Year 2019, Volume 18 , Issue 35, Pages 23 - 48 2019-06-30

Yahudi Dualarında Kudüs
Jerusalem in Jewish Prayers

Şevket Özcan [1]


Yahudilik, özellikle Kral Davut döneminden itibaren Kudüs ile kimlik bulan, yaşanılabilen ve özdeşleştirilen bir dindir. Yahudilere göre Kudüs’te Davut ve oğlu Süleyman zamanında yaşanılan dini ve siyasi hayat, belleklerinde unutulmaması ve yeniden yaşanılması gereken bir idealdir. Yahudilerin dinî hayatının vazgeçilmez bir parçası olan ve özellikle II. Mabed’in yıkılmasıyla dinin odağına yerleşen dualar, Kudüs’ün onlar için ifade ettiği anlamı açık bir şekilde ortaya koymakta ve Yahudi inanç tarihinin birer özeti olarak kabul edilmektedir. Düzenli olarak, bayramlarda ve geçiş dönemleri ve bazı özel durumlarda yapılan Yahudi dualarında Kudüs’e yönelik vurgular, Tanrı’nın yüceltilerek kendisinden barışın ve kurtuluşun istenildiği, kurtuluşun Mesih’in gelişi, Mabed’in inşası ve Kudüs’e barışın hâkim olmasıyla gerçekleşeceğine işaret eden bir görünüm arz etmektedir. Bu bağlamda Amida duası, Mesih’in gelişi, Yahudilerin Kudüs’te toplanması ve adaletin sağlanması neticesinde kurtuluşun gerçekleşmesine yönelik vurguları nedeniyle Kudüs vatandaşlığının yani Yahudi olmanın bir simgesi olarak kabul edilmektedir. Dolayısıyla Yahudilerin belleğinde Kudüs unutulmaması gereken olarak tezahür etmekte ve dillerinde “Kudüs’ü yeniden inşa et” şeklinde yer alan bir “Yahudi Ümidi” olarak her zaman önemini ve değerini korumaktadır. Bu çalışmada çeşitli zamanlarda ve şekillerde yapılan Yahudi dualarına odaklanmak suretiyle, Kudüs’ün Yahudi dualarında ne şekilde yer aldığı ve onlar için ne anlam ifade ettiği fenomenolojik yöntem aracılığıyla anlaşılmaya ve ortaya konulmaya gayret edilmektedir.


Abstract

Judaism is a religion introduced, practiced, and identified with Jerusalem especially since King David’s period. According to Jews, the religious and political life in Jerusalem during the time of David and his son Suleiman is an ideal that requires not to be forgotten in their memory and to be experienced again. The prayers, which are an indispensable part of the religious life of the Jews and settled in the focus of religion with the collapse of the Temple, clearly reveal the meaning of Jerusalem that expressed for them and are considered as a summary of the history of Jewish faith. In general, the emphasis on Jerusalem in Jewish prayers, made regularly, on holidays and in transition periods and in some special cases, is that God is glorifying himself, that peace and salvation are demanded, salvation comes from the coming of Christ, the construction of temple, and peace in Jerusalem. In this direction Amidah prayer is regarded as a symbol of Jerusalem citizenship, that is to be Jewish, because of its emphasis on the fulfilment of salvation as a result of the coming of Christ, the gathering of the Jews in Jerusalem and the provision of justice. Therefore, in the memory of Jews, Jerusalem appears as need to be remembered and always maintains its importance and value as “a Jewish Hope” in the form of “Rebuild Jerusalem” in their language. In this work, by focusing on Jewish prayers made in various times and shapes, it is tried to be understood and revealed how Jerusalem takes place in Jewish prayers and what it means to them through the phenomenological method.

Summary

Jerusalem, which dates back to ancient times, has a special meaning and holiness for Judaism, Christianity and Islam because of the sacred sites it contains. As a matter of fact, the relations of the Jews with Jerusalem have been based on ancient times and in Jewish history it is noted that there have been much destruction and re-standing due to many important events such as the collapse of the Temple which was built in the process twice and experiencing various exiles. For this reason, there is always a sense of hope and duty in the minds of the Jews, which comes to the fore as return to Jerusalem and rebuilding here and it is also based on the various doctrines of religion. There are many emphasis on this hope and the meaning of Jerusalem for Jews in Jewish prayers made in individual or community.

Judaism is a religion introduced, practiced, and identified with Jerusalem especially since King David’s period. According to Jews, the religious and political life in Jerusalem during the time of David and his son Suleiman is an ideal that requires not to be forgotten in their memory and to be experienced again. This understanding is so integrated into Jewish religious life that becomes the key features of Jewish rituals and prayers. In this respect, the prayers, which are an indispensable part of the religious life of the Jews and settled in the focus of religion with the collapse of the Temple, clearly reveal the meaning of Jerusalem that expressed for them and are considered as a summary of the history of Jewish faith. 

It is possible to evaluate the prayers that give a map of the Jewish faith under the categories of prayers made regularly on holidays and in transition periods and in some special cases. In these prayers, Jerusalem is touched on the axis of Christ, Temple and Salvation, and it is considered the city of God. Accordingly, Amidah prayer which is one of the regular prayers has a special place among Jewish prayers because of its emphasis on Jerusalem. It is regarded as a symbol of Jerusalem citizenship, that is to be Jewish, because of its emphasis on the fulfillment of salvation as a result of the coming of Christ, the gathering of the Jews in Jerusalem and the provision of justice. Therefore, this prayer has a feature that can reveal the perceptions of Jews towards Jerusalem alone. Furthermore, being one of the most common prayer in Jewish religious life and performing to Jerusalem also support this situation.

Prayers made during the Jewish holidays have important emphasis on Jerusalem as in Amidah prayer. In the closing prayers of Yom Kippur and Passover, the phrase “Next year in Jerusalem” summarizes the approach adopted in these prayers and helps Jews keep their hope for Jerusalem ideals alive. Therefore, it seems possible to consider this prayer as a slogan for Jews who are subject to various exiles, repression and disintegration that reveals their hopes for their rise again.

The prayers of the Jews in the transition period, Jerusalem emerges as an essential element of Jewish identity, joy and sorrow. In this direction, while the prayers made during adolescence period have an effort to teach Jerusalem ideal to those who step into adulthood, the happiness experienced in the marriage ceremonies is identified with happiness experienced in the realization of Jerusalem ideal, it is stated that happiness lack from this ideal is deficient. In the prayers about death, the emphasis on Jerusalem serves to calm the sorrowful ones. In prayer for the Jews in some special cases, Jerusalem takes part as need to be remembered, and even special sections of prayer for Jerusalem attract attention.

Emphasis on Jerusalem in Jewish prayers in general has a view that points to desire peace and salvation from God with glorified him, the salvation will take place through the coming of the Messiah, the construction of the Temple and the peace prevailing on Jerusalem. Although there are some differences about the approaches and interpretations of Jewish sects to Jerusalem ideal, in the memory of all Jews, Jerusalem appears as need to be remembered and always maintains its importance and value as “a Jewish Hope” in the form of “Rebuild Jerusalem” in their language.


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Primary Language tr
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-9019-6507
Author: Şevket Özcan (Primary Author)
Institution: Kırıkkale Üniversitesi İslami İlimler Fakültesi
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : June 30, 2019

ISNAD Özcan, Şevket . "Yahudi Dualarında Kudüs". Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 18 / 35 (June 2019): 23-48 . https://doi.org/10.14395/hititilahiyat.465775