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DEVLET BAŞKANLIĞI MAKAMINDA GÖREV SÜRESİ ve DÖNEM SINIRINI UZATMAYA YÖNELİK POLİTİK MANİPÜLASYONLAR

Year 2021, Volume 13, Issue 2, 151 - 185, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.53881/hiad.973184

Abstract

Bu çalışmamızda demokrasilerde devlet başkanlığı makamında görev süresi ve dönem sınırını uzatmaya yönelik muhtelif politik manipülasyonları incelemeyi amaçlıyoruz. Anayasada düzenlenen görev süresi sınırından kaçınmak isteyen devlet başkanlarının bu tercihlerini anayasal kuralı değiştirme, yeni bir anayasa hazırlama, yüksek yargı kararları ile dönem sınırını esnetme ya da kaldırma gibi kurumsal yöntemlere başvurarak elde etmeye çalıştıkları görülmektedir.

References

  • Aktan, Coşkun Can, Mütemadi Siyasi Liderlik, İzmir: Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Derneği, Hukuk ve İktisat Araştırmaları Merkezi Yayını.2021.
  • Arriola, Leonardo R “Capital and Opposition in Africa Coalition Building in Multiethnic Societies”, World Politics, Vol: 65, No: 2, 2013, pp. 233-272.
  • Baturo Alexander, “The Stakes of Losing Office, Term Limits and Democracy”, British Journal of Political Sciences, Vol: 40, No: 3, 2010, pp. 635-662.
  • Baturo, Alexander , Continuismo in Comparison: Avoidance, Extension And Removal Of Presidential Term Limits. In The Politics of Presidential Term Limits, ed. A. Baturo and R. Elgie, 2019.75–99. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • BBC Mundo, “Evo Morales renuncia a la presidencia de Bolivia y denuncia un golpe de Estado”, https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america-latina-50370125, Erişim tarihi 10.6.2021.
  • BBC News, “China's Xi allowed to remain 'president for life' as term limits removed”, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-43361276, Erişim tarihi: 10.6.2021.
  • Bolivya Çokuluslu Anayasa Mahkemesi (Tribunal Constitucional Plurinacional) Kararı, Sentencia 0084/2017, 28 de Noviembre 2017, Başlık “III.4. De las Eventuales ‘antinomias’ o ‘contradicciones’ entrenormas del Texto Constitucional y el organo legitimado para realizar su control”.
  • Cassani Andrea, “Law-Abiders, Lame Ducks, and Over-Stayers: the Africa Executive Term Limits (AETL) Dataset”, European Political Science, DOI: https://doi.prg/10.1057/s41301-020-00291-w, 12 October 2020.
  • Cassani Andrea, “Autocratization by Term Limits Manipulation in Sub-Saharan Africa”, Africa Spectrum, Vol. 55, No. 3, pp. 2021, 228-250.
  • Cheeseman, Nic, “Africa-Presidential Term Limits and the Third Term Tragedy”, 2016, <https://presidential-power.com/?p=4874, Erişim tarihi: 19.6.2021.
  • Cheeseman, Nic, “Should I Stay or Should I Go? Term Limits, Elections, and Political Change in Kenya, Uganda and Zambia”, The Politics of Presidential Term Limits (pp.311-338),
