To understand Islam correctly depends on the correct understanding of the Quran and hadiths. The Prophet, who knew this truth very well, paid attention to deliver the true meaning of his remarks. As a result of his endowers, some of his Companions could obtain a skill that is the Narration-Understanding integrity which provides the true meanings of hadiths. After the death of the Prophet, as a result of new circumstances, many unexpected events occurred and different religious understandings have emerged. Therefore, the need to understand and interpret the meanings of hadiths to draw new rules for ongoing issues. Hadiths learning becomes a sıignificant field of science that new schools of Hadiths have emerged based on different methodological approaches to understand the hadiths. In this context, each school that emerged tried to understand the hadiths within the framework of their own principles. Ahl al-hadîth scholars spent most of their time with hadith memorization, hadith writing, collecting hadiths and classification. Hence, they were subjected to some criticism that they did not understand the narrations correctly. They were even accused of conveying hadiths without knowing the content and carrying unnecessary information. On the other hand, Ahl al-hadîth scholars also showed a defense reflex and they wrote both narration and Dirâyah/Usul studies to prove that they are competent in this field. As a matter of fact, in these works they have written, they aimed to reveal fiqh al-hadîth studies, which continue to be carried out before them, and also tried to show that they can have a say in this scientific field. This article is about how the subject of fiqh al-hadîth is handled in this book, based on the first methodology of hadith work named al‐Muhaddith al‐fâsil bayna al‐râwî wa l‐wâî.
While the Prophet wanted his utterances to be understood, memorized and conveyed as they were heard from him, he actually encouraged the proper understanding of the hadiths. Indeed, as a result of the suggestions of the Prophet, some of his companions, who were his first addressees, meticulously approached this issue and there were some prominent names for acting skills and they showed examples of their understanding activities and fiqh al-hadîth. Thus, efforts to make sense of hadiths started with the suggestions of the Prophet and the practices of the Companions.
The Ahl al-hadîth also contributed to this field by recording the narrations as they were in the writing and compilation stages, thus preventing the misunderstanding of the hadiths and putting forward studies that will constitute a part of the fiqh al-hadîth. However, the meticulous attitudes of the hadith scholars about this issue in the first place have not been adequately understood by their opponents and they have been subjected to criticism that they cannot dominate the content of the hadiths, but only portrayed. Although these criticisms were accepted by some circles engaged in hadith and qualified themselves as pharmacists, the aforementioned approach was not accepted by all of the hadith scholars. In this context, especially with the end of the compilation process, the narration-type works put forward in the classification period and the books of royalty/procedure, which were royalty in the following periods, proved that the hadith scholars had a say in the subject of fiqh al-hadîth. One of the works in question is the first usul al-hadîth work by Râmhurmuzî named al‐Muhaddith al‐fâsil bayna al‐râwi wa l‐wâî. Accordingly, Râmhurmuzî opened a chapter on the fiqh al-hadîth, in which he narrated the relationship between the riwaya-dirâya, and opposed the character of the Companions as ignorant and knowledgeable in terms of making sense of the hadiths. He made explanations that those who recorded the narrations without making any changes do not deserve the aforementioned accusations. In his work, Râmhurmuzî revealed the need for the râvi and the faqih for each other. In fact, he also included news that would indicate that the ahl al-hadîth acquainted with the narrations were also sufficient in terms of fiqh al-hadîth. As a matter of fact, he pointed out that if the riwaya-dirâya integrity is reached, the essence of the sunnah can be understood. He advised hadith scholars to envision the meanings of hadiths. For this purpose, he brought the subject of fiqh al-hadîth composed of sixty-eight paragraphs with the title of hadith scholars who united riwaya and dirâya. At this point, it would be appropriate to state what should be understood from the concept of fiqh-hadîth.
