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Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality in Psychiatric Disorders

Year 2021, Volume 9, Issue 3, 516 - 532, 30.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.29109/gujsc.961331

Abstract

In this study, studies conducted in the last 10 years in psychiatric disorders with virtual reality and augmented reality application were examined. Studies done so far; The psychiatric disorder studied, the equipment used, the number of people participating in the study, the database in which the study was scanned, and the results of the studies were evaluated according to the criteria. Studies using disease-specific questionnaires include 30% of all studies. In some studies, it is seen that physiological parameters are also used. Studies using physiological parameters correspond to only 10% of all studies. The practices carried out are to reduce the symptoms brought by the disease and to increase the quality of life by helping to eliminate the disease conditions of the people. Approximately 77% of the studies were carried out in the field of virtual reality and 23% in the field of augmented reality. Based on the articles examined within the scope of the study, some deficiencies in virtual reality and/or augmented reality applications in psychiatric diseases were identified. For example, whether the applications made have a disturbing effect on the users should be determined by using the SSQ questionnaire. In addition, the auditory parameters as well as the visual parameters that make up the virtual environment should be used effectively in this process. It has been observed that among the studies in the literature, the positive or negative effects of auditory parameters on users are not mentioned. It is considered that it will be beneficial for studies to examine the effect of auditory elements in the use of virtual reality environment.

References

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  • [30] Raghav, K., Van Wijk, A. J., Abdullah, F., Islam, M. N., Bernatchez, M., De Jongh, A., Efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy for treatment of dental phobia: a randomized control trial. BMC oral health, 16(1), (2016), 1-11.
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Psikiyatrik Rahatsızlıklarda Sanal Gerçeklik ve Artırılmış Gerçeklik

Year 2021, Volume 9, Issue 3, 516 - 532, 30.09.2021
https://doi.org/10.29109/gujsc.961331

Abstract

Bu çalışmada sanal gerçeklik ve artırılmış gerçeklik uygulaması ile psikiyatrik rahatsızlıklarda son 10 yılda yapılan çalışmalar incelenmiştir. Günümüze kadar yapılan çalışmalar; çalışılan psikiyatrik rahatsızlık, kullanılan ekipmanlar, çalışmaya katılan kişi sayısı, çalışmanın tarandığı veri tabanı ve çalışmaların sonuçları kriterlerine göre ele alınmıştır. Hastalığa özgü kullanılan anketlerin kullanıldığı çalışmalar tüm çalışmaların %30’u içermektedir. Bazı çalışmalarda fizyolojik parametrelerden de yararlanıldığını görülmektedir. Fizyolojik parametrelerden yararlanılarak yapılan çalışmalar tüm çalışmalar içerisinde sadece %10’luk kısma denk gelmektedir. Gerçekleştirilen uygulamalar hastalığın getirdiği semptomları azaltmak ve kişilerin hastalık durumlarını ortadan kaldırmaya yardımcı olarak yaşam kalitesini arttırmaktır. Çalışmaların yaklaşık %77’si sanal gerçeklik alanında %23’si ise artırılmış gerçeklik alanında yapılmıştır. Çalışma kapsamında incelenen makalelerden yola çıkarak psikiyatrik hastalıklarda sanal gerçeklik ve/veya artırılmış gerçeklik uygulamaları ile ilgili bazı eksiklikler tespit edilmiştir. Örneğin yapılan uygulamaların kullanıcılar üzerinde rahatsız edici bir etkisinin olup olmama durumu SSQ anketi kullanılarak tespit edilmelidir. Ayrıca sanal çevreyi oluşturan görsel parametreler kadar işitsel parametreler de bu süreçte etkin olarak kullanılmalıdır. Literatürde yer alan çalışmalar içerisinde işitsel parametrelerin kullanıcıları olumlu ya da olumsuz etki durumlarına değinilmediği görülmüştür. Sanal gerçeklik ortamını kullanımında işitsel ögelerin de etkisini incelemek çalışmalar açısından faydalı olacağı değerlendirilmektedir.