  • Corrales Javier, “Can Anyone Stop the President? Power Asymmetries and Term Limits in Latin America, 1984-2016”, Latin American Politics and Society, Vol. 58, No. 2, 2016, pp. 3-35.
  • Dulani Boniface, “Democracy Movements as Bulwarks Against Presidential Usurpation of Power: Lessons fro the Third-Term Bids in Malawi, Namibia, Uganda and Zambia”, Stichproben, Wiener Zeitschrift für kritische Afrikastudien Nr. 20/2011, (2011b) 11, pp. 115-139.
  • Dulani Boniface, “Personal Rule and Presidential Term Limits in Africa”, Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Michigan State University, 2011 (2011a).
  • Dixon Rosalind, Landau David, “Constitutional End Games: Making Presidential Term Limits Stick”, Hasting Law Journal, Vol. 71, No. 2, 2020, pp. 359-418.
  • Durant, W. Felsefenin Öyküsü, (Çev: E. Gürol), İstanbul: İz Yayıncılık, 2014.
  • Ekinci Ahmet, Kaplan Arık Aslıhan, “Devlet Başkanının Anayasal Dönem Sınırını Uzatan ya da Ortadan Kaldıran Anayasa Değişikliklerinin Anayasa Değiştirme İktidarının Kötüye Kullanılması Bağlamında Değerlendirilmesi”, Yıldırım Beyazıt Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi, 2020/1, 71-122.
  • Fitzgibbon, Russell H. 1992. “Continuismo: The Search for Political Longevity.” In: Hamill, Hugh H. ed. Caudillos: Dictators in Spanish America. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 210–21
  • Freedom House, “Countries and Territories”, https://freedomhouse.org/countries/freedom-world/scores, Erişim tarihi 06.6.2021.
  • Geddens Barbara, “What do We Know About Democratization After Twenty Years”, Annual Review of Political Science, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1999, pp. 115-144.
  • Ginsburg Tom, Melton James, Elkins Zachary, “On the Evasion of Executive Term Limits”, William and Mary Law Review, Vol: 52, No: 6, 2011, pp. 1807-1872.
  • Landau David, Roznai Yaniv, Dixon Rosalind, “Term Limits and the Unconstitutional Constitutional Amendment Doctrine: Lessons From Latin America”, 2019, https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3208187, Erişim tarihi 16.6.2021.
  • Holley David, "Kazakhstan lifts term limits on long-ruling leader", Los Angeles Times, https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-2007-may-19-fg-kazakh19-story.html, 2007, Erişim tarihi 17.6.2021.
  • Hualde, Alejandro Perez,”Las Reelecciones y Su Limite: Periodicidad y Alternancia”, Paraná Eleitoral, Vol: 2, 2013, pp, 141-162.
  • Human Rights Watch, Uzbekistan: President Rigs Extended Term of Office, 2002, https://www.hrw.org/news/2002/01/24/uzbekistan-president-rigs-extended-term-office, Erişim tarihi 17.6.2021.
  • Malavi Yüksek Mahkemesi Kararı, State v. Ex Parte Muluzi and Another (2 of 2009) MWHC 16 May 2009
  • Maltz, Gideon “The Case for Presidential Term Limits”. Jorunal of Democracy. Vol. 18. No. 1. 2007, pp. 128-142.
