19, no.7, pp. 964-982.
  • Orhan, E. (2016c), “Lessons learned from businesses to ensure community level recovery in a post-disaster period: Case from Adapazari, Turkey”, Natural Hazards Review, vol. 17, no.1 pp. 05015002-1-12.
  • Orhan, E.,(2016d) “Reading vulnerabilities through urban planning history: an earthquake-prone city, Adapazari case from Turkey, METU Journal of Faculty of Architecture, vol. 33, no.2, pp.139-159.
  • Orhan, E., (2017) “Factors affecting post-disaster location choices of businesses: an analysis of the 1999 earthquake”, Environmental Hazards, vol. 16, no.4, pp. 363-382.
  • Pitt, M, and Goyal, S. (2004), “Business continuity planning as a facilities management tool”, Facilities, vol. 22, no. 3-4, pp. 87-99. Powell, F, and Harding, A. (2009), “Business Recovery and the Rebuilding of Commercial Property. Proceedings of ‘Shaken Up’ a workshop on recovery following the Gisborne Earthquake”, held in Wellington on 7 December 2009.
  • Prime Ministry Crisis Centre, (2000), Earthquakes 1999. T.R. Prime Ministry Press, Ankara. Renschler, C.S, Fraizer, A.E, Arendt, L.A, Cimellaro, G, Reinhorn, A.M, and Bruneau, M. (2010), “A framework for defining and measuring resilience at the community scale: The PEOPLES resilience framework”, US Department of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology.
  • Runyan, R.C. (2006), “Small Business in the Face of Crisis: Identifying Barriers to Recovery from a Natural Disaster”, Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management. Vol.14, no.1, pp. 12-26.
  • Smit, B, and Wandel, J. (2006), “Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability”, Global Environmental Change, vol. 16, pp. 282-292. SPO (State Planning Organization). (1999), “Economic and social impacts of disasters, possible financial needs, measures taken in short- and medium-terms”. SPO Publications: Ankara, Turkey.
  • Tierney, K.J. (1997), “Business Impacts of the Northridge Earthquake”, Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, vol. 5, no.2, pp. 87-97.
  • Tierney, K.J, and Webb, G.R. (2001), “Business Vulnerability to Earthquakes and Other Disasters”, Newark, DE: University of Delaware, Disaster Research Centre, Preliminary paper no. 320.
  • Tierney, K.J, and Dahlhamer, J.M. (1997), “Business Disruption, Preparedness and Recovery: Lessons from the Northridge Earthquake”. Newark, DE: University of Delaware, Disaster Research Centre, Preliminary paper no. 257.
  • Tobin, G.A. (1999), “Sustainability and Community resilience: The holy grail of hazards planning?” Environmental Hazards. Vol.1, pp. 13-25. TurkStat, (2001), “The Report on the Survey Conducted between the Dates of 4-11 October 1999 to Determine the Impact of the Earthquake Zone that a Severe Earthquake Occurred on 17 August 1999”. Turkish Statistical Institute, Ankara.
  • Walker, B.C.S, Holling, S, Carpenter, R, and Kinzig. A. (2004), “Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social–ecological systems”, Ecology and Society. vol.9, no.2, pp. 5.
  • Wasileski, G., Rodrigues, H., and Walter, D. (2011), “Business closure and relocation: A comparative analysis of the Loma Prieta Earthquake and Hurricane Andrew”, Disasters, Vol. 35, no.1, pp. 102-129.
  • Webb, G.R., Tierney, K.J., and Dahlhamer, J.M. (1999), “Businesses and Disasters: Empirical Patterns of Unanswered Questions”, Newark, DE: University of Delaware, Disaster Research Centre, Preliminary paper no. 281.
  • Webb, G.R., Tierney, K.J., and Dahlhamer, J.M. (2002), “Predicting Long-term Business Recovery from Disaster: A comparison of the Loma Prieta Earthquake and Hurricane Andrew”, Environmental Hazards. Vol. 4, pp. 45-58.
  • Zhang, Y., Lindell, M.K., and Prater, C.S. (2009), “Vulnerability of Community Businesses to Environmental Disasters”, Disasters, vol.33 no.1, pp. 38-57.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Planning and Development
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Ezgi ORHAN> (Primary Author)
ÇANKAYA ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-9124-7812
Türkiye

Publication Date July 14, 2018
Published in Issue Year 2018, Volume 1, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { grid356441, journal = {GRID - Architecture Planning and Design Journal}, eissn = {2619-9556}, address = {Çankaya Üniversitesi Mimarlık Fakültesi, Balgat Kampüsü, Öğretmenler Caddesi, No: 14, 06530 Balgat/ANKARA/TÜRKİYE}, publisher = {Cankaya University}, year = {2018}, volume = {1}, number = {2}, pages = {36 - 58}, doi = {10.37246/grid.356441}, title = {Integrating Adaptation Strategies of Businesses with Community Resilience: A Case from Turkey}, key = {cite}, author = {Orhan, Ezgi} }
APA Orhan, E. (2018). Integrating Adaptation Strategies of Businesses with Community Resilience: A Case from Turkey . GRID - Architecture Planning and Design Journal , 1 (2) , 36-58 . DOI: 10.37246/grid.356441
MLA Orhan, E. "Integrating Adaptation Strategies of Businesses with Community Resilience: A Case from Turkey" . GRID - Architecture Planning and Design Journal 1 (2018 ): 36-58 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/grid/issue/38317/356441>
Chicago Orhan, E. "Integrating Adaptation Strategies of Businesses with Community Resilience: A Case from Turkey". GRID - Architecture Planning and Design Journal 1 (2018 ): 36-58
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Integrating Adaptation Strategies of Businesses with Community Resilience: A Case from Turkey AU - EzgiOrhan Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - doi: 10.37246/grid.356441 DO - 10.37246/grid.356441 T2 - GRID - Architecture Planning and Design Journal JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 36 EP - 58 VL - 1 IS - 2 SN - -2619-9556 M3 - doi: 10.37246/grid.356441 UR - https://doi.org/10.37246/grid.356441 Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 GRID - Architecture Planning and Design Journal Integrating Adaptation Strategies of Businesses with Community Resilience: A Case from Turkey %A Ezgi Orhan %T Integrating Adaptation Strategies of Businesses with Community Resilience: A Case from Turkey %D 2018 %J GRID - Architecture Planning and Design Journal %P -2619-9556 %V 1 %N 2 %R doi: 10.37246/grid.356441 %U 10.37246/grid.356441
ISNAD Orhan, Ezgi . "Integrating Adaptation Strategies of Businesses with Community Resilience: A Case from Turkey". GRID - Architecture Planning and Design Journal 1 / 2 (July 2018): 36-58 . https://doi.org/10.37246/grid.356441
AMA Orhan E. Integrating Adaptation Strategies of Businesses with Community Resilience: A Case from Turkey. GRID. 2018; 1(2): 36-58.
Vancouver Orhan E. Integrating Adaptation Strategies of Businesses with Community Resilience: A Case from Turkey. GRID - Architecture Planning and Design Journal. 2018; 1(2): 36-58.
IEEE E. Orhan , "Integrating Adaptation Strategies of Businesses with Community Resilience: A Case from Turkey", GRID - Architecture Planning and Design Journal, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 36-58, Jul. 2018, doi:10.37246/grid.356441