Year 2019, Volume 18 , Issue 35, Pages 49 - 74 2019-06-30

Fârâbî Felsefesinde Toplum Teması
The Theme of Society in Al-Fârâbî’s Philosophy

Ejder Okumuş [1]


Muallim-i Sânî Ebû Nasr el-Fârâbî (872-951), felsefesinde toplum konusuna ayrı bir önem verir.  Eserlerinden de anlaşılabileceği gibi, onun bir toplum teorisyeni olduğu söylenebilir. Zira onun felsefesinde insan ve insanın mutluluğu her şeyin başında gelir. İnsan, tabiatı gereği toplumsal bir varlıktır. Bundan dolayı insanın mutluluğu doğrudan toplum ile ilgilidir. Başka bir ifadeyle toplum hayatının insan için zorunlu olması, insanın mutluluğu konusuyla doğrudan bağlantılıdır. Bu çalışmada araştırmacı, İslam düşünürü Fârâbî’nin felsefesi içinde toplum temasını, topluma bakışını, insan için toplumun anlamına dair yaklaşımını, toplumu tipolojik açıdan ele alışını vd. ana hatlarıyla ele almayı, anlamayı ve anlamlandırmayı amaçlamaktadır. Bu bağlamda Fârâbî’nin kitaplarına bir bütünlük içinde bakıldığında, onun, insan, mutluluk, medîne, medeniyet, cemaat, ictimâ’, ictimâ’ât, ma’mûra, ihtiyaç, teâvun, riyaset, kavm, ümmet, din ve mille gibi temel kavramlar çerçevesinde bir toplum teorisi ortaya koyduğu görülür. 

Abstract

The Second Teacher Abu Nasr al-Fârâbî (872-951)  attaches a special importance to the theme of society in his philosophy. It can be said that the Islamic philosopher Fârâbî is a theoretician of society as can be understood from his works. Namely; in al-Fârâbî’s philosophy, human and the happiness of human comes at the beginning of everything. Human is a social being by its very nature. Therefore, the happiness of human is directly connected with society. In other words, that social life is obligatory for human is directly related to the happiness of human. Social life, that is, people's living together as a society, constitutes an integral part of human being and happiness. In this work, the researcher aims to treat, understand and make meaning the theme of society, the view to society, the approach to the meaning of society for human beings, society from a typological perspective, etc. in the philosophy of Islamic thinker Fârâbî with the outlines. In this context, when we look at the books of Fârâbî in an integrity, it is understood that Fârâbî tried to reveal a theory of society within the framework of key concepts such as human, happiness, medina (city, society, politics), civilization, community, society, ictimâ (coming together, meeting), ictimâ'ât, ma'mura, need, helping one another, governance, presidency, tribe, ummah, religion, mille, etc. 

Summary

It is the aim of this study to investigate on, understand, make meaning of and outline the theme of society, the view towards society, the approach towards the meaning of society for human beings, society from a typological perspective, etc. in the philosophy of Islamic thinker The Second Teacher Abu Nasr al-Fârâbî (872-951). Al-Fârâbî attributes a special value to the theme of society in his philosophy. The Islamic philosopher al-Fârâbî is a theoretician of society as it can be understood from his collective works. In al-Fârâbî’s philosophy, human and the happiness of human comes at the beginning of everything. Human is a social being by its very nature. Therefore, the happiness of human is directly connected with society. In other words, that social life is obligatory for human is directly related to the happiness of human. Social life, that is, people's living together as a society, constitutes an integral part of human being and happiness. In this context, when we look at the books of al-Fârâbî in an integrity, it is understood that he tried to reveal a theory of society within the framework drawn by key concepts such as human, happiness, medina (city, society, politics), civilization, community, society, ictimâ (coming together, meeting, society), ictimâ'ât, ma'mura, need, helping one another, governance, presidency, tribe, ummah, religion, mille, etc. 