  • McKie, Kristin. “Presidential Term Limit Contravention: Abolish, Extend, Fail, or Respect?” Comparative Political Studies, (March 2019).
  • Marx, Karl, Engels, F. The Communist Manifesto (Isaac J., Ed.). New Haven; London: Yale University Press. 2012.
  • Nowack Daniel, “Process Tracing the Term Limit Struggle in Malawi: The Role of International Democracy Promotion in Muluzi’s Bid for a Third Term”, Africa Spectrum, Vol. 55, No. 3, pp. 291-320.
  • Nikaragua Yüksek Mahkemesi Kararı, Sentencia No: 504, EXP. No. 602-09, 2009.
  • Osei Anja, Akinocho Herve, Mwombela Stephen, “Presidential Term Limits and Regime Types: When Do Leaders Respect Constitutional Norms?”, Africa Spectrum, Vol. 55, No. 3, 2020, pp. 251-271.
  • Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries, https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/blank_1#blank_idmg_1, Erişim tarihi 16.6.2021.
  • Penfold Michael, Corrales Javier, Hernandez Gonzalo, “Los Invencibles: La Reeleccion Presidencial y Los Cambios Constitucionales en America Latina”, Revista Ciencia Politica, Bol. 34, No. 3, 2014, pp. 534-559.
  • Posner Daniel, Young Daniel “Term Limits-Leadership, Political Competition and the Transfer of Power”, Institutions and Democracy in Africa, Ed. Cheeseman, Nic Oxford University Press, 2018, pp. 260-277.
  • Posner, Daniel Young Daniel, The Institutionalization Of Political Power in Africa. Journal of Democracy 18 (3): 2007. 126–140.
  • RFERL, “Uzbekistan: Official Acquiescence In Karimov Presidential Bid Draws Fire”, 2007, https://www.rferl.org/a/1079167.html, Erişim tarihi 17.6.2021.
  • Tocqueville, Alexis de, Demokratik Zorbalık, (çev. E.Erbaş), İstanbul: Can Yayınları, 2020.
  • Tocqueville, Alexis de, Democracy in America: Historical-Critical Edition of De la démocratie en Amérique, ed. Eduardo Nolla, translated from the French by James T. Schleifer. A Bilingual French-English edition, 1840. (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2010). 4 vols. Online erişim: https://oll.libertyfund.org/title/schleifer-democracy-in-america-historical-critical-edition-4-vols-lf-ed-2010
  • Tull Denis M, Simons Claudila, “The Institutionalisation of Power Revisited: Presidential Term Limits in Africa”, Africa Spectrum, Vol: 52, No: 2, 2017.
  • Vandeginste Stef, “Legal Loopholes and the Politics of Executive Term Limits: Insights from Burundi, African Spectrum, Vol. 51, 2016, pp. 39-63.
  • Versteeg Mila, Horley Timothy, Meng Anne, Guim Mauricio, Guirguis Marilyn, “The Law and Politics of Presidential Term Limit Evasion”, Columbia Law Review, Vol. 120, 2020, pp 173-248.
  • Wiebush Micha, Murray Christina, “Presidential Term Limits and African Union”, Journal of Africal Law, Vol. 63 (1), 2019. pp. 131-160
  • Ziblatt, Daniel & Steven Levitsky, Demokrasiler Nasıl Ölür? İstanbul: Salon Yayınları. 2018.

