Kur’an’ın tarih sahnesine inmesiyle başlayan tefsir faaliyeti, kıyamete kadar devam edecek bir eyleme işaret eder. İşte biz bu makalede Kur’an’a dair yorumlarını işârî tefsir başlığı altında değerlendirebileceğimiz bir simayı, Celâleddîn ed-Devvânî’yi ele alacağız. Makalede Devvânî’nin tefsire dair çalışmalarını öncelikle sunacağız. Devamında Fatiha suresine dair yaptığı tefsiri tespit ettiğimiz yazmalar arasından 6 tanesi ışığında tahkik edeceğiz. Ayrıca Fatiha suresi risalesini değerlendirmeye çalışacağız.
Devvânî’nin tefsir çalışmalarına baktığımızda belli bir meseleyi kendisine konu edindiğini söyleyebiliriz. İnceleyeceğimiz Fatiha suresi tefsiri çalışması da bundan âzâde değildir. Şöyle ki sûre iki kısımdan oluşmaktadır. İlk kısmında Allah’ın varlıkla ilişkisine işaret edilirken ikinci kısımda varlığın Allah’la ilişkisi ele alınmaktadır. Devvânî de surenin ilk kısmında Allah’ın zâtı ile sıfatlarını ayırarak sıfatların varlıkla ilişkisinin nasıllığını incelemektedir. İkinci kısımda ise çokluk âleminden Allah’a ulaşmanın imkânını irdelemektedir. Bu meyanda o; ariflere, seyr-i sülûk sahiplerine ve isabet eden istidlal ehline nimet verildiğini söylerken çokluk perdesini aşamayanları Allah’ın yolundan uzaklaşanlar ve sapanlar olarak nitelemektedir.
Interpretation of the Qur’an that started with the appearance of the Qur’an on the scene of history refers to a continuous act lasting to the doomsday. So, we will deal with a figure whose interpretation of the Qur’an could be considered under the title of commentary of allusion (ishari), Jalal al-Dın al-Dawani. We will first present the tafsir works of al-Dawani. Then we will edit his exegesis of the surah of al-Fatiha based on six manuscript copies. Also we will try to evaluate his work.
When we look at al-Dawani’s studies of Qur’anic exegesis, we can see al-Dawani chooses a specific issue as the subject. So, his commentary of the surah of al-Fatiha is a sample of this. The commentary is consists of two parts. The first part examines the relationship of God to creatures, while the second part is about the relationship of creatures to God. Al-Dawani first differentiates the essence of God from His attributes, then studies on the quality of relationship of Divine attributes to creatures in the first part of the commentary of the surah. In the second part, he questions the possibility of reaching God from the world of abundance. Here, he states that arifs, the owners of sayr u suluk, and ahl al-istidlal who hit the right are bestowed favor while he describes those who could not go beyond the curtain of abundance as those who are subjects of God’s anger and who go astray.
Preferring the concept of ishara instead of ta’wil in the historical process, Sufis utilized the concept of ishara regarding the qur’anic exegesis in two meanings. The first is interpretations whose moral emphasis is strong in relation to zuhd, which came to mind at the first place. The second one is symbolic expressions having a theoretical language that was seen in Ibn Arabi and Sadr al-Din al-Kunawi. Although this language comprises a comprehensive approach to the world, and therefore the Quran as well, it has not produced a general discourse regarding tafsir, but instead has focused on certain chapters and verses. For example, the language that formed around the chapter of “Ikhlas” is an original example of this phenomenon. One of the commentators in this tradition is Dawani, who is the subject of this article. However, we will not look at Dawani’s commentary on the tafsir of the chapter of “Ikhlas”, but instead we will analyze his epistle on the chapter of al-Fatiha, which we believe to be using the same rhetorical devices.
Dawani, who was born in a village nearby Iran’s Kazerun, has been influential, not only in his own region, but also in different cultural basins such as Anatolia, Khorasan and Transoxiana. The fact that his epistle on the tafsir of the chapter of al-Fatiha is extant in twelve manuscripts (according to our own findings) in Turkish libraries is a clear indicator of this influence. One of his Anatolian students is Abdurrahman ibn Ali ibn Muayyad-zada al-Amasi, also known as simply Muayyad-zada. It is narrated that Muayyad-zada had an important role in the dissemination of his works and his views in Ottoman lands. This is also remarkable, in that it show that in the Islamic world political border are not representative of cultural borders.
It is possible to group Dawani’s tafsir works under three headings. Since he did not write a tafsir on the entire Quran his works consist of tafsirs on entire chapters, tafsirs on verses, and tafsir works as commentaries. In this article, we will examine one of Dawani’s chapter tafsirs, namely his tafsir on the chapter of al-Fatiha. In light of the extant manuscripts and other data, we have not been able to determine exactly the epistle’s date of composition, since we have not been able to find the author’s manuscript. However, there is no doubt in the examined manuscripts that the epistle belongs to Dawani.
In this article, we will present a critical edition of the tafsir on the chapter of al-Fatiha, based on six of the twelve extant manuscripts. The manuscript used as the primary manuscript for this edition is located in Suleymaniye Library Esad Efendi Collection nr. 1143. This manuscript was chosen because it contains the entirety of the work, including a note of completion (farag).
Dawani’s tafsir on the chapter of al-Fatiha consists of two parts. In the first part, God’s relation to the world is highlighted, whereas in the second part it is the world’s relation to God that is highlighted. Dawani, in the beginning of the chapter, distinguishes between God’s essence and his attributes, and examines the quiddity of the relation between the attributes and the world. In the second part, he investigates that possibility of reaching God from the world of multitude. In this regard, he says that the “knowers” (arifun), the people of sayr-i suluk, and those of the rationalists who reach correct conclusions have been given blessings, whereas those who are unable to surpass the veil of multitude have strayed from God’s path.
Contravening what is customary, this commentator does not examine the chapter starting with tradition (riwaya) followed by rational commentary (diraya). Dawani, who does not have anything remarkable to say regarding traditions, also does not interpret the chapter using rational/inferential methods. On the contrary, he examines the chapter using the theoretical terminology of kashf, which is mostly seen in the mystical tafsir literature. Accordingly he uses an ishraqi language to deal with theological (kalami), philosophical and mystical (sufi) elements that he encounters in the chapter.
We believe that Dawani’s epistle is in one regard a work of methodological character, trying to reveal the grounding for the relation between interpretation (ta'wil) and mystical (ishari) interpretation. From this viewpoint, it exemplifies a different kind of activity than general works on tafsir. Moreover, since it is impossible to know God’s essence, this also negates the assertion of certitude in ascertaining meaning. Nonetheless, the interpretations that are put forth cannot be claimed to be completely subjective, since the world is not independent of God.
Publication Date : June 30, 2019
|ISNAD||Çi̇çek, Mehmet , Yılmaz, Esat . "Celâleddîn ed-Devvânî ve Fatiha Sûresi Tefsiri". Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 18 / 35 (June 2019): 1-22 . https://doi.org/10.14395/hititilahiyat.449928|