Translation is a way in which societies throughout human history have resorted for scientific, cultural, literary and diplomatic reasons. The interaction between societies and languages is effectively achieved through the transfer of wealth belonging to one society or language to another. Translation action has its own rules and methods, but also has some difficulties. In this study, the difficulties encountered within the framework of more translation experience were addressed.
One of the structural challenges we address in the study is the difficulty of reading. As is known, the use of harekes in the Arabic language is almost nonexistent except for some texts. This makes it difficult to read consonants and creates a barrier to correct meaning and correct translation. Grammatical difficulties also lead to translation difficulties. Even those with a good level of grammatical knowledge may face grammatical difficulties. The transfer of Arabic I’rab rules from the theoretical to the practical level and the abundant textual experience will help overcome the difficulties. These difficulties were explained with sample sentences and texts and suggestions were presented for the translation of these sentences. Equivalent statements have been attempted to be found. Differences between the source language and the target language, such as language structure, culture and style, restrict equivalent translation possibilities. Despite all these differences between languages and cultures, equivalent translation possibilities have been tried to be shown. Because of the unique structure of the languages, the translator himself or the cultural differences between the two languages, there may be some difficulties in the translation process. The translator must be extremely familiar with the characteristics of both languages. In this way, he will overcome these problems that arise during translation.
Today, translation activity should be considered as a social, cultural, economic and historical reality. In the historical process, translation activity has always existed depending on many factors. The translation method used over time has changed according to the characteristics of the period. Societies’ life styles and life perceptions are different from each other, and culture differs from one society to another. Intercultural communication is provided through translation. Translation is an indispensable bridge between societies, cultures and languages. Each culture must be fed from different sources and communicate with different cultures to enrich its language, thought and art.
Literary texts are important elements that establish links between different cultures and societies. There are literary works that reflect the characteristics of every society in many ways, including cultural, scientific, moral and social. Societies promote these entities through translation. It is also able to recognize the cultures of other societies in this way. This is how communication and connection between cultures and societies are provided.
Translation is one of the important methods used in language teaching. One of the main aims of foreign language teaching is to enable students to have the ability to transfer the expression patterns in their mother tongue and target language from one language to another. Various texts are used in the translation activities and foreign language teaching process for students to acquire this ability. In the translation of these texts, grammatical, semantic, cultural etc. a number of differences and challenges may be faced. In our research, we classified these difficulties under various headings and presented some suggestions.
One of the structural difficulties in the Arabic language that we discussed in the study is the difficulty of reading. The simplest and quickest way to overcome this is to use symbols called harekes. But the use of harekes in the Arabic line is almost nonexistent except for some texts. Even those who know the language at intermediate or advanced levels face the challenge of reading. The way to avoid this situation is to put harekes on letters that are worried about being misread. It will also play a key role for proper reading and comprehension of the dominance of the patterns of nouns and verbs and the rules of Arabic I’rab.
Because languages have cultural elements within them, there are cultural differences between languages. For example, when translating metaphors, idioms and proverbs, there should be an equivalent in the target language, taking into consideration the meaning rather than literal.
Grammatical difficulties also lead to translation difficulties. Even those with a good level of grammatical knowledge may face grammatical difficulties. The transfer of the Arabic I’rab rules from the theoretical to the practical level and the abundant textual experience will help overcome these challenges.
Translation first of all requires expertise in the field of translation. In addition to field expertise, a good knowledge of the source language's expression styles and culture provides a clear and understandable translation. Instability may occur during the translation process. Appropriate strategies must be determined to minimize translation losses and to make accurate decisions.
In this study, rather than issues such as translation theories and the detailed history of translation, the difficulties encountered in personal translation experience are demonstrated through sample sentences and texts. When necessary, suggestions and proposals were presented and the place where each challenge in terms of translation science was stated. In addition, although there are differences between languages and cultures, the possibility of translation has been pointed out, and it has been stated that appropriate equivalence can also be found in many cases.
The translation difficulties mentioned in the research often arise from differences between the source language and the target language. Each language has its own unique structure. Cultural differences between languages are also a case to be considered in translation. Texts containing cultural elements need to be conveyed comprehensively in the target language with appropriate equivalence. The existence of a very meaningful and affluent vocabulary of the Arabic language requires consideration of both the phenomenon of polysemy and the use of classical and modern dictionaries. This attention will ensure a clear, lean and fluid translation of statements. During the translation process, it is possible to always face translation difficulties caused by many different reasons. In order to minimize the losses and difficulties that can be experienced in translation, attention should be paid to the specific structures and cultural elements of the languages.
Çeviri, insanlık tarihi boyunca toplumların bilimsel, kültürel, edebî, diplomatik vs. nedenlerle başvurduğu bir yoldur. Toplumlar ve diller arasındaki etkileşim, bir topluma veya dile ait zenginliğin diğerine aktarılması kanalıyla etkin bir şekilde sağlanmıştır. Çeviri eyleminin kendine has kural ve yöntemleri olmakla beraber birtakım zorlukları da vardır. Bu çalışmada daha çok çeviri deneyimi çerçevesinde karşılaşılan zorluklar ele alınmıştır.
Çalışmada ele alınan yapısal zorlukların başında okuma zorluğu gelmektedir. Bilindiği gibi Arap Dilinde hareke kullanımı bazı metinler dışında hemen hemen yok gibidir. Bu durum sessiz harflerin okunmasını zorlaştırmakta, doğru anlam ve doğru çevirinin önünde bir engel oluşturmaktadır. Dilbilgisi kaynaklı zorluklar da çeviri zorluklarına sebebiyet vermektedir. İyi düzeyde gramer bilgisine sahip olanlar bile dilbilgisi kaynaklı zorluklarla karşılaşabilmektedir. Arapça i’râb kurallarının teorik düzeyden pratik düzeye aktarılması ve bol metin deneyimi zorlukların aşılmasına yardımcı olacaktır. Bu zorluklar örnek cümle ve metinlerle izah edilmiş, söz konusu cümlelerin tercümeleriyle ilgili öneriler sunulmuştur. Eşdeğer ifadeler bulunmaya çalışılmıştır. Kaynak dil ile hedef dil arasındaki dil yapısı, kültür, üslup vs. gibi farklılıklar eşdeğer çeviri imkânlarını kısıtlamaktadır. Diller ve kültürler arasındaki tüm bu farklılıklara rağmen eşdeğer çeviri imkânları gösterilmeye çalışılmıştır. Dillerin kendine özgü yapısından, çevirmenin bizzat kendisinden yahut iki dilin sahip olduğu kültürel farklılıklardan dolayı çeviri işleminde birtakım zorluklar yaşanabilir. Çevirmen her iki dilin de özelliklerine son derece hâkim olmalıdır. Böylece çeviri esnasında ortaya çıkan bu sorunların üstesinden gelecektir.
Publication Date : June 30, 2020
|ISNAD||Hacıbeki̇roğlu, Abdullah . "Arap Dilinin Yapısından Kaynaklanan Çeviri Zorlukları". Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 19 / 1 (June 2020): 63-84 . https://doi.org/10.14395/hititilahiyat.637402|