Râmhurmuzî discussed the issue in two stages in the mentioned section. In the first place, he gave place many examples keeping riwaya and dirâya together such as Abdullah Ibn Abbas and Abdullah Ibn Omer among the companions and Alkame b. Kays, Abîde/Ubeyde es-Selmânî, Sufyân es-Sevrî, Şerîk b. Abdullah, Sufyân b. Uyeyne, Abdurrahman Ibn Mehdî, Yahya b. Saîd al-Kattân, Imam Mâlik, Imam Shâfiî, Ahmed b. Hanbel. He has included many names such as Hanbel and Abu Sevr among the tabiîn and tabau’t-tabiîn. In addition, he extended the subject by supporting the information about each of the aforementioned ulema with the narrations that the relevant names lived or made sense of. The author also mentioned the names of people who came to the fore in this issue in various cities of the Islamic districts and who were qualified as leaders because of these qualities in their regions. Thus, Râmhurmuzî stated that having only the accumulation of narration would not be enough for fiqh-hadîth. In addition, he mentioned the examples that the dirâya was also important. In the second part of the relevant chapter on Râmhurmuzî, fiq al-hadîth, in the first stage, he mentioned thirteen examples of how some narratives that cannot be understood must be understood. At this point, he carried out some fiq al-hadîth trials related to a few news he analyzed.
The author also took into account the narrower, i.e. procedural aspect of fiq al-hadîth/ dirâyatu'l-hadîth. He also expressed the meticulous attitudes of the hadith researchers about the isnad and mentioned that some confusion that may occur in the determination of their identity is put forward in this way. In this context, he pointed out the importance of the knowledge of the narrators; He also gave examples of people who were referred to their mothers and grandparents from the Companions and other narrators, and who were also known for their grandfather's tag. He also talked about contemporary and complex tags and names as well as the people who lived and transported in the same period and those who conveyed them from the same names. He also mentioned the issues that are similar to the identities and those with complexity about their personalities, accompanied by examples.
As a result, Râmhurmuzî did not specifically mention the procedures and principles regarding fiqh-hadîth due to the characteristics of the works of the period of the muteqaddimun. However, he addressed this issue in two stages. First of all, he included many names that have the characteristics of riwaya and dirâya, starting from the Companions. In the second stage, he brought some narrations into the agenda to show the skills of the hadith researchers in this field. Thus, he emphasized both the qualities that those who will engage in this field should bear and the dimensions of fiq al-hadîth. In a sense, he also referred to the principles that will constitute the academic basis of the subject matter.
İslâm’ın doğru anlaşılması, temel kaynakları olan Kur’an-ı Kerim ve hadislerin maksatlarına uygun bir şekilde kavranmalarına bağlıdır. Bu gerçeği çok iyi bilen Hz. Peygamber, sözlerindeki amaçların kavranması yönünde çok vurgulu telkin ve teşviklerde bulunmuş, neticede sahâbe-i kirâm arasından hadislerin maksatlarına nüfuz edip rivayet-dirâyet bütünlüğünü sağlayan kimseler ortaya çıkmıştır. Resûl-i Ekrem’in vefatından sonra ise daha öncesinde var olmayan pek çok olay vuku bulmuş, farklı dinî anlayışlar zuhur etmiş ve bu durum fıkhü’l-hadîse/dirâyetü’l-hadîse olan ihtiyacı arttırmış; hatta hadislerin manalarını anlamak, ilmin yarısı kabul edilmiştir. Bu bağlamda zuhur eden her bir ekol de kendi prensipleri çerçevesinde rivayetleri anlama gayreti içinde olmuştur. Mesailerinin çoğunu hıfz, kitâbet, tedvin ve tasnîf faaliyetleri ile geçiren ehl-i hadîs ise rivayetleri idrak noktasında birtakım eleştirilere maruz kalmışlar hatta muhtevasını bilmeden hadis nakletmek ve bilgi hamallığı yapmak ile itham edilmişler, buna mukabil onlar da savunma refleksi ile kendilerinin de bu alanda yetkin olduklarını ispat için gerek rivayet gerekse dirâyet/usul türü çalışmalar kaleme almışlardır. Nitekim telif ettikleri bu eserlerde, bir taraftan daha öncesinde yapageldikleri fıkhü’l-hadîs çalışmalarını günyüzüne çıkarmaya diğer taraftan ilgili alanda kendilerinin de söz sahibi olabileceklerini göstermeye çalışmışlardır. İşte bu makale, alanında ilk olma niteliği taşıyan el-Muhaddisü’l-fâsıl beyne’r-râvî ve’l-vâî adlı usul eseri çerçevesinde fıkhü’l-hadîs meselesinin nasıl ele alınıp incelendiğini konu edinmektedir.
Publication Date : June 30, 2020
|ISNAD||Yılmaz, Fatih Mehmet . "İlk Hadis Usulü Eserinde Râmhürmüzî’nin Fıkhü’l-Hadîs Denemesi". Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 19 / 1 (June 2020): 369-404 . https://doi.org/10.14395/hititilahiyat.683196|