Year 2021, Volume 13, Issue 2, 151 - 185, 31.12.2021
https://doi.org/10.53881/hiad.973184

Abstract

References

  • Aktan, Coşkun Can, Mütemadi Siyasi Liderlik, İzmir: Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Derneği, Hukuk ve İktisat Araştırmaları Merkezi Yayını.2021.
  • Arriola, Leonardo R “Capital and Opposition in Africa Coalition Building in Multiethnic Societies”, World Politics, Vol: 65, No: 2, 2013, pp. 233-272.
  • Baturo Alexander, “The Stakes of Losing Office, Term Limits and Democracy”, British Journal of Political Sciences, Vol: 40, No: 3, 2010, pp. 635-662.
  • Baturo, Alexander , Continuismo in Comparison: Avoidance, Extension And Removal Of Presidential Term Limits. In The Politics of Presidential Term Limits, ed. A. Baturo and R. Elgie, 2019.75–99. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • BBC Mundo, “Evo Morales renuncia a la presidencia de Bolivia y denuncia un golpe de Estado”, https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america-latina-50370125, Erişim tarihi 10.6.2021.
  • BBC News, “China's Xi allowed to remain 'president for life' as term limits removed”, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-43361276, Erişim tarihi: 10.6.2021.
  • Bolivya Çokuluslu Anayasa Mahkemesi (Tribunal Constitucional Plurinacional) Kararı, Sentencia 0084/2017, 28 de Noviembre 2017, Başlık “III.4. De las Eventuales ‘antinomias’ o ‘contradicciones’ entrenormas del Texto Constitucional y el organo legitimado para realizar su control”.
  • Cassani Andrea, “Law-Abiders, Lame Ducks, and Over-Stayers: the Africa Executive Term Limits (AETL) Dataset”, European Political Science, DOI: https://doi.prg/10.1057/s41301-020-00291-w, 12 October 2020.
  • Cassani Andrea, “Autocratization by Term Limits Manipulation in Sub-Saharan Africa”, Africa Spectrum, Vol. 55, No. 3, pp. 2021, 228-250.
  • Cheeseman, Nic, “Africa-Presidential Term Limits and the Third Term Tragedy”, 2016, <https://presidential-power.com/?p=4874, Erişim tarihi: 19.6.2021.
  • Cheeseman, Nic, “Should I Stay or Should I Go? Term Limits, Elections, and Political Change in Kenya, Uganda and Zambia”, The Politics of Presidential Term Limits (pp.311-338),
  • Corrales Javier, “Can Anyone Stop the President? Power Asymmetries and Term Limits in Latin America, 1984-2016”, Latin American Politics and Society, Vol. 58, No. 2, 2016, pp. 3-35.
  • Dulani Boniface, “Democracy Movements as Bulwarks Against Presidential Usurpation of Power: Lessons fro the Third-Term Bids in Malawi, Namibia, Uganda and Zambia”, Stichproben, Wiener Zeitschrift für kritische Afrikastudien Nr. 20/2011, (2011b) 11, pp. 115-139.
  • Dulani Boniface, “Personal Rule and Presidential Term Limits in Africa”, Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Michigan State University, 2011 (2011a).
  • Dixon Rosalind, Landau David, “Constitutional End Games: Making Presidential Term Limits Stick”, Hasting Law Journal, Vol. 71, No. 2, 2020, pp. 359-418.
  • Durant, W. Felsefenin Öyküsü, (Çev: E. Gürol), İstanbul: İz Yayıncılık, 2014.
  • Ekinci Ahmet, Kaplan Arık Aslıhan, “Devlet Başkanının Anayasal Dönem Sınırını Uzatan ya da Ortadan Kaldıran Anayasa Değişikliklerinin Anayasa Değiştirme İktidarının Kötüye Kullanılması Bağlamında Değerlendirilmesi”, Yıldırım Beyazıt Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi, 2020/1, 71-122.
  • Fitzgibbon, Russell H. 1992. “Continuismo: The Search for Political Longevity.” In: Hamill, Hugh H. ed. Caudillos: Dictators in Spanish America. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 210–21
  • Freedom House, “Countries and Territories”, https://freedomhouse.org/countries/freedom-world/scores, Erişim tarihi 06.6.2021.
  • Geddens Barbara, “What do We Know About Democratization After Twenty Years”, Annual Review of Political Science, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1999, pp. 115-144.
  • Ginsburg Tom, Melton James, Elkins Zachary, “On the Evasion of Executive Term Limits”, William and Mary Law Review, Vol: 52, No: 6, 2011, pp. 1807-1872.