References

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  • [2] Azuma, R., Baillot, Y., Behringer, R., Feiner, S., Julier, S., and MacIntyre, B., Recent advances in augmented reality. Comput. Graph., 25, doi:10.1109/38. 963459, (2001), 1–15.
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  • [4] Mantar, A., Yemez, B., & Alkın, T., Anksiyete duyarlılığı ve psikiyatrik bozukluklardaki yeri. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 22(3), (2011), 187-193.
  • [5] Tütüncü, R., & Günay, H., Kronik agri, psikolojik etmenler ve depresyon/Chronic pain, psychological factors and depression. Dicle Tip Dergisi, 38(2), 257, (2011).
  • [6] Välimäki, M., Hätönen, H. M., Lahti, M. E., Kurki, M., Hottinen, A., Metsäranta, K., ... & Adams, C. E., Virtual reality for treatment compliance for people with serious mental illness. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (10), (2014).
  • [7] Kandalaft, M. R., Didehbani, N., Krawczyk, D. C., Allen, T. T., Chapman, S. B., Virtual reality social cognition training for young adults with high-functioning autism. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 43(1), (2013), 34-44.
  • [8] Díaz-Orueta, U., Garcia-López, C., Crespo-Eguílaz, N., Sánchez-Carpintero, R., Climent, G., Narbona, J., AULA virtual reality test as an attention measure: Convergent validity with Conners’ Continuous Performance Test. Child Neuropsychology, 20(3), (2014), 328-342.
  • [9] Lin, C. Y., Chang, Y. M., Interactive augmented reality using Scratch 2.0 to improve physical activities for children with developmental disabilities. Research in developmental disabilities, 37, (2015), 1-8.
  • [10] Newbutt, N., Sung, C., Kuo, H. J., Leahy, M. J., Lin, C. C., Tong, B., Brief report: A pilot study of the use of a virtual reality headset in autism populations. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 46(9), (2016), 3166-3176.
  • [11] Crowell, C., Sayis, B., Benitez, J. P., Pares, N., Mixed reality, full-body interactive experience to encourage social initiation for autism: Comparison with a control nondigital intervention. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 23(1), (2020), 5-9.
  • [12] Antão, J. Y. F. D. L., Abreu, L. C. D., Barbosa, R. T. D. A., Crocetta, T. B., Guarnieri, R., Massetti, T., ... & Monteiro, C. B. D. M., Use of augmented reality with a motion-controlled game utilizing alphabet letters and numbers to improve performance and reaction time skills for people with autism spectrum disorder. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 23(1), (2020), 16-22.
  • [13] Newbutt, N., Bradley, R., Conley, I., Using virtual reality head-mounted displays in schools with autistic children: views, experiences, and future directions. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 23(1), (2020), 23-33.
  • [14] Gorini, A., Riva, G., The potential of Virtual Reality as anxiety management tool: a randomized controlled study in a sample of patients affected by Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Trials, 9(1), (2008), 1-9.
  • [15] Botella, C., Bretón-López, J., Quero, S., Baños, R., & García-Palacios, A., Treating cockroach phobia with augmented reality. Behavior therapy, 41(3), (2010), 401-413.
  • [16] Powers, M. B., Briceno, N. F., Gresham, R., Jouriles, E. N., Emmelkamp, P. M., Smits, J. A., Do conversations with virtual avatars increase feelings of social anxiety?. Journal of anxiety disorders, 27(4), (2013), 398-403.
  • [17] Rus-Calafell, M., Gutiérrez-Maldonado, J., Botella, C., Baños, R. M., Virtual reality exposure and imaginal exposure in the treatment of fear of flying: a pilot study. Behavior modification, 37(4), (2013), 568-590.
  • [18] Shiban, Y., Schelhorn, I., Pauli, P., Mühlberger, A., Effect of combined multiple contexts and multiple stimuli exposure in spider phobia: A randomized clinical trial in virtual reality. Behaviour research and therapy, 71, (2015), 45-53.
  • [19] Botella, C., Pérez-Ara, M. Á., Bretón-López, J., Quero, S., García-Palacios, A., & Baños, R. M., In vivo versus augmented reality exposure in the treatment of small animal phobia: a randomized controlled trial. PloS one, 11(2), e0148237, (2016).
  • [20] Shiban, Y., Peperkorn, H., Alpers, G. W., Pauli, P., Mühlberger, A., Influence of perceptual cues and conceptual information on the activation and reduction of claustrophobic fear. Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry, 51, (2016), 19-26.
  • [21] Schweizer, T., Schmitz, J., Plempe, L., Sun, D., Becker-Asano, C., Leonhart, R., Tuschen-Caffier, B., The impact of pre-existing anxiety on affective and cognitive processing of a Virtual Reality analogue trauma. Plos one, 12(12), e0190360, (2017).
  • [22] Tsai, C. F., Yeh, S. C., Huang, Y., Wu, Z., Cui, J., Zheng, L., The effect of augmented reality and virtual reality on inducing anxiety for exposure therapy: a comparison using heart rate variability. Journal of Healthcare Engineering, (2018).
