Cümledeki değişikliklere yol açan neden arayışının sonucunda ulaşılan ‘âmil olgusu, nahiv ilminin en temel kavramlarından sayılmış, nahvin bütün çerçevesini şekillendirmiştir. ‘Âmil olgusu nahivdeki pek çok tartışmalı noktada gündeme gelmiştir. Nahiv eserlerinin büyük bir kısmının ana teması ‘âmil merkezli olarak şekillenmiş ve bu eserlerin teorik çerçevesi ‘âmil nazariyesi üzerine oturmuştur. Nahivdeki birçok meseleye ‘âmil kavramından hareketle çözüm bulunmaya çalışılmıştır. Ancak gerek klasik dönem dilcileri ve gerekse modern dönem dilcileri ‘âmil kavramını ve buna bağlı olarak şekillenen nahvi çokça eleştirmişlerdir. Öte yandan nahiv eserlerinde ‘âmil kavramı ile irtibatlı olarak ele alınan bir diğer kavram da “ihtisâs” kavramı olmuştur. Burada ihtisâstan kastedilen, bir ögenin başka ögeler üzerinde etkin olması için sadece o ögenin bağlı olduğu kelime gurubuna özgü olmasıdır. Bir ögenin ‘âmil olması için ön şart niteliğinde görülen ihtisâs olgusu nahivdeki tartışmalı konularda dile getirilmiş ve tartışmanın yönünü değiştirmiştir. Bu bakımdan bu çalışmada öncelikle ‘âmil ile ilgili temel hususlara temas edilecek, ardından ‘âmil olmanın temel şartı olarak görülen ve nahiv eserlerinde bu bağlamda ele alınan ihtisâs olgusu üzerinde durulacaktır. Nahiv eserlerinde yer alan ve ihtisâs olgusunun belirleyici olduğu dil kurallarının örnekleri irdelenecektir. Nahivcilerin büyük oranda ittifak ettiği ilkeler arasında önemli bir ilke vardır ki çalışmamızın konusu ile doğrudan irtibatlı olduğundan burada ayrıca ele alınacaktır. Bu da isim ve fiillerin ‘âmillerinin kendilerine özgü olduğu, isimlerin ‘âmillerinin fiiller üzerinde, fiillerin ‘âmillerinin de isimler üzerinde amel etmeyeceği ilkesidir.
The “ʿāmil” attained by searching for the cause of the changes in the sentence is considered to be one of the most basic concepts in naḥw. It has thoroughly shaped the frame of naḥw (Arabic Grammar). The concept of ʿāmil has been referred in naḥw’s many controversial points. The main theme of the numerous naḥw works has based on the ʿāmil. It has been strived to solve many problems in naḥw starting from this concept. However, the linguists during both the classical and modern periods have frequently criticized the concept of ʿāmil and naḥw shaped by it. On the other hand, there is another concept called “ikhtisās”, which is dealt with the concept of “ʿāmil” in the naḥw works. The specificity phenomenon (ikhtisās) here is that for an element to be active on other elements, that element is specific to the word group to which it is linked. The specificity phenomenon (ikhtisās) regarded as a prerequisite for being ʿāmil has been mentioned during controversial topics of nahw and thus changed the direction of the discussion. In this study, firstly the basic issues related to the ʿāmil are to be touched on and then it is to be focused on the specificity phenomenon seen as the basic condition of being ʿāmil and discussed in naḥw works in this context. The examples of language rules in which the concept of specificity is determinative and that situated in naḥw works are to be examined. There is an important principle among the principles that Arabic Linguists have largely allied with, and since it is directly related to the topic of our study it is seen necessary to lay stress on it as well. This is the principle that the ʿāmils of the nouns and verbs are unique, and there is no effect of the ʿāmils of the nouns on verbs and the ʿāmils of the verbs on the nouns.
