Year 2019, Volume 18 , Issue 35, Pages 75 - 100 2019-06-30

Hicrî Beşinci Asra Kadar Kuzey Afrika’da Hanefîlik
Hanafism in North Africa Until Fifth Century Ah

Bekir KARADAĞ [1]


Bu çalışmada Hanefî mezhebinin hicrî beşinci asra kadar Kuzey Afrika’daki durumu ele alınmaktadır. Bu bağlamda Hanefî mezhebinin bölgede nasıl yayıldığı, önemli Hanefî fakihleri ve bölgede nasıl son bulduğu hakkında bilgi verilmiştir. Birçoğu kadılık ve yöneticilik yapmış önemli fakihlerin müntesip olduğu Hanefilik Kuzey Afrika’da öğrenci faaliyetleri ve devlet desteğiyle yayılmıştır. Hicri beşinci asra kadar bölgede varlığını devam ettiren Hanefilik siyasi tercihler, mihne olayı ve Mâlikî fakihlerin aleyhte çalışmaları gibi birçok etkenden dolayı sona ermiştir. Bu çalışma, Hanefî mezhebinin farklı bir bölge olan Kuzey Afrika’daki durumunu incelemesi nedeniyle fıkıh tarihi açısından önem arz etmektedir.

Absract

This study deals with the situation in North Africa until the fifth century AH of Hanafī School. In this context, information is given on how the Hanafī School spread in the region, important Hanafī jurisprudence (fakihs) and how it ended in the region. The Hanafite, that many judgeships and administrators are involved, spread with student activities and government support in North Africa. The Hanafite continued to exist in the region until the fifth century, came to an end due to many influences, such as political preferences, the mihne event, and the negative activities of Malikī jurisprudence (fakihs). This study is important because it examines the situation of the Hanafī school in North Africa which a different region in terms of fiqh history.

Summary

This study deals with the situation in North Africa until the fifth century AH of Hanafī School. In this study, which is important for the history of fiqh because it examines the state of Hanafism in a different region in North Africa, it was given information about how and by whom Hanafī sect spread to the region, important Hanafi foundations and how it ended in the region. In this context, it is understood that there is an intense Hanafi influence beyond the existence of Hanafism in North Africa, especially when we look at the material in the plateau and historical works which we examined in this context. It is stated in the works which witnessed this period that the majority of the deputies in the said period were in the opinion of the Kufeans, ie the Hanafīans. 

The existence and prevalence of Hanafism in North Africa has been determined to have two main factors. The first of these is the student activities, which are composed of the works of the important rulers, many of whom are judgeship and administrators, and the second is the state support or political factor.

Hanafism to North Africa Esed b. Furat and Abdullah b. Ferrȗh Although there are two different opinions about the fact that it is spread through, we believe that both Ibn Ferrȗh and Asad b. Furāt contribution to the spread of Hanafī sect in North Africa. Ibn Ferrȗh was the first to introduce Hanafī sect to the region. It was understood that Esed b. Furāt was important for the spread of the sect.

The other important factor that enabled the spread of Hanafism in the region is political support for attitude of Ağlebîns It is founded by Ibrahim b. Ağleb who inherited by Harun Reşid in the time of the Abbasins. The Ağlebins supported the Hanefi sect adopted by the Abbasins in general for coming from Baghdad, the center of caliphate.

In the study, until the fifth century AH. in North Africa, many important faults have been identified. There are scattered information about the many faqihs which are said to be Hanafis in the works related to the works of Mālikī or the history of the region. In the first period works that mentioned about these pharaohs, Irākiyyȗn or Kȗfiyyȗn expressions were mostly used, but in the last period, more Hanafi religions were used. Among the Hanafi faqihs who grew up during this period were Abdullah Ibn Ferrȗh al-Khorasanī, Abu Muhrez, Mamer b. Mansȗr, Süleyman b. İmrān and İbn Abdȗn are important. In addition to this, Ibn Abu’l-Cevad, who made a long time for Kayrevan, Abu Abdullah Muhammad b. Zarzar, Tunisian Heysem b. Süleyman b. Hamdȗn, one of the teacher’s Tahavī Tunisian Enbārî who faqih’s Hanafī, Abdullah İbnûl-Muğīre al-Kûfī, Hişām İbnü’l-Irākī, Ebu’l-Minhāl, Kāsım b. Ebi’l-Minhāl, Ibn Umayr and Abû ’İkāl İbnu’r-Ra‛na’ are mentioned in the classical sources. In this period Ibn Abdȗn and Heysem b. Süleyman some of the Hanafī students, such as, contributed to the history of science and culture by copyrighting the works.

In our study, it has been determined that Hanafism disappeared after a short period of time in North Africa after the fifth century. The end of Hanafism in this region has been brought about by the passing of Hanafī faqihs to Mālikī. According to a rumor at some time around seventy Hanafī faqih, was passed to the Mālikī sect.

One question is how the Hanafī school, which is one of the two most powerful sects in the region, ends in North Africa is a question waiting to answer. However, it is not reasonable to just conclude that Hanafism ends in this region. According to the results of this study, Hanafism, which has continued its existence in the region until the fifth century, ended due to many factors such as political preferences, mihne incident and illegitimate studies.

In terms of state policy, there are three decisive factors in the disappearance of Hanafism in the region. The first of these is to bring Sahnûn to the brigade, when the Mālikī sect was started to spread and the judicial affairs began to be brought to the judiciary.

The second factor in this regard is the elimination of Shiite Ubaydī. The war against the Shiites was won and many Shiites were even killed and plundered in the period when the Hanafi priests moved to Mālikī sect. It can be thought that the Hanafis who were in the judicial authority in the period of Ubaydis passed from the fear of life to Mālikī sect.

The third and last reason is activities Muiz b. Bādīs that encourage the transition to the school Mālikī. Hanafī sect, which has been weakened until this period, Muiz b. Bādīs Ah. In 406 After his father Bādīs b. Mansûr's passing away, it has completely disappeared.

Another reason for this is the effect of the reverse mihne arising in response to the mihne event, which is effective in the formation of the Mu‛tazilian Hanafis in the region. Inverse mihne event adversely affected the non-Mutezilian Hanafis.

Lastly, the struggle of the Mālikī faqihs against the Hanafis was influential in this regard. The faqihs of Mālikī sect in the region have criticized the Hanafis for the reason of drinking the nebiz and having ideas of Mu‛tazilite.


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Primary Language tr
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0003-4317-1478
Author: Bekir KARADAĞ (Primary Author)
Institution: MUS ALPARSLAN UNIVERSITY
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : June 30, 2019

ISNAD Karadağ, Bekir . "Hicrî Beşinci Asra Kadar Kuzey Afrika’da Hanefîlik". Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 18 / 35 (June 2019): 75-100 . https://doi.org/10.14395/hititilahiyat.465909