  • Landau David, Roznai Yaniv, Dixon Rosalind, “Term Limits and the Unconstitutional Constitutional Amendment Doctrine: Lessons From Latin America”, 2019, https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3208187, Erişim tarihi 16.6.2021.
  • Holley David, "Kazakhstan lifts term limits on long-ruling leader", Los Angeles Times, https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-2007-may-19-fg-kazakh19-story.html, 2007, Erişim tarihi 17.6.2021.
  • Hualde, Alejandro Perez,”Las Reelecciones y Su Limite: Periodicidad y Alternancia”, Paraná Eleitoral, Vol: 2, 2013, pp, 141-162.
  • Human Rights Watch, Uzbekistan: President Rigs Extended Term of Office, 2002, https://www.hrw.org/news/2002/01/24/uzbekistan-president-rigs-extended-term-office, Erişim tarihi 17.6.2021.
  • Malavi Yüksek Mahkemesi Kararı, State v. Ex Parte Muluzi and Another (2 of 2009) MWHC 16 May 2009
  • Maltz, Gideon “The Case for Presidential Term Limits”. Jorunal of Democracy. Vol. 18. No. 1. 2007, pp. 128-142.
  • McKie, Kristin. “Presidential Term Limit Contravention: Abolish, Extend, Fail, or Respect?” Comparative Political Studies, (March 2019).
  • Marx, Karl, Engels, F. The Communist Manifesto (Isaac J., Ed.). New Haven; London: Yale University Press. 2012.
  • Nowack Daniel, “Process Tracing the Term Limit Struggle in Malawi: The Role of International Democracy Promotion in Muluzi’s Bid for a Third Term”, Africa Spectrum, Vol. 55, No. 3, pp. 291-320.
  • Nikaragua Yüksek Mahkemesi Kararı, Sentencia No: 504, EXP. No. 602-09, 2009.
  • Osei Anja, Akinocho Herve, Mwombela Stephen, “Presidential Term Limits and Regime Types: When Do Leaders Respect Constitutional Norms?”, Africa Spectrum, Vol. 55, No. 3, 2020, pp. 251-271.
  • Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries, https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/blank_1#blank_idmg_1, Erişim tarihi 16.6.2021.
  • Penfold Michael, Corrales Javier, Hernandez Gonzalo, “Los Invencibles: La Reeleccion Presidencial y Los Cambios Constitucionales en America Latina”, Revista Ciencia Politica, Bol. 34, No. 3, 2014, pp. 534-559.
  • Posner Daniel, Young Daniel “Term Limits-Leadership, Political Competition and the Transfer of Power”, Institutions and Democracy in Africa, Ed. Cheeseman, Nic Oxford University Press, 2018, pp. 260-277.
  • Posner, Daniel Young Daniel, The Institutionalization Of Political Power in Africa. Journal of Democracy 18 (3): 2007. 126–140.
  • RFERL, “Uzbekistan: Official Acquiescence In Karimov Presidential Bid Draws Fire”, 2007, https://www.rferl.org/a/1079167.html, Erişim tarihi 17.6.2021.
  • Tocqueville, Alexis de, Demokratik Zorbalık, (çev. E.Erbaş), İstanbul: Can Yayınları, 2020.
  • Tocqueville, Alexis de, Democracy in America: Historical-Critical Edition of De la démocratie en Amérique, ed. Eduardo Nolla, translated from the French by James T. Schleifer. A Bilingual French-English edition, 1840. (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2010). 4 vols. Online erişim: https://oll.libertyfund.org/title/schleifer-democracy-in-america-historical-critical-edition-4-vols-lf-ed-2010
  • Tull Denis M, Simons Claudila, “The Institutionalisation of Power Revisited: Presidential Term Limits in Africa”, Africa Spectrum, Vol: 52, No: 2, 2017.
  • Vandeginste Stef, “Legal Loopholes and the Politics of Executive Term Limits: Insights from Burundi, African Spectrum, Vol. 51, 2016, pp. 39-63.
  • Versteeg Mila, Horley Timothy, Meng Anne, Guim Mauricio, Guirguis Marilyn, “The Law and Politics of Presidential Term Limit Evasion”, Columbia Law Review, Vol. 120, 2020, pp 173-248.
  • Wiebush Micha, Murray Christina, “Presidential Term Limits and African Union”, Journal of Africal Law, Vol. 63 (1), 2019. pp. 131-160
  • Ziblatt, Daniel & Steven Levitsky, Demokrasiler Nasıl Ölür? İstanbul: Salon Yayınları. 2018.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Law, Economics
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Coşkun Can AKTAN
DOKUZ EYLÜL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-4294-2314
Türkiye


