إنَّ أساس التَّركيب النَّحوي في الجملة المفيدة، أو الكلام يعتمد على الإسناد، فالتَّركيب المفيد لا يكون مفيدًا إلا إذا ورد على صورة خاصَّة من التَّأليف، فلابدَّ أنْ يكون لكلِّ كلمة تعلُّق بالأخرى على السَّبيل الذي به يفيد الكلام تمام الفائدة؛ وهذا ما يتلاءم مع تفسير الجملة النَّحويَّة، التي "تعدُّ قضية إسنادية"؛ ولقد ارتبط النَّحو بفكرة الإسناد منذ نشأته كما يلاحظ في كتاب سيبويه؛ "فمفهوم الإسناد عند سيبويه يمثِّل علاقة ربط بين ركني الجملة الاسميَّة في البناء الاسمي، وبين ركني الجملة الفعليَّة في البناء الفعلي"؛ فالإسناد دلالة تركيبيَّة في العربيَّة الفصحى، والإسناد علاقة نحويَّة لفظيَّة تتمثل في موضع كلمة بالنسبة للأخرى .
وعلاقة الارتباط بطريق الإسناد تعدُّ بؤرة الجملة أو نواتها، بل هي وحدها كافية لتكوين الجملة من النَّاحية الشَّكليَّة، وتكون توسعة الجملة البسيطة بإنشاء علاقات ارتباط أخرى، واصطناع علاقات ربط، وذلك خاضع لسياق المقام ولغرض المتكلِّم من نظم الجملة، وكلَّما أنشأ المتكلِّم علاقات ارتباط وعلاقات ربط في الجملة زيادة على نواة الإسناد كان ذلك زيادة في الفائدة؛ ولا يعني هذا أنَّ تلك الفائدة تصبح منفصلة عن فائدة الإسناد، وإنَّما يعني أنَّ المعنى المستفاد من الجملة بعد الزِّيادة يصير غير المعنى المستفاد من النَّواة الإسنادية وحدها؛ وسبب هذا أنَّ الجملة تؤدِّي معنى دلاليًّا واحدًا لا عدَّة معان، وكلَّما أنشئت علاقة جديدة في الجملة تغيَّر معنى الجملة عمَّا كان عليه قبل إنشاء تلك العلاقة؛ فالقاعدة العامَّة التي تحكم تركيب الجملة أنَّ كلَّ علاقة تزيد في الجملة على علاقة الإسناد إنَّما ينشئها المتكلِّم للبيان، وإزالة إبهام وغموض قد يعتريان المعنى الدِّلالي للجملة إنْ لم ينشئ المتكلِّم تلك العلاقة، وكلُّ حذف لعلاقة إنَّما يكون حين لا يحتاج المعنى الدِّلالي إلي دلالة تلك العلاقة؛ وهذا كلُّه خاضع لسياق المقام وغرض المتكلِّم، ومعيار الذِّكر والحذف هو وضوح المعنى الدِّلالي الذي يراه المتكلِّم معبِّرا عن غرضه في سياق معيَّن؛ إذن فالإسناد هو العلاقة الأساسيَّة في الجملة العربيَّة؛ فهو نواة الجملة، ومحور كلِّ العلاقات الأخرى؛ لأنَّ في استطاعته وحده تكوين جملة تامَّة، ذات معنى دلالي متكامل، هي الجملة البسيطة.
Search goal: One of the main objectives of the research is to clarify that the basis of grammatical structure in the useful sentence, or speech depends on attribution, each word must be related to the other on the way in which the speech is fully useful; this is consistent with the interpretation of the grammatical sentence, "which is an issue of asceticism.
The concept of attribution has been associated with the idea of attribution since its inception, as noted in Seaboye's book. "The concept of attribution of Seaboye is a correlative relationship between the two sides of the nominal sentence in nominal construction, And between the two corners of the verbal sentence in the verbal construction "; the attribution is a synthetic signification in classical Arabic, and attribution is a grammatical relationship that is the place of a word for the other.