In this study, considering that sociology was invented by Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) under the name of ’Ilmu’l-‘Umrân (the Science of Umran), it is assumed that it is appropriate to call the efforts of idea/knowledge/scholarship/science of society before the birth of Sociology science as “sociologies before sociology” . When this issue is taken into consideration, it can be said that al-Fârâbî's theory of society contains a sociology and this can be evaluated within the framework of “sociology before sociology”. As a scholar who grew up in the Islamic society in the 10th century, al-Fârâbî is one of the historical figures who presented such a sociology. This sociology, of course, is a “sociology” within his philosophy. A careful look at al-Fârâbî's analysis of society provides an observational view of society stemming from social reality, the necessity of social life, society, politics, medina, civilization, religion, morality, and ethics and so on. 

In the light of the findings obtained from the study, it can be argued that al-Fârâbî’s inquiry began from a certain reality, which can be found in his definitions, explanations and analyses about society. His explanation of the necessity of the existence of society clearly shows this. This point demonstrates that the philosopher looks at the human and society within his philosophy with a kind of “sociological” reading.

Al-‘Ilm al-Madanî (Civil/Social? Science) provides an important starting point for understanding his theory of society. Looking at the whole subject of “al-’Ilm al-Madanî,” it is understood that this science examines the society as a whole and it is a science that contains the subjects of “sociology” at clear levels.

Social relations, explanation based on organism, emphasis on the will of society, theory of needs, division of labor, and features such as containing the ideal typing approach are prominent in al-Fârâbî's approach to society, city, civilization, and politics.

A closer look at al-Fârâbî’s philosophy reveals that some basic concepts such as happiness, willpower, need, help, jamaat, ictimâ’, ummah, kawm, madina, civilization, mille, ma'mûra, which have been interrelated and intertwined in meaning, constitute the backbone of his social theory.

Explaining inter-societal and intra-societal differentiations arising from natural and attained reasons, al-Fârâbî brings unique and original approaches to addressing societies and social groups of different types. He divides society into various types: in accordance with the context of village, country, neighborhood, street, city, ummah and el-ma'mûra; in accordance with the typology of the city (small society), ummah (middle society) and ma'mûra (big society); as well as in accordance with the typology of complete/perfect/brilliant societies and incomplete societies.

In al-Fârâbî's understanding of society, the will, the right or wrong use of the will, the will in attitudes and behaviors, and the conscious choice have an important place. Al-Fârâbî ascribes the task of investigating voluntary behavior to the Science of Society (al-‘Ilm al-Madaniyyu). He argues that the behaviors, occupations and activities of individuals in society are not inherent or natural, but voluntary.

Al-Fârâbî gives a central place to the first president (ar-Raîs al-Awwal) in his approach of social differentiation, interaction, bond, harmony, reconciliation and integration. Adaptation in society is ultimately the first president’s duty.

Al-Fârâbî's view of the society influenced the later theorists of society, in particular Ibn Khaldun, in such a way that theorists overcame him, and made important contributions to the development of social science as an independent science.


  • Fârâbî, Ebû Nasr el-. Alfarabi’s Philosophy of Plato and Aristotle. İng. trc: Muhsin Mahdi. New York: The Free Press of Glencoe, 1962.………. Fusûlun Munteze’a. Thk. Fevzi Mitri Neccar. Beyrut: Dâru’l-Meşrik, 1971.………. İhsâu’l-Ulûm. Trc. Ahmet Ateş. Ankara: MEB Yayınları, 1990. ………. Kitâbu’l-Mille. thk. Muhsin Mehdî. 2. Baskı. Beyrut: Dârü’l-Meşrık, 1991.………. Arâu Ehli’l-Medîneti’l-Fâdıla. Nşr. Ali Bû Melham. Beyrut: Dâr ve Mektebetu’l-Hilâl, 1995.
Primary Language tr
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0003-1337-3255
Author: Ejder Okumuş
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : June 30, 2019

ISNAD Okumuş, Ejder . "Fârâbî Felsefesinde Toplum Teması". Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 18 / 35 (June 2019): 49-74 . https://doi.org/10.14395/hititilahiyat.465780