Ahmet EKİNCİ (Primary Author)
ANKARA HACI BAYRAM VELİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0003-0803-6449
Türkiye

Publication Date December 31, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 13, Issue 2

Cite

Bibtex @research article { hiad973184, journal = {Hukuk ve İktisat Araştırmaları Dergisi}, issn = {2146-0817}, eissn = {2146-0817}, address = {}, publisher = {Sosyal Bilimler Araştırmaları Derneği}, year = {2021}, volume = {13}, number = {2}, pages = {151 - 185}, doi = {10.53881/hiad.973184}, title = {DEVLET BAŞKANLIĞI MAKAMINDA GÖREV SÜRESİ ve DÖNEM SINIRINI UZATMAYA YÖNELİK POLİTİK MANİPÜLASYONLAR}, key = {cite}, author = {Aktan, Coşkun Can and Ekinci, Ahmet} }
APA Aktan, C. C. & Ekinci, A. (2021). DEVLET BAŞKANLIĞI MAKAMINDA GÖREV SÜRESİ ve DÖNEM SINIRINI UZATMAYA YÖNELİK POLİTİK MANİPÜLASYONLAR . Hukuk ve İktisat Araştırmaları Dergisi , 13 (2) , 151-185 . DOI: 10.53881/hiad.973184
MLA Aktan, C. C. , Ekinci, A. "DEVLET BAŞKANLIĞI MAKAMINDA GÖREV SÜRESİ ve DÖNEM SINIRINI UZATMAYA YÖNELİK POLİTİK MANİPÜLASYONLAR" . Hukuk ve İktisat Araştırmaları Dergisi 13 (2021 ): 151-185 <https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/hiad/issue/65402/973184>
Chicago Aktan, C. C. , Ekinci, A. "DEVLET BAŞKANLIĞI MAKAMINDA GÖREV SÜRESİ ve DÖNEM SINIRINI UZATMAYA YÖNELİK POLİTİK MANİPÜLASYONLAR". Hukuk ve İktisat Araştırmaları Dergisi 13 (2021 ): 151-185
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - DEVLET BAŞKANLIĞI MAKAMINDA GÖREV SÜRESİ ve DÖNEM SINIRINI UZATMAYA YÖNELİK POLİTİK MANİPÜLASYONLAR AU - Coşkun Can Aktan , Ahmet Ekinci Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.53881/hiad.973184 DO - 10.53881/hiad.973184 T2 - Hukuk ve İktisat Araştırmaları Dergisi JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 151 EP - 185 VL - 13 IS - 2 SN - 2146-0817-2146-0817 M3 - doi: 10.53881/hiad.973184 UR - https://doi.org/10.53881/hiad.973184 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Hukuk ve İktisat Araştırmaları Dergisi DEVLET BAŞKANLIĞI MAKAMINDA GÖREV SÜRESİ ve DÖNEM SINIRINI UZATMAYA YÖNELİK POLİTİK MANİPÜLASYONLAR %A Coşkun Can Aktan , Ahmet Ekinci %T DEVLET BAŞKANLIĞI MAKAMINDA GÖREV SÜRESİ ve DÖNEM SINIRINI UZATMAYA YÖNELİK POLİTİK MANİPÜLASYONLAR %D 2021 %J Hukuk ve İktisat Araştırmaları Dergisi %P 2146-0817-2146-0817 %V 13 %N 2 %R doi: 10.53881/hiad.973184 %U 10.53881/hiad.973184
ISNAD Aktan, Coşkun Can , Ekinci, Ahmet . "DEVLET BAŞKANLIĞI MAKAMINDA GÖREV SÜRESİ ve DÖNEM SINIRINI UZATMAYA YÖNELİK POLİTİK MANİPÜLASYONLAR". Hukuk ve İktisat Araştırmaları Dergisi 13 / 2 (December 2021): 151-185 . https://doi.org/10.53881/hiad.973184
AMA Aktan C. C. , Ekinci A. DEVLET BAŞKANLIĞI MAKAMINDA GÖREV SÜRESİ ve DÖNEM SINIRINI UZATMAYA YÖNELİK POLİTİK MANİPÜLASYONLAR. Hukuk ve İktisat Araştırmaları Dergisi. 2021; 13(2): 151-185.
Vancouver Aktan C. C. , Ekinci A. DEVLET BAŞKANLIĞI MAKAMINDA GÖREV SÜRESİ ve DÖNEM SINIRINI UZATMAYA YÖNELİK POLİTİK MANİPÜLASYONLAR. Hukuk ve İktisat Araştırmaları Dergisi. 2021; 13(2): 151-185.
IEEE C. C. Aktan and A. Ekinci , "DEVLET BAŞKANLIĞI MAKAMINDA GÖREV SÜRESİ ve DÖNEM SINIRINI UZATMAYA YÖNELİK POLİTİK MANİPÜLASYONLAR", Hukuk ve İktisat Araştırmaları Dergisi, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 151-185, Dec. 2021, doi:10.53881/hiad.973184