  • [23] Yeh, S. C., Li, Y. Y., Zhou, C., Chiu, P. H., Chen, J. W., Effects of virtual reality and augmented reality on induced anxiety. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, 26(7), (2018), 1345-1352.
  • [24] Brás, S., Soares, S. C., Cruz, T., Magalhães, T., Marques, B., Dantas, C., ... & Fernandes, J. M., The feasibility of an augment reality system to study the psychophysiological correlates of fear‐related responses. Brain and behavior, 8(9), e01084, (2018).
  • [25] Martens, M. A., Antley, A., Freeman, D., Slater, M., Harrison, P. J., Tunbridge, E. M., It feels real: physiological responses to a stressful virtual reality environment and its impact on working memory. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 33(10), (2019), 1264-1273.
  • [26] Freeman, D., Yu, L. M., Kabir, T., Martin, J., Craven, M., Leal, J., ... & Waite, F., Automated virtual reality (VR) cognitive therapy for patients with psychosis: study protocol for a single-blind parallel group randomised controlled trial (gameChange). BMJ open, 9(8), e031606, (2019).
  • [27] Schwarzmeier, H., Leehr, E. J., Böhnlein, J., Seeger, F. R., Roesmann, K., Gathmann, B., ... & Dannlowski, U., Theranostic markers for personalized therapy of spider phobia: Methods of a bicentric external cross‐validation machine learning approach. International journal of methods in psychiatric research, 29(2), e1812, (2020).
  • [28] Bossenbroek, R., Wols, A., Weerdmeester, J., Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A., Granic, I., van Rooij, M. M., Efficacy of a virtual reality biofeedback game (DEEP) to reduce anxiety and disruptive classroom behavior: Single-case study. JMIR mental health, 7(3), e16066, (2020).
  • [29] Dibbets, P., A novel virtual reality paradigm: Predictors for stress-related intrusions and avoidance behavior. Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry, 67, 101449, (2020).
  • [30] Raghav, K., Van Wijk, A. J., Abdullah, F., Islam, M. N., Bernatchez, M., De Jongh, A., Efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy for treatment of dental phobia: a randomized control trial. BMC oral health, 16(1), (2016), 1-11.
  • [31] Niharika, P., Reddy, N. V., Srujana, P., Srikanth, K., Daneswari, V., Geetha, K. S., Effects of distraction using virtual reality technology on pain perception and anxiety levels in children during pulp therapy of primary molars. Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, 36(4), 364, (2018).
  • [32] Gujjar, K. R., Van Wijk, A., Sharma, R., De Jongh, A., Virtual reality exposure therapy for the treatment of dental phobia: a controlled feasibility study. Behavioural and cognitive psychotherapy, 46(3), 367, (2018).
  • [33] Jiang, M. Y., Upton, E., Newby, J. M., A randomised wait-list controlled pilot trial of one-session virtual reality exposure therapy for blood-injection-injury phobias. Journal of Affective Disorders, 276, (2020), 636-645.
  • [34] Kanzler, C. M., Schwarz, A., Held, J. P., Luft, A. R., Gassert, R., Lambercy, O., Technology-aided assessment of functionally relevant sensorimotor impairments in arm and hand of post-stroke individuals. Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation, 17(1), (2020), 1-15.
  • [35] da Costa, R. M. E. M., de Carvalho, L. A. V., The acceptance of virtual reality devices for cognitive rehabilitation: a report of positive results with schizophrenia. Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 73(3), (2004), 173-182.
  • [36] Sorkin, A., Weinshall, D., Modai, I., Peled, A., Improving the accuracy of the diagnosis of schizophrenia by means of virtual reality. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(3), (2006), 512-520.
  • [37] Kim, K., Kim, S. I., Cha, K. R., Park, J., Rosenthal, M. Z., Kim, J. J., ... & Kim, C. H., Development of a computer-based behavioral assessment of checking behavior in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 51(1), (2010), 86-93.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Engineering
Journal Section Tasarım ve Teknoloji
Authors

Neşe ÖZKAN YILMAZ> (Primary Author)
AFYON KOCATEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-4411-4838
Türkiye


Fecir DURAN>
GAZİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ, TEKNOLOJİ FAKÜLTESİ, BİLGİSAYAR MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0001-7256-5471
Türkiye


Ugur FİDAN>
AFYON KOCATEPE ÜNİVERSİTESİ, MÜHENDİSLİK FAKÜLTESİ, BİYOMEDİKAL MÜHENDİSLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ
0000-0003-0356-017X
Türkiye

Publication Date September 30, 2021
Application Date July 2, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 9, Issue 3

Cite

APA Özkan Yılmaz, N. , Duran, F. & Fidan, U. (2021). Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality in Psychiatric Disorders . Gazi University Journal of Science Part C: Design and Technology , 9 (3) , 516-532 . DOI: 10.29109/gujsc.961331

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