Year 2020, Volume 19 , Issue 1, Pages 339 - 368 2020-06-30

Charitable Acts Of A Fatwa Authority: Waqf Activities Of Gedizli Mehmed Efendi
Bir Fetvâ Emininin Hayratı: Gedizli Mehmed Efendi’nin Vakıf Faaliyetleri

Talip AYAR [1]


Abstract

Mehmed Efendi (d. 1253/1837) from Gediz was one of the religious scholars within his family tree. He spent his earlier life period to complete his educational life and after graduating from formal schools he undertook various significant positions in ilmiyye (the Ottoman religious administration). Mehmed Efendi extended his interest out of scholar efforts such as joining charity and public services. For this purpose, he found a waqf (a  charity organization) institution in 1212/1797. The base wakfiyah (first establishment documents) and zeyl waqfiyah (additional establishments’ documents) indicate that the waqf consists of a madrasah (school), library and several other properties generating income for the waqf services. Since Mehmed Efendi was born and raised in     In this context, it is learned from his charter of a waqf dated 1212/1797, that he built a madrasa in Gediz, where he was born and raised and gave some income-generating resources to the foundation. Mehmed Efendi continued his charitable attitude until the last moment of his life. This is evident in the foundation charter dated 1245/1830, 1247/1832 and 1249/1833. As a matter of fact, in addition to the madrasa he had built, he incorporated his house into the foundation along with its add-ons and land. He then donated his cash savings. This time Mehmet Efendi, who was not satisfied with these, expanded the area of the madrasa he had built before and built a library and continued his charitable activities by providing books. In this respect, the scope and content of the Mehmed Efendi Foundation will be discussed. The charitable and charitable activities of Mehmed Efendi will be examined based on four charters belonging to the foundation.


Summary

Mehmed Efendi (d. 1253/1837) from Gediz, is one of the notable figures of Ottoman scholars that cannot be ignored. The environment in which he was born and raised contributed greatly to this position. Since his childhood, he has been in scholarly surroundings and educated himself in other fields besides religious studies. After successfully completing his education, he took his place as a professor within the scholarly class Mehmed Efendi, who gained important experiences with the tasks he carried out in more than one madrasa, undertook not only the professorship but also the duties of a qadi (judge) and fatwa authority. With his gradually increasing knowledge, he has written many books. It is possible to have information about his life, personality, collection, works, services, fatwas, the period he lived in the light of fatwas, his social life and his Sufi approach can be learned from the works he left behind and the studies carried out by researchers today. As far as we can determine, Mehmed Efendi's waqf activities, which are not subject to research, will be revealed in this article and thus we will try to contribute to the existing information about him.

Mehmed Efendi's charitable activities are learned from the endowment/waqfiya documents that are part of the waqf he established. Waqfiya’s are documents that identify what has been donated to the waqf, how they will be managed, where and to whom the revenues will be spent, who will manage the foundation, who is eligible for duties at the waqf and their rights. In this context, one base waqfiya and three zeyl waqfiya’s were identified by the waqf Mehmed Efendi established. The base waqfiya refers to 7 Muharram 1212/2 July 1797. As for zeyl waqfiya’s; the first one is dated 5 Shawwal 1245/30 March 1830; second on 1 Shaban 1247/5 January 1832; third on 1 Muharram 1249/21 May 1833.

The base waqfiya of Mehmed Efendi’s waqf dated 7 Muharram 1212/2 July 1797 was arranged in accordance with the waqf’s general template. It is seen in the base waqfiya that as the founder of the waqf, his first charity was to build a madrasa and taking steps to generate income in order to keep it alive. In addition, it is also possible to learn from the waqfiya regarding who will undertake a teaching position and how much they will earn, how much fees will be paid for the expenses of the madrasa, and the management and supervision of the foundation.

The first zeyl waqfiya dated on 5 Shawwal 1245/30 March 1830 constitutes the donation of Mehmed Efendi’s own house. Under the condition that he and his wife are allowed to stay at home while they were alive. After their death, it was stated that said property would be rented out to generate income. It is also stated in the waqfiya that the income obtained from the rent is reflected in the wages of the waqf employees and spent on the expenses of the madrasa.

