Toshihiko Izutsu is an orientalist scientist who studied on several religions. He also produced important works about Islam and the Qur'an. In this article, Izutsu’s works Ethico and Religious Concepts in the Qur'an and Allah and Man in the Qur'an are examined. The methodology he uses in his studies is semantic, he explains the methodology he adopted in his studies and adheres to it. Semantics can be briefly expressed as meaning scholarship. He tries to explain with the examples how the moral concepts in the Qur'an have changed with the Qur'an. There is also an educational reality of the moral concepts that Izutsu emphasizes in his work. In this respect, analyzing the texts that focuses on the Qur'an-moral relation from an educational perspective can have significant results. The works of Izutsu are considered important in terms of understanding the Qur'an-moral and Qur'an-education relationship. Therefore, the study is expected to make an important contribution to moral educators. The main problem of the study is understanding how Izutsu established the Qur'an-moral relationship. The questions sought in the study are:
What are the themes emerging in the Qur'an-moral relationship in the works of Izutsu?
How the themes emerging in the Qur'an-moral relationship can be evaluated educationally?
In this research, content analysis is used as a method. Content analysis is a method used to understand and analyze a content. Some of the results Izutsu has achieved in his work are as follows: The Quran has seriously influenced the moral traditions of the Arabs. The Quran has redefined many traditional moral concepts used by arabic society. The Quran engaged these concepts to a universal principle. The most focal word in the Quran is Allah. In this respect, the basic concept that dominates moral concepts is Allah. Izutsu's moral concept analysis and his views on moral or value education were evaluated.
Keywords: Religious Education, Morality, Value, Moral Education, Izutsu.
Toshihiko Izutsu is a Japanese orientalist scientist who has many studies on living religions. He produced important works especially about Islam and his holy book, Qur'an. In this article, Izutsu’s works Ethico and Religious Concepts in the Qur'an and Allah and Man in the Qur'an are examined. It can be seen that the author explains his methodology, ensures the integrity of the subject and prevents misunderstandings, and remains true to his methodology until the end of his studies. The methodology used by Izutsu in his works is semantic. Semantics can be briefly expressed as meaning scholarship. In line with the principles of semantic science, the researcher examines, analyzes and makes some evaluations on the moral concepts in the Qur'an. He tries to explain how some of the basic concepts related to morality in the ancient tradition of the Arabs had changed and improved over time with the Qur'an's verses. It can be said that semantic science facilitates the work of the author in explaining the change in moral concepts. However, despite the methodological approach of the author, he is subjected to some criticism. The critics state that Izutsu's semantic science abandons some basic principles; he shapes and interprets them according to him. It has been argued that the information obtained with this new methodological approach cannot be called as the Quranic semantics. Furthermore, it is also claimed that the author ignores the basic sources of information other than the semantic science and classical Arabic poetry. In particular, it has been criticized that he does not use the basic religious resources of Islam sufficiently.
The main determining factors for the general characteristic of an ideal Muslim are in the Qur’an and the the sunnah of the Prophet. So the first step in moral education is to reveal the point of view of the Qur'an. It is necessary to try to determine the characteristics of the people that Islamic religious education wants to create from this basic source. In this respect, it can be important implications to study the works that examine the Qur'an-moral relation especially in terms of education. The moral concepts in the work of Izutsu also point to an educational reality. The importance of the study seems to have increased in terms of understanding the point of view of the Qur'an.
Izutsu's work is considered important to understand the Qur'an as a whole and to understand the Qur'an-morality and the Qur'an-education relationships. Therefore, the study is expected to make a vital contribution to moral educators. The main problem of the study is understanding how Izutsu establishes the Qur'an-moral relationship. The questions sought in the study are:
What are the themes emerging in the Qur'an-moral relationship in the works of Izutsu?
In the research, the content analysis is used as a suitable method in order to answer the main problems. Content analysis stands out as a method used to understand and analyze a content. The main purpose of content analysis is to reveal the common aspects of a big amount of textual content, thereby reaching concepts and relationships that can explain the data in the texts. The basic process in this method is to gather similar data within the framework of certain concepts and themes and to organize and interpret them in a way that the reader can understand. Based on my studies of Izutsu, different themes are created to make the subject easy to understand.