Research results: The relation of the link to the reference path is the focus of the sentence or its nucleus. It is only sufficient to form the sentence in formality, and the simple sentence expansion by creating other relationships, And the creation of connection relationships, subject to the context of the denominator and the purpose of the speaker of the sentence systems, and the more the speaker established the relationship and relationship relations in the sentence over the nucleus of attribution it was an increase in interest; this does not mean that the interest becomes separate from the benefit of attribution, But this means that the meaning of the sentence after the increase becomes not the meaning of the reference kernel alone; the reason for this is that the sentence leads to one meaning and not several meanings, and whenever a new relationship is created in the sentence, the meaning of the sentence changes from what it was before the relationship was established. Which governs the syntax of the sentence that each relationship increases in the sentence on the attribution relationship is created by the speaker to the statement, and the removal of the thumb and ambiguity may be seen the semantic meaning of the sentence if the speaker does not establish that relationship, and every deletion of the relationship is when the semantic meaning does not need The machine that relationship; and all this is subject to the context of the place and purpose of the speaker, Therefore, attribution is the basic relationship in the Arabic sentence; it is the nucleus of the sentence, and the axis of all other relations; because it alone can form a complete sentence, with an integral semantic meaning, which is the simple sentence.
The main principle of Arabic syntax in a significant sentence or speech is based on the attribution concept, because structure of sentence cannot have a meaning if it is not created with a specific form of sentence editing. in a phrase a word has to have a relatioship with the other one to express a totalitarian meaning. this condition conforms with disclousure of the sentence which is accepted as a attribution subject. there has been an atomic relationship between Arabic Syntax and the predication concept since the syntax occured as a science field in Arabic linguistic studies, as we observed this condition in the famous study of Sibawayh which is named “Al-Kitab”. According to Sibawayh the predication means the relationship between two components of sentece in a noun phrase and in an actual sentence. So the attribution is a structural significance in formal Arabic language and a relationship which appears on a word according to other one. This study includes a presentation, three main parts, result and references.
The first part: The predication term in Syntactic and Semantic Field.which is divided into three sections, the first is dealing with the Pillars of attribution:( Almosnd wa Almosnd ilih), there are three main elements of the simple sentence: the assignee or the speaker, and the document that builds on the subject and spoken of it. the attribution, which is the mental process - or the bond - that binds the predicate to the document; the document and the reference to it are two main pillars in the composition of the sentence; each of these two pillars is not only the sentence, but the connection between them is many relationships that reveal the levels of significance. Sibawayh cleared that the meaning of the object and the reference to him by saying: "which are not separated from each other, and no one finds the inevitable: it is the name of the beginner and built on it; and your saying: Abdullah, this is your brother; and such: goes Abdullah, must do of the name as the first name did not have to be the other in the beginning. "the second: the attributed as a verb and as a noun, the attributed as a verb is actually intended for the purposes of the most important of which is the benefit of its allocation in one of the three times with the abbreviation and the benefit of renewal. and the benefit of continuous renewal with the existence of the context and the fact that the act is a struggle.on the other hand, The attributed as a name implies a basic purpose, which is to prove the permanence, without any indication of the time of renewal and occurrence. The third section, the semantic link between the attributed and the subject. the Second Part: The Predication in noun phrase, is divided into four sections. first one dealing with the name and the nominal compound. second one dealing with the subject and the object of the nominal sentence. third one dealing with need to be interconnected between the subject and the object of the nominal sentence. the fourth one dealing with the indications of the subject and the object. the third Part ıs entıtled: the attribution in actual sentence which discusses the following issues: first, the subject, the term of grammatical function is a grammatical function that arises only with the syntax of the sentence, and by a particular grammatical relation, the relation of attribution to the actual sentence; that is, the function of Zaid in the phrase Zaid comes from the event of the coming, "in itself, but arrive at it through the grammatical analysis of the sentence and the recognition of the attribution relation. second, the grammatical subject and the logical subject, There are grammatical relations at the level of the surface structure, such as the grammatical subject, and others at the level of the deep structure as the logical subject. third, subject of the passive, a name replaces the deleted subject, takes the provisions, and becomes a mayor cannot be dispensed with;" It is linked to the idea of the effectiveness of the subject and its deputy, where the event is assigned to them, if there is no subject must be mentioned on his behalf until the idea of attribution.
Publication Date : June 30, 2019
|ISNAD||Rızk, Muhammed . "الإسناد" بين النَّحو وعلم المعاني"". Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 18 / 35 (June 2019): 315-335 . https://doi.org/10.14395/hititilahiyat.511374|