The second zeyl waqfiya dated on 1 Shaban 1247/5 January 1832 further expanded the scope of previous waqfiya’s. This time the subject of the donation was cash money. Mehmed Efendi gave 20,000 kuruş of cash and pointed out in the waqfiya regarding how to manage and spend it. From the income obtained, additions were made to the earnings of the officials who had been paid to as per the previous waqfiya. Unlike past practices, Mehmed Efendi has also allocated a share of the waqf’s income to those undertaking duties outside his own waqf.

The last and the most comprehensive of the waqfiya’s is the third zeyl waqfiya. The third zeyl waqfiya dated on 1 Muharram 1249/21 May 1833 was prepared in more detail than the previous waqfiya’s and more people were added to the list of wage earners from the waqf. For example, the rate at which the revenues of the waqf should be evaluated to the detailed information on how to compensate for the loss when a book is lost from the library is given. Moreover, about how the education staff of Mehmed Efendi waqf and people outside the waqf who have to receive income should pray to the foundation founder and his family. It is thought that Mehmed Efendi's progressive age and the loss of all his children were instrumental in the intensification of the charity items and prayer requests in this foundation, which was written about four years before Mehmed Efendi's death.

The management, supervision, education and service staff all carried out duties within the waqf established by Mehmed Efendi. These individuals who worked in the administration of the waqf, the madrasa and its library were paid a fee from the waqf’s revenues in return for their services. Furthermore, when the income and expense table of the waqf is examined, we can easily say that Mehmed Efendi has spent his property and financial resources on the waqf. However, after the death of himself and his wife, it is observed that the waqf was not well managed. Indeed, when the historical development of the waqf is followed, it is noteworthy that the waqf, which has been serving for nearly a century, has become increasingly distant from its former glory, especially after their death.

Gedizli Mehmed Efendi (ö. 1253/1837), ilmiyeye mensup bir ailede dünyaya gelmiştir. Küçük yaştan itibaren eğitim hayatına özen göstermiş ve tahsil süreçlerini başarıyla tamamladıktan sonra Osmanlı ilmiye sahasında farklı görevler üstlenmiştir. Üstlendiği görevler arasında müderrislik, nâiblik, kadılık ve fetvâ eminliği yer almaktadır. Ayrıca Mehmed Efendi’nin kendi yazdığı ve istinsah ettiği çok sayıda eseri bulunmaktadır. Mehmed Efendi, ilmiye alanında sergilediği çabanın benzerini hayır ve iyilik faaliyetlerinde de göstermiştir. Kurumsal anlamda ilk hayrî faaliyetini, kurmuş olduğu vakıfla hayata geçirmiştir. Bu bağlamda doğup büyüdüğü Gediz kasabasında medrese inşâ ettirdiği ve vakfa gelir getirici bir takım kaynaklar vakfettiği 1212/1797 tarihli esas vakfiyesinden öğrenilmektedir. Mehmed Efendi, hayırsever tavrını hayatının son anına kadar sürdürmüştür. Zira o, hayır yapma imkân ve gücüne sahip olduğu her fırsatta, kurduğu vakfı zenginleştirmeye çalışmıştır. Esas vakfiyeye ek olarak hazırlanan 1245/1830, 1247/1832 ve 1249/1833 tarihli zeyl vakfiyelerde bu durum açıkça görülmektedir. Nitekim inşâ ettirdiği medreseye ilave olarak, eklentileri ve arsasıyla birlikte evini vakfa dâhil etmiştir. Ardından nakit birikimini vakfetmiştir. Bunlarla da yetinmeyen Mehmed Efendi bu kez, daha önce yaptırmış olduğu medresenin alanını genişleterek kütüphane yaptırmış ve kitap vakfetmek sûretiyle hayır faaliyetlerini sürdürmüştür. Bu itibarla çalışmada, Mehmed Efendi vakfının kapsam ve içeriği ele alınacaktır. Vakfa ait dört adet vakfiye esas alınıp Mehmed Efendi’nin hayır ve iyilik faaliyetleri incelenecektir.

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Primary Language tr
Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-6547-0447
Author: Talip AYAR (Primary Author)
Institution: Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi İslam Tarihi Anabilim Dalı
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : June 30, 2020

ISNAD Ayar, Talip . "Bir Fetvâ Emininin Hayratı: Gedizli Mehmed Efendi’nin Vakıf Faaliyetleri". Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 19 / 1 (June 2020): 339-368 . https://doi.org/10.14395/hititilahiyat.670606