The themes created in the study and some of the results obtained within the framework of these themes are as follows: Izutsu defends that man has a moral nature, potentially moral ability. According to him, although they live in different cultures, people have a moral tradition. Ignorant Arabs also had a close relationship with their morals and virtues. However, the Quran has had a serious impact on the moral traditions of the Arabs. In this context, the Qur'an has redefined many moral concepts and filled them in the way prescribed by Islam. Izutsu alleges that the author of the Quran changed the meaning of some moral concepts. According to him, Islam has placed the absolute satisfaction of Allah on the moral virtues made for the purpose of nation. Thus, the Qur'an has put an aim on some moral concepts of Arabs. He says that the most focal word in the Quran is Allah. As with all matters, God guided all other concepts in morality. It influenced and shaped them. From this point, Izutsu argues that according to the religion of Islam, Allah is the supreme being, therefore, the highest value. According to him, a Quran-centered mentality makes no distinction between the religious and the moral. From this point of view, Izutsu claims that the Qur'an adopts the view that religion and morality are inseparable. In this study, along with the moral concept analysis in Izutsu's work, his views on moral/value education are also evaluated.
Toshihiko Izutsu, oryantalist bir bilim insanıdır. Birçok dinle ilgili çalışması bulunan Izutsu, İslâm ve Kuran’la ilgili de önemli eserler ortaya koymuştur. Bu makale çalışmasında Izutsu’nun Kur’ân'da Dînî ve Ahlâkî Kavramlar ile Kur’ân’da Allah ve İnsan adlı eserleri incelenmiştir. Müellifin, çalışmalarında benimsediği metodolojiyi açıkladığı ve bu metodolojiye bağlı kaldığı görülmüştür. Izutsu’nun kullandığı metodoloji semantiktir. Semantik kısaca anlam bilimi olarak ifade edilebilir. Kur’ân’daki ahlâkî kavramların Kuran’la birlikte nasıl bir değişime uğradığını örneklerle açıklamaya çalışmıştır. Izutsu’nun çalışmasında üzerinde durduğu ahlaki kavramların eğitsel bir gerçekliği de vardır. Bu yönüyle özellikle Kur’ân-ahlak ilişkisini inceleyen eserleri eğitsel açıdan incelemenin önemli doğurguları olabilir. Izutsu’nun çalışmaları Kur’ân-ahlak, Kur’ân-eğitim ilişkisini anlamak adına önemli görülmektedir. Bundan dolayı çalışmanın ahlak eğitimcilerine önemli bir katkı yapması beklenmektedir. Çalışmanın temel problemi Izutsu’nun Kur’ân-ahlak ilişkisini nasıl kurduğudur. Çalışmada cevapları aranan sorular şunlardır:
Izutsu’nun çalışmalarında Kur’ân-ahlak ilişkisinde ortaya çıkan temalar hangileridir?
Kur’ân-ahlak ilişkisinde ortaya çıkan temalar eğitsel açıdan nasıl değerlendirilebilir?
Bu araştırmada yöntem olarak içerik analizi kullanılmıştır. İçerik analizi bir muhtevayı anlamak ve analiz etmek için kullanılan bir yöntemdir. Izutsu’nun çalışmalarında elde ettiği bazı sonuçlar şunlardır: Kur’ân, Arapların ahlâk geleneklerini çok ciddi bir şekilde etkiledi. Kur’ân, arap toplumunun kullandığı birçok geleneksel ahlaki kavramı yeniden tanımladı. Bu kavramları evrensel bir ilkeye bağladı. Kur’ân’daki en odak kelime Allah’tır. Bu açıdan ahlaki kavramlara yön veren temel kavram da Allah’tır. Izutsu’nun ahlâkî kavram analizleri ve ahlak/değer eğitimine ilişkin görüşleri değerlendirilmiştir.
Publication Date : June 30, 2020
|ISNAD||Di̇ler, Ramazan . "Izutsu’nun Kur’ân'daki Ahlâki Kavramlara İlişkin Görüşlerinin Din Eğitimi Açısından Analizi". Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 19 / 1 (June 2020): 207-244 . https://doi.org/10.14395/hititilahiyat.662512|