Concept of “āmil” that reached as a result of the search for the cause of the changes in the sentence has seen as one of the most basic concepts of Nahw and has shaped the whole frame of the Nahw. The concept of ʿāmil was discussed at Nahw’s many controversial points. The main theme of most of the Nahw works was based on the ʿāmil. Many problems in Nahw has been solved by acting from the concept of ʿāmil. On the other hand another concept which is dealt with in the Nahw works with the concept of “āmil” was the concept of “ihtisās”. The specificity phenomenon (ihtisās) that seen as a prerequisite for a word to be ʿāmil has been voiced in controversial topics in the Nahw and changed the direction of the discussion. As it is known, in Arabic a word is classified into three; as noun, verb and letter. The meaningful structure formed by words is called sentence or phrase. The fact that the words in the sentences become different from their previous form (before getting included in the sentence) has been examined greatly by the linguist scientists and the reasons of the change have been discussed in detail. The linguists have scrutinized the changing element in the sentence, the factor causing it and the change itself within this context. The linguists seeing that the changes detected are different from one another have thought the factors causing the change might be different as well and thus they have searched on the related field in detail. As a result of the linguists’ studies on the uses in language the changes of elements in the sentence and the factors causing the changes have gained a conceptual frame. The elements in the sentence have got distinctive names according to their functions. Pursuant thereto, the factors causing the change have been called as “āmil”, the changed element as “ma‘mūl” and the change itself as “amel”.
The ʿāmil phenomenon found out as a result of the Arabic Linguists’ attempts to explain the changes in a sentence, has determined the theme, frame and topics of the Works written in Arabic syntax (Nahw Works). As the ʿāmil phenomenon has been so strong that the attempt to explain the reasons for the changes in the language has placed on an equivalent level with the binding in the cause-and-effect relationship for the concrete events. Likewise, the causality relationship that every event occurred needs a reason has been valid for the usages in the language and it has been specified that every “amel” would need an “āmil”. Because of the fact that it is not possible to discuss the Arabic syntax rules without referring to the concept ʿāmil which is applied by the Arabic Linguists to explain the changes in the sentence, it has become one of the fundamental concepts of Arabic Grammar. Looking at the literature they have made during the process, it might be said, the Arabic Linguists have considerably agreed on the concept ʿāmil. However, examining in detail, it must be stated that there are also the points they disagree besides the basic issues they agree on.
There is an important principle among the principles that Arabic Linguists have largely allied with, and since it is directly related to the topic of our study it is seen necessary to lay stress on it as well. This is the principle that the ʿāmils of the nouns and verbs are unique, and there is no effect of the ʿāmils of the nouns on verbs and the ʿāmils of the verbs on the nouns. In this regard, focusing on what the Arabic Linguists decree as an ʿāmil, on what grounds they estimate a word as an ʿāmil, a word which is an ʿāmil according to some and not an ʿāmil according to some others etc., some concepts frequently emphasized in the Nahw works have been encountered. The first of these concepts is ikhtisās (ownership). Ikhtisās has been the concept which the Arabic Linguists have expressed at the beginning of the discussions on whether a word is an ʿāmil or not and it has a role to make changes on the other words or not. In other words a word’s being an ʿāmil has been conditioned to whether it has features of ikhtisās. It has been seen that this phenomenon (ikhtisās) has been under most of the controversial issues in the Nahw Works. The interpretations and explanations of the linguists who lay ikhtisās down as a condition for ʿāmil have been different from the ones of the linguists who do not require ikhtisās as a condition. In this study, firstly the place of ikhtisās concept in the general framework is discussed and then its reflections in nahw rules are presented. Furthermore, one of the concepts related to the same concept and sometimes used together is the similarity phenomenon. In this study, ikhtisās (ownership) phenomenon is focused on initially, and if it is seen necessary the similarity phenomenon will be referred too.
Publication Date : June 30, 2019
|ISNAD||İnanç, Yunus . "Nahiv İlminde Amel Şartı Olarak İhtisâs (Özgülük) Olgusu". Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 18 / 35 (June 2019): 187-206 . https://doi.org/10.14395/hititilahiyat.484742|